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LLiAM Collins. Sons g. Company. 



|in IKustratftr Bftorlr 





APTKB Diuinsat a.T 







Tub object of " Ai.i. Round the Woni.D " is to sot boforo the Stay-nt-Ilomo Traveller an oxoot iiimgo 
and representation of tho World wherein he lives ; supplying liiin with that ready means of aonuaintanoe with 
each Country, its Inhabitant<-, 't Sconory, its Vegetation, its Animals, rtnd its Monument.'', that can only bo 
attained by tho eye, and acjom'- .nying cash pictorial delight vith graphic Illustrations by men of oolebrity in tho 
career of Travel and Advon'' c. 

Wo propose to take our readers "Air, Uodnd tiif. World," in a long and varied trovorso; opening to thom 
tho groat Books of Qeography, of Scioneo, and of Nature. 

How necessary such a Work is at the present moment; how li' '. o know of ourselves and each other — of 
thoBO even who live almost in contact with ourselves — may bo judged li or , the fact, that tho interior of even our 
own great Colonies is as yet Terra Incognita. In Asio, tlie vast ranc(! < ( tho Hi.nalayas, with tho health-giving 
breeies of a northern climate, Isoll.;^ down upon tho sun-burnt pI-iMu of Inilia on tlio one side, and tho smiling pas- 
tures of Tartary on tho other, were un il lately unvisitcd ; CI ' .ind Coohin Cliina, \ iih their swarming millions 
of populn'i-in, unfrequented; and Japan a scaled country. In America, wiiile ot the South-cast wo still only know 

"Those va.)t shores washed by the rrtheat lea," 

of the Centre and the West we were almost wholly ignorant, except that thoy were inhabited by untamed pavagos. It 
is a fact that the whole of a country, since pronounced to be the most beautil'ul in the world for scenery as well as tho 
mildest in climate, whose valleys teem with fertility, and whose mountain? abound with gold and other metals, and 
minerals even moro precious — viz., from California upwards to Vancouver's Island, and across from tho Red River 
to tho Pacific, was left for two centuries in tho hands of tho Hudson's Bay Company, as being a region of ice and 
snow, fit only for the bear, the beaver, and tho trapper. 

In Africa, we arc only just roused to the importance, not of exploring mernly, but of trading with the tribes 
and nations of its fertile and healthful central regions ; while Commerce no longer brandishes tho bloody whip and 
clanks tho iron fetters of tho slave, as she sails up the Gambia, the Benawe, and the Niger, or loads her polluted 
decks with a human cargo from barracoons on the fatal Western coast; but, with Religion by her side, advances up 
the Congo and Zanibusi, to assure and certify a conquest more enduring than arms — intercourse in connection with 
the precious gift of instruction in tho Religion of Peace. 

Wonderful, indeed, has been tho progress of discovery effected within the most recent times. Whilst the ex- 
ploration of the Niger, the Benawe, and the Zambesi, in Africa, reveal new fields of inquiry, the navigation of tho 
Murray and the Murrumbigee in Australia, and of tho Amoor in Russia, opens up new regions to the colonist, and 
that of the Yang-tse-kiang in China, and of the Parana, the Paraguay, the Amazon and other great rivers in 
South America, equally extensive realms to commercial enterprise. Nor are the remarkable accessions made of luto 
to our knowledge of tho interior of Australia — more especially of the discovery of a vast extent of land available for 
pasturage or tillage— of less import to the future. The discovery of a whole district of lakes, and of a region of snow- 
clad mountains in intertropical Africa, with the exploration of the upper af&uents of the White Nile, solves the 
great problem of all ages — the source of the Nile ; nor ought it to be omitted, that the determination of the existence 
of an available pass in the Rocky Mountains is '<ke the last link in the great line of communication, which will 
inevitably be established with the lapse of time, between the Atlantic and tho Pacific through British America. 

Every care has been bestowed in making "All Roond tl • World" a work of intrinsic value, not only as a 
book, but as a work of art. The designs are not ornamental landscapes, but drawings by travellers themselves, 
executed by the most able artists and engravers. 



I. — Jaffa to JgnnsAiEM, 1 

II. — OvBR Jerusaum, " 



v.— The Via Dolorosa, f° 

VI.— The Church of the Holt Sepclchre, *J 

VII. — ^Thb Tehplk Airo the Morque of Omar, 8* 

VIII. — Round and About Jerusalem, ** 

IX. — ^To Bethlehem and to Hebron, y • 

X. — ^To Jordan and to Nazareth, . "J 


I. — In and About Palermo, 5j[ 

II. — Along Shore to Messina, i^ 

III.— Strombom and the Lipari Isles, 'J* 

IV.— Messina, 'l 

v.— Round and up Mount Etna, "*' 


I.— Hoxo Kong, f 

II. — Macao, „„ 

m.— Up the Canton River, "(^ 

IV.— Canton, {"' 

V. — ^The First of the Mings, J"' 

VI.— The Last of the Mings, }'r 

VH.- The Rebels of China, J*" 

VIH.— The Grkat Rivers of China, J^^ 

IX. — The Maritime Cities of China, J^* 

^^ Shanghai . . . • ... . . . • • • .139 

XL— Tien-t8In,'"Tiie City OF Feucitt," 147 

XII.— The Great Wall of China, Joi 

XIII.— Across China to Pekin, lo^ 



11. — Bat and Haubour of Nagasaki, 180 

HI.— Environs of Nagasaki, 18* 

IV. — Japanese Domestic Life, 185 

v.— A Japanese Ladt, 188 

VI. — ^The Interior op Japan, J 30 

VH. — Arts and Industry of the Japanesk, 192 

VIII Japanese Literature and Art, 196 

IX.— SiMODA, l^ 

X.— An Excursion Round Simoda, ««» 

XL— Approach to Yeddo, *^^ 

Xn.— Landino at Yeddo, 204 

XIII.— Interior of Yeddo, . . . • *05 

XIV.— Tea Gardens, " ' o »S 

XV.— Round Kanaoawa, 20a 

XVI.— Harikari— THE Happy Despatch, 210 

XVH.— Hakodaki, 212 

XVni.— Govkriimert asd Manners 'l^ 



I. — An Austrian Votaoe RofNn the Would. 

II. — Ceylon, 

III. — NiscBAH Islands, 
IV. — The Andaman Islands, . 
V. — Singapore, .... 
VI. — An Ex_ ksion in Java, . 
\ll. — TiiE Philippine Islands, . 
Vlll. — The ENCiiANTKn Lakk, . 
IX. — The Sil-li-ba-uoo Islanders, . 


With Scenes in Central Asia, Tartary, and Siberia. 
I. — The Country ok the Kalkas, 

II. — Mongolia, 

HI. — Tub Sultans of the Steppes, .... 

IV. — The Lake Baikal, 

V. — Do'WN THE Amoor, 

VI. — Up THE Amoor, 

VH. — Siberia, 

VIII. — Life among the Yakuts, . . . , 


Land of the Tciiuktchi, . . . ' . 



I. — ^The Rocky Mountains, 

II. — The Way to the Rocky Mountains, . . . . . 
HI. — Through the Country of the Blackfeet to the Rocky Mountains, 
IV. — ^TiiE Country between Canada and British Columbia, 

V. — The Winipeg and Red River District, 

VI. — Adventures in the Rocky Mountains of the Bauon de Wogax, 

VII. — The Miner and the Hunter, 

VHI. — Departure for the Interioi;. 

IX. — JIy Adventures, 


Burning and Exposure of Bodies in India, 


I. — History — Description of Havana — Govern»ient — Army and Navy — ^Revenue, . 


HI. — Climat' , Scenery — Vegetable Productions — Rivers — Mountains — Do.mestic''and 
Wild Animals — Mineral Riches — Cathedral — Ciiuiicii or San Domingo — 
Viceregal Palace — Chapel of Columbus — Plaza del Toros, or Colosseum 
for Bull Fights, 


I. — The Voyage, 

II. — Havana, ' 

HI. — Matanzas and tub Sugar Plantations, 

IV. — Slavery in Cuba, 

' V. — Farewell to Cuba, ' . 

VI. — CiES FuEGOs — Sugar Plantations — Condition of Slaves, 

' VII. — ^TiiE Havana — Its Hotels — The Paseo— Tub Harbour and the (^uay, 


I. — The Discovery Yacht "Fox" at the Danish Settlements in Gheeni.and— 
An Arctic Winter — Cross Baffin's Bay — Ekect a Monument — Sail down 
Peel's Stiiait — Make Regent's Inlet and Be'.lot Strait — Winter Quartbrb, 
H. — Interview with the Boothian Esquimaux — Rel cs of Franklin — Captain Sib F. 
L. M'Ci.intock examines East Coast of K .,g William Island and Mouth of 
IUck's River — Return by South and AVest Coast of Kino William Island — 

Note from Lieutenant Hobson, . 

HI. — Return to the "Fox" — A Navigable North-Wbst Passage? — Houson's Jour- 
ney — Captain Allen Young's Journey — Discovers M'Cuntock Cuaknel — ^Tiie 
Expedition returns Homb — General Conclusions, 














I. — FiRCT A'lEW or Dalmatia — Dalmatian Nationautv — Ciiurciifs and Convents — 

Forts — Ragcsan Society, 4G9 

1^ II. — EsviBoxs OP Raolsa — ^Turkish Islands of St. Mark and St. Barbara — Island 

AND MoNASTERT OF La Ciiroma — Bay OF St. Hilary — Raousa Vecciiia, . 476 

III. — Havex OP Gravosa, or Santa Crock — Val d'Ombla — Subterranean River, . 479 
IV. — ^The Men of the Black Moi-ntains — Monteneorines, or Tchernagori — Protec- 
torate op Russia — Connection with Austria — Combats ^vith the French, 480 
V. — Bocca »i Cattaro — Port of Montenegro — Town op Cattaro — Marmont at 

Cattaro — Ferocity op the Montenegrines, 485 


TAL OP Montenegro — Murder of Prince Danilo, 488 

VII. — HERZEGoriNA — Trebignb and the Trebinitza — Ascent of the Vei.lebich from 
Raguaa — Village op Beroato — Fort Tzarine — Val di Bring — Epidaurus, or 

Old Ragcsa, 4<J4 

Vm. — ^A Dalmatian Cape — Feudal Town of Tredigne — Castle ok Gradina — The 

Trebintiza, a Subterranean River — An Intermittent Lake — The Ombla, . 495 


I. — CnATHAM Islands — Iguanas — Charles Island — Albemarle Island, . . 499 

II. — ^Nasborocgh Island — ^Tagus Cove — James Island — Hood's Harbour, . . 502 

lU. — ^IsLAKDsVoLCAinc — ColonyatCharlesIbijind — JamesIsland — SaltLakeinCrateh, 504 

IV. — ^Imtostaxce of Reftiles in the Archipelago — Falkland Islands, . . . 509 


I. — Atolls or Atollons — ^Lithotypes or "Constructors of Worlds" — Submarine 

World — Coral Reefs — Keeling Islands — Coral Formations, . . . 516 

II. — Boulder on a Coral Island — Great Crab — Structure of Lagoon Islands, . 520 
III. — General Proofs op Subsidence in the Pacific — Sir James Esierson Tfjjnant 

ox Coral Wells, and the Conversion of Salt Water into Fresh, . . 525 


Thousand Islands — Productions — Atolls or Atollons — Fishing Blocks of 
Coral — Inhabitants and Languages — Island of Diego Garcia — Comoro Island, 533 


I. — General Aspect op Tahiti, or Otaheite — Commerce — Lake of Vaihiria — Great 

MoRAi OP Pafara — ^Island of Raiatea — Mauarua — Smaller Islands, . . 537 
II. — Population — Productions — Sugar-cane Plantations — Cotton — Cattle — Huts ok 

Natives — Chiefs — Timber Trees — Religion and Morals, .... 539 


I. — Ancient Atiios — Canal of Xerxes — Monasteries — ^Monastery of Lavra oh St. 

Laura — Ascent of Mount Atiios, 549 

II. — Monastery op Caracalla — ^The Church — Monastery of Piiilothes, . . 557 

lU. — The Great Monastery of Iveron — The BIonastery of Stavroniketa — Splendid 

MSS. op St Ciirysostom — ^The Monastery of Pantocratoras, . . . 560 

IV. — The Great Monastery of Vatopede — Monastery ok Spiiiomenou — Monasteries 

OF Kiuantari, Zographou, Gastamoneta, Docheirou, and Xenophou, . 665 

V. — Monasteries of Russico and Xeropotama — Monasteries of St. Nicholas and 

St. Dioxisius — Monasteries of St. Paul and Simoi'etra — Excursion to Karves, 571 
VL — Caracalla — ^The Agoumenos — Curious Cross — Thk Nuts of Caracalla, . . 579 


I. — ^Movement of Population of United States Westward — Division of United 

States — ^Linb of Watershed — Most Available Line of Communication, 586 
U. — RoiTES across the "Plains" — Fort Smith — Sci;lleville — Choctaw Indians — 

Chicksaws and Creek Indians — The Siiawnees, 689 

IIL — Old Fort Arbuckle— Delaware Indians— Wakos Indians — Buffalo Hunting, . 597 

IV. — ^TiiE Cross Timbers — Prairie Dogs — Comanche Indians — Catching Wild Horses, COO 

v.— The Dry River— A Centenary Cotton Wood Tree— The Kioway Indians, . 005 

VI.— Pueblo, "Town or Village" Indians— El Llano Estacado— Indian Paintings, 611 

VU.^Nkw Mexico — Cerro de Tucumcari — Frontier Mexican Town ok Anton Ciiico, 613 

VIII.— Valley op Cuesta— Canon Blanco— Galisteo— Organ Rock— Valley of the 

Rio Grande — Pueblo of Santo Domingo — Pueblo Indian Church, . . 615 

IX. — Arrival op the Expedition at Albuquerque — The Americans in New Mexico, 618 
X. — Society at Albuquerque — Robber Races op Apache and Navahoe Indians — 

PuebloobVillaobIndians—Hispano-Indian Breeds— VallkyofthbRioGrande, 622 



XL — ^TiiK Indian Town of Islkta— Pueblo Laguna — The Moro Rock — Tub Ruins ok 

New Mexico and their Origin, 629 

XII.— The Desolate City— The Camp iiefore Zuni — Ruins of Old Zuni, . . . 63C 
XIII. — Salt Pool — Tub Rio Secco— Petrified Forest — Ruins on the Colorado 

CiiiQuno, 638 

XIV. — Departure from the Colorado Chiquito — Volcanic Cones — ^Tue Woods of 
THE San Francisco Mountains — Subterranean Abode of tub Natives — 

Squirrels, 642 

XV. — Bill Williams' Mountains — Grev ItEARS— Partridge Creek — Turkey Spring — 

Pass of the Aztec Mountains — Yampay and Canon Creeks, .... 644 
XVI. — ^Tonto Indians — Cactus Pass — Giant Cactus— The Beaver Village, . . 650 

XVII. — Valley of Bill Williajis* Fork— Mountain Spring and Indian Paintings- 
Arrival AT the Rio Colorado— The Moiiaves, Ciiimeiiwhuebes, Cutchanas, 

AND Pah-Utahs, 653 

XVIII. — Village op the Moiiaves — Passage op the Colorado, 659 

XIX. — The Rio Colorado — Desert— Dry Salt Lake — Arrival at Pueblo de Los 

Angeles, G62 


I. — Walfisch Bay — Missionary Station — A Lion Hunt — Death op the First Giraffe, C75 
II. — A Lion Hunt — Death of the Leopard — ^Tiib Ovambo and Ovamboland, . . 681 
III. — The Kino of the Ovambo — Enormous Quantities of Game — A Night Adventure, 685 
IV. — Mr. Andersson Visits Cape Town — Returns to Wal isch Bat — Mutilated 

Hy^.na, 687 

V. — ^The Pool of Kobis — Lions and Giraffe — A Black Rhinoceros, . . . 688 
VI. — Shoots a White Rhinoceros — Is desperately Wounded by a Black Rhinoceros, 692 
VU. — First View op Lake Noami — Animals, Birds, and Fishes — Nakong and Lache — 
Ascent of the Teoge — Harpooning the Hippopotamus — A Lion fob a Bed- 
partner, 694 


I. — Russian Tendency to Colonization — Zaporogian Cossacks — Cossacks of the Don 

AND Volga, 707 

II. — The Ste. es — Fields op IIaiiiat— Classes op Steppes — Ravines— The Land op 

NoMADES — Future Importance op the Steppes to Commerce, .... 709 
III. — TiieKalmuks necessarily NoMADES — Kalmuk Encampment — Kal>iukIIoi(seman8iiip, 714 
IV. — City of Astrakhan — Armenians, Tartars — Singular Result op a Mixture of 

Races— Commercial Position of Astrakhan, 723 


Cossacks — Kasafiurta — Encampments of Tartars — Ravine of Karany, . 727 

VI. — Derbeno and Baku — Caspian Gates — Vvlm Albani^g — Scythian Albanians and 
Alani — Dagiiistan — Peter the Great's Resting-place — Great Wall of 

Caucasus, 733 

VH. — Steppes of Cape Ap-cihron — Baku, the Citv op Fire- Worshippers — Sanctuary 

OF Atashgah— Great Fire Temple— Islands of Fire — Parsi Pilgrims, . . 739 
VIII. — From Baku to Tiflis — The Lesghians — Peter the Great's Campaigns — Opera- 
tions OF Catherine II. — Visit to a Circassian Prince and Princess, . . 745 
IX. — Town op Siiumakhi — »&sfortunes of its Inhabitants — Bayaderes or Dancing 

Girls, 705 

X. — Valley and Town op Nukiia— Castle op Queen Thamara — Mount Elias, 757 

XL — Tiflis — Aqueduct near Tiflis— Camels in Persia— Agriculture re Georgia, . 760 

XII. — Ethnographical Archives in Tiflis — ^The Natzval — Crown Peasants, . . 766 

XIII. — ^Tiie Houses in Tiflis — Persian Ambassador— State of the Army — Jermalow, 776 

XIV.— Georgian Nobles — Journey to Martukpiii— Guilds in Persia and Georgia, . 779 


I. — Mauretania Miohiribu-l-aksa— Morocco Physically Contemplated — Moors, 

Arabs, Berbers, Jews, and Negroes— Morocco Army — Ceuta— Tetuan, . 782 
1I-— Tangier and Tingis— Descriition of the Tower and Castle- Chief Mosque, . 787 
III. — Port op Arzilla— Larache — Al Kasr Kebir— Port of Mehdiyaii — Description 

of Saleb and Rabat — ^Superstitions — Snake Charmers, 791 

IV. — ^The Jews op Morocco — Wedding and other Festivities — Renegades, . . 794 
V. — Old Capital of Mekinez — City op Fez — Coast-way to Azahor — Across Countiiy 

to Morocco — Description of Morocco — Mount Atlas, 798 

yi- — Fort op Mogador— The Moorish Cemetery — Imperial Guaud of Negroes, . 800 
VII.— The Recent Spanish Campaign in Morocco— Final Action in Front op Tetuan— 

Stubborn Dbfencb of tub Moors — Retrospect of tub Campaign, . . . 810 


Ancient Tkmi' 

View or, fhom oveb tub Pool of Hf.zekiaii, 



Rama (Abimatiiea), and KiajAnuEAnix, .... 
Saracenic Fountain, near the CointciL House, Jerusalem. 
The Church of the Holt Sepulchre, at Jerusalem, 

Vallet of Gihox, 

The Damascus Gate, Jerusalem, 

The Field of Blooi;, im the Valley of IIinnom, 

Gate of the Hospital of the Knights of St. John, at Jerusal 

Garden of Gethsehane, and Mount of Olives from Jkiiusalem, 


Isaiah's Grave. .... 

Valley of Jeiiosiiai-iiat, . 

The Tomb of David, 

Absalom's Tomb, and Pool of Siloam. 

Jews' Quarter, Jerusalem, 

Tower of David, JERUfALEu, . 

Via Dolorosa, .... 

The Wailino Place — Jews Puayino at Wall of the Temple of 

The Mosque of Omar — Site of the Temple at Jerusalem, 

The Holy Sepulchre, and Interior of the Holy Sepulchre, 

Cave under the Temple Hill, 

Pool of Betiiesda, .... 

Jews at Jerusalem, 

Vestibule within the Golden Gate, 

Vaults Beneath Solomon's Temple, and Remains of 

Castle of Zion, 

Jaffa Gate, Jerusalem, and Tomb of Kings, 

A Pillar in the Vaults of tub Temple of Solomon at Jbrusai, 

The River Jordan, 

Another Pillar in the Vaults of the Temple, 
Pools of Solomon, and Chukcii of the Nativity, 
Hebron, with the Cave of Machpelaii, 
The Dead Sea, and Plain of Jericho, . 

Rachel's Grave, 



Interior of Convent Mar Saba, 
The Jordan Leaving the Sea of Tiberias, . 
Kablous, the Ancient Shechem, and Betiiei., 
Mount Tabor, and Mounts Ebal and Gerizim, 




Mount Etna (viewed from Taurominium), in Sicily, 
Thb Chapel of St. Bosaua, near Palermo, in Sicily, 
The Rock and Town of Scylla, Coast of Sicily, 
Strombolt, one of the Lipari Isles, near Sicily, 
The Marina, or Sea view at Messina, in Sicily, 
Costumes and Inhabitants of Sicily, 


View of Syracuse, in Sicily, 

Chimbse Boat, 

Paooda at Wiiampoa, . . 


Tub Pagoda of tub Rocks, at Macao. 



.E Bridge, 


Therond, . 

Photo., Cramb, 



Therond, . 

Photo., Cramh, 






Sepp, . 
Sepp, . 
Sepp, . 

Photo., Cramh, 












Daubiijmj, . 



Photo., Cramh, 







Photo., Cramb, 


Photo., Cramb, 











Dore, . 

Dore, . 






















































Tub Landing Placb at Macao, J^ori, ... 97 

Chinese Boat Woman, Dori, . . . 101 

Chinese Merchant, Dori, . . . 104 

Chinese Ladv, DorS, ... 108 

Tautau Cavalry (Chinesk Tartar Arsiv), DorS, . . . 112 

Niot^T Scene in Amov, Frangah, . . 113 

Chinese War Soldiers (War Tigers), DorS, , . .120 

A Chinese Woman, Dor^, . . . 12i 

Chinese Opium Smokers, Morin, . .128 

Fi.owER (Pleasure) Boat at Shanghai, Grandsire, . . 129 

Custom House at Shanghai, Grandsire, . , 137 

A Chinese Travelling Wheel-Barrow, DorS, . . . 144 

The Great Wall of China, Dore, . . .144 

The Emperor of Cochin-China and his Ministers, . . . . . Thirond, . . 145 

Residence of the French and English Ambassadors at Tien-tsin, . . SorS, . . 153 

Mouth op the River Saigon, Cociiin-Ciiina, Julta Noel, . . 160 

Banks op the River Saigon, Lancelot, . . 161 

Rice, MilUr, . 165 

Subterranean Budhist Temple near Touraine, in Cochin-China, . . Therond, . 168 

Japanese Tea Gardens, De Bar, . . 173 

Gardens of the Emperor of Japan at Yeddo, Morin, . 173 

Japanese Ladt, Morin, . . 176 

Toilet of a Japanese Ladv, Morin, . . 177 

Entrance to the Bay of Yeddo, Tides Noel, . . 186 

White Mulberry Tree, and Raising Water, Miller, . , 193 

A Policeman of Yeddo, Dore, . . . 201 

Village in Jaffa, De Bar, . . 214 

The Austrian Frigate "Novara" off the Island op St. Paul, . . Jules Noel, . . 217 

Working Elephant in Ceylon, Therond, . . 224 

A Forest in Ceylon, . . . De Bar, . . 225 

Interior op a Hut in the Island of Kar-Nikobar, Therond, . . 233 

Virgin Forest in Kar-Nikobar (Indian Ocean), De Bar, . . 240 

Palm Tree in Great Andaman, De Bar, . .241 

Volcano in Java, De Bar, . . 244 

The Enchanted Lake in the Philippine Islands, Lancelot, . . 249 

Attack on a British War Steamer by the Natives of Andaman, . . De Bar, . . 256 

A Native of the Andaman Islands, G. Fath, . . 256 

River Amoor and King-oan Mountains, Grandsire, . . 267 

A Khalkas Family on the Upper Ahoor, Lancelot, . . 262 

View op Alexandrovsk, on the Bay of Castries, Lancelot, . . 268 

BuRiAT Temple on Lake Ikeugun, Mongolia, Sabatier, . . 273 

Lake Baikal, Sabatier, . . 278 

Frontier Post between China and Russia, Victor Adam, .. 285 

Yakuts on a Journey, Victor Adam, , 286 

Fort of Okhotsk, Victor Adam, . 289 

Sledge and Dogs on the Amoor, Sabatier, . . 295 

The Aroali (Ovis Ammon), ok Wild Sheep of Siberia, .... Victor Adam, . 302 

Bazaar and Fair at Nertchinsk — Russia in Asia, Victoi Adam, . 302 

Tunguse Sorceress and Natives, Victor Adam, . 304 

. Mantchurians and Tungusians op the Trans-baikal District, . . . Valentin, . . 304 

Yakut Colony or Village, Victor Adam, . 305 

Tunguse Encampment, Victor Adam, . 312 

Yakut Woman, Victor Adam, . 313 

Yakut Siiamahs, or Demon Dispellehs, Victor Adam, . 820 

Official Travelling — Russia in Asia, Victor Adam, . 320 

The City of Victoria, Vancouver Island, A. deDerard, . 321 

The First Shot at a Grizzly Bear, Dore, . . . 329 


Indian Sepulchre in the Long Grass P-jairie, on the Saskatchewan River, Dore, . . . 837 

Salteaux Indians Fire-fishing, Sabatier, , . 839 

A PoRTAGB on the White Mud River, Sabatier, . . 845 

Fort Edmonton, on the Upper Saskatchewan River, Velcoq, . . 348 

Rocky Mountains Pelcoq, . . 853 

Chimney Rocks on tub Banks of tub Columbia River, .... Sabatier, , . 857 

Indian Sepulchres on the Banks of the Cowlitz River, .... Sabatier, . . 358 

A Canon, or Mountain Pass, in the Sierra Waii, Lancelot, . . 865 

The Giant Fine Trees of Soxora l^ancelot, . . 3('>9 

Bear, • . i • .. . • . Miller, . . .. 874 





The Baron de Wogan at tub Council, of Judgment Pelcnq, 

. 381 

Group op Indians, 

. Pelcoq, 

. 38a 

The Baron de Wogan, 

. Pelcoq, 

. 393 

A "Claim" in California, 

. Pelcoq, 

. 397 

Grabs Valley Diggings, 

. Pelcoq, 

. 397 

Tub Baron de Wogan at the War-post, 

. Pelcoq, 

. 401 

Indians or the Rio Colorado, 

. Pelcoq, 

. 405 

The Cremation Ghat at Calcutta, .... 

. Therond, 

. 412 

Inhabitants of Havana, 

. Potin, 

. 413 

The Volantb (Hired Carriage) of the Havana, . 

. Victor Adiim 

. 417 

.VvENUB OF Palm Trees, Leading to a Residence in C 


. E. de Berari 

1, . 420 

The Cathedral of Havana, 

. Navlet, 

. 425 

Chinese Coolies in the Havana, 

. Pelcoq, 

. 429 

View of Havana, the Capital of Cuba, 

. Lancelot, 

. 433 

View of Matanzas, 

. Lancelot, 

. 445 

Landscape in the Island of Cuba, .... 

. Paul Hiiel, 

. 449 

The Arctic Regicts — the "Erebus" and "Terhor" in 



. Orandtire, . 

. 453 

Mouth op Back's River, 

. Lancelot, 

. 45C 

Opening op a Cairn, 

. Lancelot, 

. 457 

&BLICS of Franklin's Expedition, 

. Lancelot, 

. 457 

Snow Hots of the Esquimaux, 

. Lancelot, 

. 4C1 

The "Fox" in Bellot's Strait, 

. Valentin, 

. 464 

TzETiNiE, Capital of Montenegro, 

. A. de Bar, . 

. 469 

Palace of the Ancient Doges at Ragusa. . 

• iMncelot, 

. 472 

Harbour of Gravosa, near Rag us a, .... 

. Jules Noil, . 

. 473 

Capital in the Palace at Ragusa. .... 

. iMnceht, 

. 480 


. Mare, . 

. 481 

Castle of Trebignk, 

. A.deBar, . 

. 488 


. Grandtire, . 

. 489 

River Trebinitza, 

. A. de Bar, . 

. 493 

View of Ragusa, 

. Lancelot, 

. 497 

Chatham Island, 

. E. de Berari 

1, . 505 

Charles Island, 

. E. de Berari 

1, . 506 

Post-Opfice Bay, Charles or Floriana Island, . 

. E. de Berari 

/, . 510 

Watering Place, Charles Island, 

. E. de Berart 

t, . 512 

Birds, Reptiles, and Vegetation, 


. 513 

Albemarle Island, 

. E. de Berari 

/, . 521 

Whitsunday Island, 

. E. de Berari 

/, . 524 

Bay of Manevai, Island of Vanikoro, .... 

. E. de Berari 

/, . 529 

Oeno in the Pomotu Archipelago, .... 

. E. de Berari 

1, . 533 

Village op Vanu, Island of Vanikoro, 

. E. de Berari 

/, . 536 

Pinnacle and Coral Reef, Bora-bora, .... 

. E. de Berari 

/, . 540 

The Confession, 

. Bida, . 

. 541 

High Peak at Bora-bora, 

. E. de Bernr 

/, . 545 

Distant View op Mount Atiios, 

. Villevieilte, 

. 551 

The Agoumenos op Ivkron, 

. Pelcoq, 

. 555 

Baptisty, OB Phiale op Saint Laura, . 

. Lancelot, 

. 558 

Fresco op the Trapeza at Saint Laura, 

. Therond, 

. 559 

Monastery of Iveron, ...... 

. Karl Qirard 

It, . 561 

Bas-relief in the Convent op Vj>topedi, Mount Atiios 


. A. Proust, 

. 564 



. 568 

Monastery op Sphigkenod, ...... 

. Karl Girard 

't, . 509 

Fresco of Saint George, . . , . 

. Pelcoq, 

. 574 

Albanian Soldier of the Guard of the Epistates, 


. 575 

Cyprus Tree, 

. Miller, 

. 575 

CoppEE Plant, 

. Miller, 

. 575 

Sculptured Cross in the Treasury op Karyes, . 

. Therond, 

. ■';76 

Chief Court of the Monastery op Kiliantari, 

. Lancelot, 

. 577 

Sculptured Cabinet in the Treasury of Karyem, 

. Therond, 

. 580 

Council-general of the Epistates, 

. . Boulanger, 

. 584 

The Prairie on Fire, .... 

. Bore, . 

. .593 

Fort Smith on the Arkansas, 

. iMUcelot, 

. 598 

Ball-playing among the Choctaw Indians, 

. Bore, , 

. 601 

Camp of Comanche Indians, . 

. J. Duraii.r, 

. 607 

Buffalo Hunting among the Delawares, 

. DorS, . 

. 609 

Camp of Kioway Indians, 

. iMucelot, 

. G16 

Comanche Indians, 

. J. Duvaur, 

. 620 

Indian Hieroglyphs, .... 

. Lancelot, 

. C23 


MouNTAiNi OF San Fhaxcisco, . 
Organ Kock neau San Domingo, 
Inscription Rock o« " Moko," . 
Town of Zuni, 


Alcaldk ok Santo Dojunoo, . 
Hoi.v Wki.i. at Zi'ivi, , . , 


TiiK Giant Ckreus, . 

Mohave Indians, 

MoRAVB Horseman, . 

Hut of Ciiimeiiwiiueb Indians, 

Ferry on the Rio Colorado, . 

Rill Williasis' Fork, 

Uamb of Rino among the Mohaves. 

Arms, Ornaments, and Utensils of 

Giraffe and Lions, . 


Hunter and Rhinoceros, . 

A Pond in Africa at NigiiT, 

Hippopotamus Harpooned, 

Hunter and Lions, . 

Hunter and Elephant, . 

View of Derbend, . 

View of Astrakhan, 

Tent of a Kalmuk Princess, 

Peter the Great's Hut, near Deruend, 

Georgian Bayaderes, 


Fire Temple, near Baku, 
View of Baku, 
Valley of Nukiia, . 
View of Tiflis, 
Costumes of Baku, . 
View of Shvmakui, . 
Castle and Town of Gori, 
Porch of Lesohian House, 
Queen Thauara'b Castle, 
Lesohian ViLLAOi: of Begitta, 
Georgian Costumes, . 
The River Phasis, . 
Acclivity of Mount Suriiasi, 
Crest op Mount Surham, 
Mouth of tub Phasis at Poti, 
City of Morocco, 
The Port of Tangier, 
Port of Mogador, . 
Mountains of Iron, . 
Serpent Charmers, . 
View of Salee and Rabat, 
Cemetery at Mogador, . 
Start of a Caravan, 








./. Duvaiu; 

J. Diivaiij; 




J. Duvaitx. 


J. Diivaiu; 

Dore, . 

Dare, , 



Dori, . 

A. de Hera I 

Dori, . 

Dore, . 

Dore, ', 

Dori, . 

Dore, . 
















Dore, , 






A. tk Berur 

Jules Noiel, 

Jnles Noel, 

Julet Noil, 

J. Duvaiix, 

E. de Berar 


Marc, . 























































Asia, . . tuface 17 

China, and Indo-Ciiinese States, „ 209 

North America, „ 861 

South America, ,, 505 

Turkey in Europe, and Greece, • „ 553 

Part of the Southern States, and of New Mexico, „ 624 

Part of Western Africa, explored by Anderson and Galton, 1850-18G0, . . „ 676 

Africa, „ 681 

The Caucasus and the Neighbouring Countries, ,, 704 

The Empire of Morocco, ,, 790 





































































He who would visit Jerusalem aright must do so 
with the Bible in his hand aiid faith in his heart. He 
must throw down the measuring rod, and lay aside the 
liistorical disquisition, while he visits the scene of Jeho- 
vah's just wrath andaSaviour's never-ending mercy, with 
the hushed silence of a penitent and the reverential 
enthusiasm of a pilgrim. It was with such feelings 
that we first touched the soil of the Holy Land, when 
landing from the steamer at Jaffa, and set forth on a 
six hours' ride towanls Ramleh, the first stage on our 
journey towards Jerusalem. 

Jaffa or Joppa, before whose time-stained and battle- 
worn walls we are now landing, through a difficult 
surf, is one of the most ancient cities in the world. It 
is here that Xoah is said to have built the ark ; here 
the cedars from Mount Lebanon for the building of 
the Temple were lauded by Hiram, at the order of 
Solomon, for conveyance to Jerusalem ; here the 
prophet Jonas embarked for Tarsus ; hither came St. 

Peter from Lydda, to restore to life the charitable 
Tabitha (whose dwelling may yet be seen) ; and during 
his residing here, in the house of Simon the tanner, 
(there is a row of tanners' shops on the other side of 
the town), it is here that the Apostle saw, while sleep- 
ing on the roof (just as many of the inhabitants are 
doing at this veiy moment, for the tops of these houses 
are all flat and battlemented) the vision of the clean 
and unclean meats ; here the messengers of the Cen" 
tiuion found the Apostle ; hence he went further on his 
great mission to the Gentiles ; and tradition points to 
the Convent of the Holy Land as built on thin very 
six)t, where Simon lived. Burnt by Judos Maccabaeus, 
taken by Vespasian, Joppa was erected by the Crusaders 
into a titular coimty. Godfrey of Bouillon died here, 
as some say, though we shall shortly see his tomb 
at Jerusalem ; and the walls of a donjon keep, 
built by St. Lotiis, still remain : as docs also, sad 
and doubtful monument ! the vast magazine or hospital 
where died of the plague, and, as scandal says, of too 
much opium administered (in mercy, as he alleges) by 



their chief, so mnny of the victorious solilicrs in the 
French expedition to Egypt. Nor nro classical licroes 
wanting to the place; for nt ten minutes' distance to 
the south (in ciistcrn travelling wo allow three miles 
to the hour — a horse's walking pace,) yon can see on 
the summit of an eminence a small Mussulman sanc- 
tuary, the very )ilace, we are assured, where Perseus, 
mounted on the winged horse I'ogasus and armed with 
the Gorgon-headed shield of Minerva, conquered the 
sea- monster and rescued tho fair Andromeda. The 
fact, we know, never occurred any n ore than the fellow 
fig'i'. between St. George (who was born in this district) 
nnd tiie Dragon ; but, nevertheless, St. Jerome himselt^ 
in his Commentaries, docs not disdain to mention an 
oral tradition as existing in his times. A clever writer 
suggests that the city itself was the Andromeda, and 
tho sea-monster the Plia>niciun pirates; the winged 
liurso being tho Desert Arabs, who were invited to her 

The town is charmingly situ,ated on a hill coming down 
ti the shore, with the sea on the west, and beautiful 
gardens on the east. The gardens of Jatta are estimated 
at one hundred and fifty, in one hundred of which 
are large pools, constantly supplied from shallow wells, 
wherewith all the trees, as well as vegetables, are 
dally watered. The citron, orange (both fruit and 
blossom on tho tree, for it is April), tho lemon, the 
banana, and tho palm, will strongly impress you with 
tho notion of tropical scenery ; but the apples, pears, 
and quinces, even tho mulberry ti'ces, will remind you 
of Devonshire. Feast your eyes npon this verdure, 
and these orchards, and these pomegranates, good 
Pilgi'im I for you will see no where again such luxu- 
riant vegetation until you reach the Valley of the 

Pass through tho one only gate looking towards 
Jerusalem, and notice tho void sjiaco near it, and 
how the people gather there. You perceive the 
governor and the judge aro hearii . cases there, just 
as you read of those seated at the gate in tho Scrip- 
tures. Now are we in the open country — in the 
very Desert of Egypt — for all along this part of the 
coast the sand blows in from the sea, and destroys the 
natural fertility of the soil, watered as it is by many 
streams now hidden in minute percolations. They 
say this sand is brought up by tho northern current 

' Babbinicnl writers derive tlio name of Jopjui from Japhct, 
while tlie clnssicnl geogrnplicrs refer it to lope, daugliter of jKolus, 
and they argue tliat sucli a funn of tlie word best suits tlic 
Fliccnicinu original, whicli signifies " an eminence," Joppa existed 
when tlie Israelites invaded tlio land of Canaan, nnd is mentioned 
as lying on the border of tlio tribe of Dan (.loshua, xix. 46). 
It was the only port possessed by the Uraelitcs till Herod formed 
the harbour of Caisarea. Although the port is bad nnd even dan- 
gerous, JopiHk has been from the first Crusade down to our own 
day the landing-place of pilgrims going to Jerusalem. There is 
•till an hospital for pilgrims there, dependent on the Convent of 
Pan Salvador in Jerusalem, and occupied by Spanish monks, The 
eminence or promontory on which Joppn is built, is picturesquely 
crowned by a castle, the town itself chiefly faces the north ; and 
the buildings appear, Irom the steepness of the site, as if standing 
upon one another. Ihe most prominent features of tho architec- 
ture from without are the flattened domes by which most of the 
buildings ore surmounted, and tho appearance of arched vaults. 
From the steepness of the site, many of tho streets are connected 
by flights of stops, and the one that runs along the sea-wall Is the 
most clean and regular of the whole. There arc three mosques, 
nnd Greek and Armenian convents, as well as the Latin one, 
No ancient ruins remain in a place ao frequently destroyed in war, 
Ihe chief manufiicture is BOnp, and the inhabitants are said not 
to exceed 4,000, of whom one-fourth ore reckoned to bo Cbristlaua. 

of the Nile, It may bo seen in tho Bay of Acre^ 
begins again at Cnsarea, south of Jaffa, passes Askalon 
and Qaza, and rolls on in desolating waves to tho 
Great Desert that lies between Arabia and Africa, 

Water your horse, before starting, at tliis noblo Sara- 
cenic fountain, with its elegantly ornamented roof 
supported on six pillnrH. It is the most Ixiautiful 
object in the place: tho courts and minarets tliat 
surround it, tlio Arab merchants, and the busy 
pc{)ple, always about, cannot fail to im|)res8 upon 
your mind a recollection of what Arab life must have 
been when tho Moors were ii graat and civilized 

I see you take out your pistols and examine the 
priming. If ever you wish to be robbed while tra. 
veiling in tho Eiust, you should caiTy arms. They are 
the articles most coveted by wild jxsoplc ; consequently, 
the greatest temptation you can offer them : they will 
rob you for your arms, and even murder you. From 
Jaffa to Jerusalem, you are, otherwise, as safe as be- 
tween London and Birmingham. You hire a drogo- 
m.i> and horses, and place yourself in his custody at 
almut a pound a day, if for a long journey ; just as in 
former times men hired post horses, and took a guide 
through the Lake Districts. They will ask you to have 
a guard, but you might as well walk along the Strand, 
or any other high street, at noonday, with a policeman 
to take care of you. The best friends for a voyage 
through the Holy Land, are a priest or a clergyman : 
those who aro known only to do good aro everywhere 

Passing through the green forest of gardens, and, 
thence, through thickets of cactus, we come out at last 
u|)on a wido spreading plain, not a flat dead level, 
but swelling with gentle undulations, rising into long 
sandy ridges, from which occasionally slope up rocky 
mounds and hills. The day is hot, though the sun has 
not long been up ; the heat is liardly bearable, tho 
vapour rises steaming from the sands, and out upon 
the horizon is the mirage — tho phantom of a lake I 
You aro now in the land of Dan, The peasant of 
Sharon — the valley of which is hard by — bears, os you 
may sec, the Egypto- African characteristics of tliat 
race. Our roatl is lonely, but how picturesque the 
few we meet ! The camel, with a burthen seemingly 
larger than himself; the slow, heavy, down-looking 
Jew ; the haughty Turk ; the slender, swarthy, muscu- 
lar, lithe-limbed peasant— the women, bearing jars of 
water on their heads I 

Having early in our journey passed a fountain in 
the Moorish style, surrounded by cypresses nnd ancient 
sycamores, the pious erection of tho good Abu Nabbut, 
a former governor of Jaffa, wo reached a village called 
Yazun, situated to the left of the way, on a mount 
all green with gardens; for wherever there is water 
here, there is verdure, and, wherever care is taken, 
everywhere there is water. This village marks tho first 
hour of tho distance. On the right stands a sepul- 
chral chapel, surrounded by nine cupolas, on tho right, 
again, of which is a cistern or fountain with a narrow 
mouth, whereupon rests a jar from which tho thirsty 
wayfarer may quench his thirst. This is called the 
"Fountain of the Plane-tree." The chapel marks, 
so says tradition, tho tomb of the Prophet Gad — Gad, 
the Seer, — at whose instance, as we i-ead (2 Samuel 
xxiv. 18), David bought from Araunah the Jebusite 
the area (now known as Moriah) on which the temple 
was afterwards built, — nut the Patriarch Gad, as it is 


argnpd, for the miih of Jonoph all died iu the land of 
Egyiit ; unlesd, as a piona writer guggcBts, the bodiei 
of all the patriarchs worn ombulincd, as was expressly 
directed to be done with those of Jacob and Joseph, 
and transported to tho Land of rroraise ; a siipjiosiUon 
Btrengthoned by the fact that the jjious Muasuliuau 
points out, about an hour's distance from the tf>mb of 
Oad, the tomb of Nobi-Riibon, the Holy Saiut or 
Patriarch Reuben. 

Thus surmising, we slowly jog on for (mother Lalf- 
hour, until we roach a grove of olives, planted iu quin- 
cunxes, and a plantation of nuil berry trees — the 
remains of an enterprise of certain French sjieculators 
in the 17th century, undertaken at the instigation d 
Colbert. You must not fail to picture to yourself 
how, when the 18th century was in its jirime. these 
olives and thcso mulberry trees afforded a grateful 
shade to Bonaparte and his staff, who came thus far 
on their way towards Jerusalem. Tiio luulberriep 
hero arc grown for their fruit, rnd not for the silk- 
worm. We are too early for their fruit, wiiich does 
not ripen until May, and is very sharp, and in flavour 
like an ovcrgi-own blackberry. To the right of the 
l-oad — if so a camel path or horse-tratk be rightly called 
— half hidden in the grey foliage of these olive trees, 
at about a mile distance, lies the vilhige of lieil- 
Decgan. Pronounce this, as do the Kgyjitians, Jii it- 
Diigan, and you will have (for licit, or lietlt, meaii*^ 
house or place belonging to) the House of Dagon, that 
great idol of tho Philistines, who could not endure tlie 
liiiiximity of the Ark of tho Lord. We are near to 
Ashdod — where tho captured ai'kwas do])()sited before 
Dagon and triumphed over the idol — and not farther 
than an hour from Gatli. 

Pa-ssing Sarapend, a ]X)or village, and its ruinous 
aqueduct, about a muskt liot to tlio right, where the 
prophet Jonas is said to be biiried — a iiiet which the 
jiious Mussulmans dispute, when they show Ids tomb at 
Nineveh — we come in sight of tho wished-fur tower and 
minarets of Ramleh, tho Ariniathea of the Scriptures, 
rising up from a wood of olive-trees, whose trunks are 
almut as thick as those of pollard oaks. The came 
now given implies tho City of the SoikL It is, indeed, 
a city of dust and a.slies, for the mounds of grey 
rubbish that lie about in the naiTow, crooked streets. 
arc the dried lees of soap factories, and the slighte-rt 
wind blows them about, so much so aa to blind a lai-ge 
proportion of the pojmlation. Wc ha.sten to the Latin | 
Convent, a large building walled round for safety, at j 
are all convents in the east. There we find sheltei- 
and refreshment, thanking, thereupon, the goodness 
of Philip the Oood, Duke of Burgundy, who founded 
it, as well as the kindness of tho venerable bnithert 
who offered us the welcome solace of so excellent a 
repast. How delicious the shelter from the sun with 
which this pillared corridor provides us ! How cool 
this stone floor; how clean that whitewashed, arched 
roof, with its frescoes of St. Joseph ! How grateful 
the look-out from the cloisters into the gardens, tJiat 
palm-tree's shade, and that far-spreading, thick-leartid 
vine ! 

Ramleh is a town of some size, and has 3,000 
inhabitanta^ When tho pii-atcs of the Mediterranean 
hunted out the merchants' ships along the sea coast of 

■ Professor Robinaon disputes the identity of Ramleli witli 
Arimitbea, " a city of tho Jews " nccording to Lulie, on the 
groondi that Abulfeda alleges Uainloh to liave been built after the 
tiiqe of Mnhamnud, or alwat A. ]>■ 716, by Subunum Abd-el- 

Srna. «!W- «n«fc from Persia and India carao inknd 
by Bitpiui luui Danui.ic\is in caravans, and, then, 

KaULkiL W.M a stopping-place. Henco ita largo 
khuu «r npea inn.s, its yanls and storehouses fur 
tj'HT<iIi«r» anil merehamlize. Largo houses are numo- 
rirus, Hi.* n&i»rf? in a Greek and Armenian convent, as 
wtitl jK nA* looR fit' whose hospitality wo are now par- 
tjifcjug Bn1i ehv streets are narrow and crooked, an 
vtiQ for iuSftf and defence as for shade. Tho square 
■Urw*r Si* «&<» rij^ht of the roud is known a.s " Tho 
Tov«ir «(f ii6i» Forty Martyrs." It forms a portion of 
ail 4AJ tAsm'thL built by the Cmsading Templars, in 
hcoiuiD «<f iiht» siu^reil relics of forty soldiers murdered 
in AnaimiuL What Ls now the mosque within tho 
Trail) — jnora *M» hy minaret between the palm trees to 
tlie l«fti M joa come up the town — was once an 
«;BUililii»4iaii»n,1l of the Knights of St. John. Let us 
uwsBjdl nlW townr and g-.ize from this advantageous spot 
'•\vT iiM- Itnn 'itensive view of tho Holy Iiand, and its 
jiltaitiiaui fhttta, that we have been able to obtain. 
Hie lAiiim '>t Sharon spreads bright, fertile, and beauti- 
ful l«tf')iri« iiH — from the <lark mountains of Judea and 
Raiuuris ni* the se;v, and from Holy Carmel to the 
BMijdT 4e«»ns of Philistia. See tho white villages, 
plrlWiut mi elie sun, alimg the many declivities of the 
luomi.'UiiJaHv See the waving corn, tho barley already 
iu libe leiiir :init ripe for harvest ; the heavy crops of 
n'liftBt, tv.h JM lincolnjihire. Yonder tho shepherd 
wiilkaur ftiffere his flocks, as they return frisking to 
their fcfti*; the reaper returning from his toil. In 
suum«r yuni would see hills of grivin, and tho thra.shing 
fl'j'irt uaiJ thf. oxen driving the machines ("the now 
sLiapi ii&ira»fvm;» iastrument having teeth" (Isaiah xlL, 
!-5)«iTwii&»» beuiseil grain. But our hoi-scs await lu 
at liw <i',aT«n.« givte of the good Franci3can.s. They 
liaTe rtftunl* the old house entirely, all but ono room, 
■wi«Tre Bianaiparte slept when ho constitutctl Ramleh 
hit iwbi-'jnaiters. Nothing therefore remains of the 
Loose «tr Joseph of Ariniathea, except only tho site 
<ni »c4ii{&i »i* axe now standing. 

Tht'pnmerT Mtriym the fertile plain of Ramleh is 
opjciesuhnR. There Ls a sirocco of the quiet dry-heat 
kkil ; «aDr Terr clothes are dry and hot. It is tlio 
gcnitSi wiai-l nf Job (ixxviL 17) that "qiueteth tho 
«iirtk.~ T&e binla have sought tho shade. Tho very 
air 31 wi»aJk ami Lmgruil with heat. An horn- and an half 
bjiuj5iii»t> Berea ( the desert) a moilern village, a wakeni ng 
no !UKiiii)irii>% An hour fiirther and we reach a spot 
■«ri»eBita»iIIItigH nestles. On the leftthecactushedgesshow 
lie 'ifotHmtsj- of the first ripple in which t!io plain 
l^giii* Si> ascend towards the mountains, 'fliis is 
KbIhiBh. or the City of Roast Meat (the i-oiist or 
fzix&fti k&xbob% as the British traveller well knows, 
lieiiiw jnialli pieces of meat roasted on a skewer, the 
iBilj ViOaH m the Turkish cookery books), and in this 
viliaas we begin, for the first time, to meet with 
reuiiiiMKSiKWs of Samson, whose birth place, Ashdod, 
is m'jft ifiur tiiatajit. The Arabs have a curiou.s legend 
altont tbB {iliKe. 

KaHk ; tliac Ewuh and Bamleh Imve not tbo sumo Bignificttion, 
for I&ufl Bimieh is in a plain, while Rainah implies a town on a bill, 
but il!ius&eim..inatly remarked that Abulfcdx's statement mnj 
nitrm ixa> oiiire thoa that Sulaiman rebuilt tbo town, and with 
nsurll '.i' slie name it ounot be assumed that Hebrew proper 
iiamw wtm .ilwriys » significant. Indeed it is generally admitted 
lias Vv. Buburtna's objections bare not destroyed cither tlio 
tea£iaiinv ^«r t&s grounds for following the nsunl '»'. so of doscrib- 
iag Firr^''^' w lajraenting the ancient Arimai 



In tho legend referred to, it is not difficult to detect 
nn Arnb veininiscenco of Sampsou'H 300 foxes, with 
torches to their tails, by means •f which hv revenged 
himself upon tho Philistines (Judges xv. 4, 5). Along 
by tho south-western siilo the slo])0 is jiiorced witli 
Bubtermnean magazines for grain, and the numerous 
openings, like well-holes, loading to them ore dan- 
gerous traps for horses. Wo next reach Amwas or 
Emmaus, "Hot baths," also called Nicopolis, but not 
the Emmaus of Luke (xxiv. 13), where Our Saviour 
met liis disciples in their disconsolate walk after his 
cntcifixioD. This is 28 miles from Jcnisaloni, and the 
disciples could scarcely have walked there and back to 
Jerusalem tho same day, especially as " the day was 
fur spent" before they "sat down to meat." 

The country now is broken up, ond tho mountains 
gi-adually rise in front of u.s. Wo are fast ascending. 
The road begins to be n\gged, and gradually narrows 
into a mere valley, then to a defile. 

Two miles south of Amwas or Kmmaus wo come 
upon Lntrnn, or the Town of the Thief, situate on a 
conical mound, commanding a wide pro.spect, and 
crowned with the niins of a large and strong fortress — 
from which Jaffa and tho MediteiT.auean can be sec , 
It was a strong military post iu tho old time, coi 
manding the road from Jerusalem to the sea. It 
called the Castle of Emmaus by St. Jerome, and aft > 
wai'ds the Castle of tho Good Thief. Here is \ 
legend. It is here the gooil thief was bom and dwt 
and made his living, like tho barons of the Rhine, b 
robbing the passengers up the valley (Wady Aly) 'eac 
ing to Jerusalem. One day, tho Holy Family, wliil 
{Missing this way in their flight into Egyjrt, were stoppei 
here by tliis thief and his companioiLS, and required i 
pay a ransom. Dima.s, for such was tho good thie/ ^ 
name, was so touched by the grace of the Divine 
Infant, that ho protected the Holy Child from tho 
brutality of his accomplice ; to which good inspiration 
is attributed, by tradition, tho special favcar of that 
thief 8 conversion at the moment of his expiring upon 
the Cross, while the other died in im{)eniteaco to the 

This also, is the site of thii Modiu of the Maccabees j 

it is here that Jmlns MuccaboHs conqttercd Gorgio*, 
tlie lieutenant of Nioaiior (i. Maccabeus, iv., 3). Hen-, 
too, the Crusadei-H had a camp, ond hero was tho last 
advance post of oiu' own lliciiard Coour do Lion. Ho 
camo no nearer to Jerusalem, but retumoclto becaptured 
on his ron<l home. A little to tho right lies a village, 
where the Tonil) of S.iuiHon was said to have Iwen. but 
is not. It lay between Zorah and Eshtool. Tlio site 
remains, us do the ripening llelds of corn, and tho 
noble fountain from which tlio women — as oft did tho 
mother of Samscm — may, even now, bo seen coming with 
their full pitchers balanced on their heads. 

RetiU'ningto the road, a short half hour brings us up to 
tho "Well of Job," (Ayuab) a deep fountjtin, or shallow 
well, about five fort in diam(^terand six f«et in depth, con- 
taining about three or four feet of water, by no means 
tempting to the sight or taste. Thic is considered tho 
half way between .Jalfa and Jerusalem. Wo aro now 
following tho itinerary of the Ark, which, when restored 
by the rhilistines from Ekron, was taken by the un- 
broken and unguided kine, harnessed to tho cart contain- 
ing it,acr(iss tho plain to Ik-tliHliemesh (1 Sam. vi., 10, 1 2), 
whence tho terrifioil inhabitants conveyed it to Kir- 
jath-jearim. The stones by the well beside which 
wo oro now standing, are regarded by tho Jewish 
pilgrims as marking the threshing floor of Joshua of 
Bethshomeph, whore tho Ark fii-st halted. Tho 
streamlet llowing from this well now watein a field of 
gourds. This is said to bo the boundary of the tribes 
of K[)hraim and licnji'.min, — the well and waters of 
Neiihtoah marked down by .loshua (xviii., 15). 

Hence we follow a narrow valley, barren and rocky, 
into which numerous other minor valleys trend. 
The rond is everywhere rocky, and strewed .vith 
stones that endanger our horses' limbs, and plough up 
with deep ravines a ma.os of colossal stones, heaped up 
on each other as if by some mighty Titanic masonry. 
Tho scene is one of dreariness and desolation. We 
have been three-quartei-s-of-an-hour in this ravine, and 
now tho road opens, tlie valley becomes less abrupt, and 
we find ourselves in a kind of basin amongst tlie rocks, 
under a green clump of oaks — a delicious retreat 
and halting jilace for refreshment. A ruined 
star Is near this fountain ; this is the tomb of the 
III' n Aly, from whom tho valley takes its name. 





Passing the kiosk, wo push our horses up to tho 
culminating ]K>int of tho valley by a steep and rugged 
path,cut through clumps of cactus, among huge bouldei-» 
scattered over the rocky sides. Still rising upon the 
ridge we come to the thicket of olives, wherein lies an 
ancient desolate village, Saris, by which the Ark of 
Jehovah piissed over to Kirjiitlijeai-ini, and where 
David is said to have taken refuge from the wrath of 
SauL Another hour, over an undulating road, always 
rising— for wo must reach to full two thousand feet 

al.'ovo tho livul of tliu sen befiiro treading on the 
plateau of tho Holy City — and wo tuniud tlie bill, 
and found Kirjatb uriiii, or Kuiiot ol Kiiab (tlu' 
Village of Raisins) at the o|><.>niiig of a cultivaUd vii'.lcy, 
prettily Hitiiatcil in a basin on tho mirth hIiIu of a xpur 
jutting out from the wcstiTn hill. Tbi.s is \vliei'(^ ibo 
Ark rested twenty yearn in the lumao of Aiuinadab, on 
a slight elevation (Uibeali). They hIkiw tlii^ xitr, and 
within a houso erected U|K)n it dwolls tin; wbcikli or 
head man of tho village tribe. There is an open spate 
in front of Kiijatbjcarini like one of opi- villii;,'e 
greens. It is shaded by live or six tine lig-trci!M, umlir 
tho leafy shelter of which rouncil is held and judgment 
given on matters of inijiortunco to the little toiu- 
munity. There is a line fountain of I'XcelKint water, 
and flocks and herds are to bo seen lying about — a 
scene of pastoral repose ! Be not deceived ; this village 
was until lately tho residence or den of the greatest 
bandit of tlus Holy Land, the terror of jiriests of all 
religions. Kach successive chief of this fiiinily succeeded 
to tho same title — Alai-Ohush," Father ollJeueit," which 
ultimately Ijecatne n word of ten'or tliijughout all 
Palestine. So long as 500 years ago, one Abu-(ilnish 
murdered all tho monks in the villafje, where there is 
a largo convent of the "Good Fatliei-s of tho Holy 
Land ; " so thenceforward in their ann.als tho place 
beara tho name of Jeremy, as well from the once noble 
church now in ruins — yet finely jireserved, so far hh 
its pointed gotliic porch and aisles, and its round arelied 
windows — a strange mi.'cture of the Crusadei-s' time, 
dedicated to tho Prophets, and now a stable, — as from 
its moral resemblance to Anathoth, the mo\irnful 
sccno of " Jeremiah's lamentations." Twenty-one 
ycara ago tho Abn-Ghush of that period commanded 
40,000 Arabs, and rebelled against his sovereign 
from Kandeh to Jerusiilem, and from Hebron to the 
mountains of Jericho. There are still sixty or seventy 
wembei-s of this family remaining, but tho Turkish 
government took them in hand in 184G, seized the 
grand delinquents, and sent them to Constantinople. 
Some of these died in furtlier banishment; one only 
has returned, after ycara of exjiatriation, to private 
life and painful respect for other people's purees, a 
saddened and an honest man. Some day ere long, 
perhaps, there may be an Abu-Ohush figuring at tlio 
liead of a pro.spectus for tho mercantile develoi)ment 
of tho Holy Land by a railway from Jaffa to Randeli, 
with branches to Jerusalem and Dama.scus. Even 
now the wealthiest of the family is largely interested in 
soap-boiling, wliich (tell it not in Oath !) i.s, now-a-days, 
ono of the principal and most flourishing manufactures 
of tho cities of Palestine. 

This Kirjathjearim is most probably Emmaus, where 
our Saviour broke bread with the discijiles (Luke 
xxiv. 30).i It is just three horn's' ride from tliis place to 
Jerusalem, down Viy a long descent to Kustnl, a ruined 
fort upon a hill — whence may bo seen, high on a hill- 
top, and liending over the valley of the Gibeonites, Nebi 
Samuel, the tomb of the prophet Samuel, said to be tho 
Ramah, — iuHebi-ew, "assembly place" — ofthat Prophet. 
Afiter this we have a steep descent and a sli|)pcry ])ath 
ilown to Colonio, It was here, in all probability, that 
Uzza put his hand upon the Ark, for the steep Ls 

' Kiijath-jcarim Bigniflcd " City of Forests." The first fart 
of tlie name £«r^<(-el-Enau, siguiQcs, liko Kiijath, " city " only, 
"jearim," foresta, lias Ijccn changed to "enab," grapes. So close 
a correspondence of name and position seems to jn^tify Dr. Buhiu- 
son's conclusions in fnvonr of tho identity of the two. 



ix>cky and dreadful for a cart; and close at hand here, 
no doubt, were the sites of the threshing-floor of 
Nachon and the house of Obede<lom. At Colonia we 
stop a few minutes, to ease our horses and examine the 
stone bridge, with round arch, the large nuns, evidently 
extending, the fine pools and copious fountains. These 
ai'e the works of Hathian the Emperor. Henceforward 
the path winds up a valley and steep liills, over a 
waste of dreaiy rocks. This long and weary pass.age 
past, wo look for Jerasalem, but in vain. There is 
yet a mile of stony table-land to stumble across. 
Nebi Samuel is again in sight, however, on a hill 
above. Then comes another white tower; that is the 
Convent of the Ascension, on the Mount of Olives. 
Another swelling ridge surmounted, and the wall of 
Jemsalem, battlemented ■nnth towers, rises blank 
before us. The slope of the gi-ound eastwanl prevents 
the houses, temple, domes, or minarets, being seen 
above. There is only the gi-ay old sqiiare tower of 
Hippicus, and the wall; and the first impression to the 
mind, highly wrought up as it cannot fail to be, is 
singularly disappointing. A moment's pause, a look 
around, and the desolation of the scene strikes the 
beholder in all its awfulness — "mountains without 
shade, valleys without water, earth without verdui-e, 
rocks without terror or grandeur," and gray walls rising 
on the brow of Zion. Not a breath of wind murmuring, 
not a sound. " Jerusalem, where wo would visit one 
Sepulchre only, is, itselli the tomb of a whole people." 
But this is not the vantage-spot to gaze ujion ^'•'■ 
city. Seen from tho Mount of Olives, on the other sido 
of the valley of Jehoshaphat, Jcnisalem presents an 
inclined piano, descending from east to west. The 
embattled wall, fortified with towers and a gothic 
castle, encompasses the whole r" the city all round, 
excluding, however, part of Mount Kion, which, in 
more ancient times, was enclosed within its precinct. 
The city, hero, presents to the imagination the appear- 
au'^e of an army advancing down a hill, the pinnacles and 
tho domes on Mosque Moriah, looking like the banners 
raised in advance. Here, there is a vacant space to be 
seen, as also towards tho Fort Antonia, in the western 
part of the city; while towards tho Holy SepiUchre and 
Calvary the houses appear to sttind close together ; but 
towards the east, and down along to the Brook Kedron, 
the eye falls on ruins and dcsolaiioii. The houses are 
heavy masses, very low, without cliimnies at top or 
windows externally, and with flat roofs or terraces, 
with cuiralas on the top. They look like prisons or 
sepulchres. The whole city would appear like one 
level roof, but for the rare steeples of the churches, 
the minarets of the mosques, the tops of a few cypress 
trees, and tho dark clumps of nopab, which only 
break tho uniformity of the plan. The general aspect 
has been well compared to tho confused monuments of 
a cemetery in tho midst of a desert. Such is the present 
condition of " tho most beautiful city of the whole earth ;" 
Josophus, spenking without knowledge of the new 
and greater claims to the admiration of the world 
which the City had attained as the scene of the great 
martyrdom and testifiovdon of God's goodness and 
man's great wickedness, says ( Wan, vL x., 6) " Yet 
hath not its great antiquity, nor its vast riches, nor 
the diflTusion of its nation over all the habitable earth, 
nor the greatn<^ss of the veneration paid to it on a 
religious account, been sufficient to preserve it from 
being destroyed." 


Jerusalem, standing upon four hills — Zion and A era 
on the west, Moriah (with Ophel) on tho south, and 
Bethcsda on the north ; defined on three sides by deep 
valleys or ravines — Jehoshaphat, Hinnom, and Gihon ; 
and cut asimder by a deep defile, the Tyropoeon, or 
Street of the Cheesemongers, forming what \'/aa once its 
maiii street, dividing the Temple from Zi m — is easily 
comnrehendcd at a singie gbnce, in its most striking 
features, from almost any point of vantage. 

On entering under thu deep archway of the Jafl'a 
Gate we have on tho right th-* ditch and tciwer of tho 
citadel or "Castle of David," as it is sometimes called, 
being, however, in fact, the fortress built by Hci-od 
Agrippa. Of th.- ihrco great towers, dedicated to hw 
queen Mariamne, whom he muixlered through jealousy, 
and his brother Fhasaelis and friend Hippicus, who 
both fell fighting for him in battle, one only re- 
mains, the gloomy, squat-looking, but massive tower of 
Hippicus. Tho lower portion of that, too, alone is 
standing, formed of mas,sive stones, similar to those that 
remain of ,he temple in the Harara walls, monuments 
of masonry in the Roman ages, such as were 
pointed out to the Saviour, " Seest thou these great 
stones " (Mark, xiii, 2). Here was the pakce of that 
sumptuous king, tho vast bed-chambers for one hun- 
dred guests, with roofs of great beams of cedar, and 
furnituw of silver and gold, ns recorded by Josephus. 
Those gilded jwrticoes and richly carved pillars, and 
gardens ever cool and green, and groves of trees, and 
canals with their dove houses, are all gone — all burnt 
with fire by the zealots duilng the siege by Titus, 
when discord within aided the enemy without, ond a 
Jewish hand first fired the Temple itself. The ancient 
portion of this tower is now only forty feet in height, 
but its dimensions remain, fifty-six feet by seventy. 
An additional height of about eighteen feet was built 
up on this by the Crusaders. 

Mount Zion is to our right ; tii our left are Acra 
and the lower city, with the Holy Sepulchre, Calvary, 
the Via Dolorosa, the whole scene of our Lord's 
suflcring ; beforo us the Temple and— over the Valley 
of Jehoshaphat, which lies concealed between them — 
the Mount of Olives. 

To tho right of the gate, as we enter, is an 
open sqtiare, once ruinous and desolate, now a kind 
of West-end to Jerusalem. Here stands, upon the 
site of King Herod's palace, an English church, 
newly erected, in the modem Gothic style, like some 
Baker-street chapel, the whiteness of its fresh-cut stones 
strangely contrasting with the mellow brown colour 
and antique Saracenic architecture of the buildings 
all about There ai'e also the Bishop's house, and 
the new Armenian Convent, a fine building with 
gardens. There are bankers and boutiques and snops 
of all kinds, and three tailors' "establishments," in 
strange discordance with the solemn Orientalism of 
the general costume and character of all about them. 
We pass on ; for this is not what we have come to see. 

The small community of British, American, and 
German residents are doing much good, but nothing 
in comparison with the mighty change that has to be 
cflfected before Jerusalem or her people are restored. 
The Protestant congregation numbem, it is said, occa* 
sionally two hundred. These are <inder the protection 
of England and Prussia in an anomalously united 
bishopric. Austria defends the Roman Catholic insti- 
tutions; France is "Pi-otectorofChrutianity(generally) 


-^ ViW,,. 




ill tLo East;" and tlie Emperor of Russin is liead of 
the Greek Church. These commanities rc:i<le fur the 
most part iii the Frank Quarter, from the Jaffa Gate to 
the DamascusGat.% while around the Holy Place, whence 
the glory has dcpartwl, the Jewish people still lingor. 
The Jew in Jerusalem is himself a i)ei-]x.'tuul miracle 
and lasting monument of Scriptuiv truth. Enter 
the abodes of |icople, you will find them doin;^ 
what they did five thoitsaud years ;igo — teaching their 
children to read the Holy Book. Sevenioen times have- 
they seen JeriLsalem destroyed, yet still they turn their 
faces towards Ziou, exjiecting still a king who is to 
deliver thcni. " Greeks, Persians, Bomans, ai-e swept 
from the earth," says a noUe writer, "and a petty 
tribe, whose origin preceiled that of those great mitions, 
still exists unmixed among the ruins of its native 

8,000 (some say 1 1,000) Jews, 5,000 Mussulman-s 3,000 
Greeks, 1,500 Latin Catholics, 1,000 Armenians, and from 
100 to 200 SjTians and Copts, form, with the Protestant 
community, for the most part English, the present 
population of Jerusalem, which Jewish historians nar- 
rate to have at one time equalle<I the enonnous and 
indeed incredible amount of two millioas. This Wiis 
during the Holy Week, when pilgrims from all jiai-ts 
came to Jerusalem. How far this must have ex- 
ceeded the enthusia.sro of our d^eneratc days may be 
judged from the fiict that the pilgrims who visit Jcm- 
salem yearly do not exceed 12,000, of whom 10,000 
ore Mussulmans. This being Easter, is the most 
crowded season, so we are enabled to Judge for ourselves. 

The foundation of the city dates from Melchisedek. 
Of this one of tbe Arab traditions, many of which 

breathe the pastoral iiir of tlio early portioas of the 
sacred Scripture, has preserved the following charming 
legend : — 

"Jerusalem was a ploiglieil field, and the gi-ound, on 
which tlio Temple now stands, the joint inheritance of 
two brothers, one of whom was married and had several 
children, tlio other lived a bachelor. They cultivated 
in common the field which had devolved on them in 
right of their mother. At harvest time the two brothers 
bound up their sheaves, and made of them two equal 
stacks, which they left upon tlie field during the night. 
A gootl thoiight jirescnted itself to tlio younger. ' My 
brotlier,' said he to himself, ' ha.s a wii'e and children to 
maintain ; it is not just that our shares should be equal ; 
let mo then take a few sheaves from my stack and 
secretly add them to liis ; he will not jierceive it, and 
therefore cannot refuse them.' This project the young 
man immediately executed. That night the elder 
awoke and said to his wife, ' My brother is yoimg, and 
lives alone, without a comi)anion to lu'sist him in his 
laboui's and con.sole him under his fiitigues'; it is not 
just that we should take from the field a.s many 
sheaves as lie docs; let us get up and secretly go 
and cany a cci-tain number of sluaves to his 
stack ; he will not find it out to-morrow, and 
therefore cannot i-efuse them ;' and they did so accor- 
dingly. The next day both brothers went to the field, 
and each was much surprise<l to find the two stacks 
alike, neither being able in his own mind to account 
for the protligy. They pursued the same course for 
several successive nights, but as each carried to his 
brother's stock the same number of sheaves, the stacks 
still remained equal, till one night, both determining 



to stand sontincl to elucidate the mvstciy, they met, 
each bearing tlio sheaves destined for his brother's 

" >ow the spot where so beautiful a thought nt once 
occurred to and was so pei-sevcringly acted upon by 
these men, must be a place agreeable to God ; and men 
blessed it, and chose it whereon to build a house to 
His name."' 

Improved by David, who drovi the Jebusitcs away, 
and enriched by Solomon, who added to Mount Zion 
the Temple and circumjivcent buildings, the City was 
reduced, by the division of the tribes at his death, to 
the capital of Judca simply, but in the next four 
centuries it was still further cml)ellishcd and ag- 
grandized, until, the worship of false gods, the true 
sin of the Hebrew nationality, replacing the law of 
Moses, the wrath of God fell upon the children 
of disobedience, and its fall was not far distiint. In 
vain, imdcr Ilezekiah, did Jenisalem resist the 
anuies of Sennacherib ; for it was destroyed soon 
after by Nebuchadnezzar. Its inhabitants were car- 
ried iiito captivity. Sixty years later Cynis i)crmitted 
iis re-establishment, and a theocratic government 
took the pkcu of its monarchy. While on his march to 
Persia, Alexander received its submission, tluugh he 
spared it, owing to a divine interference communi- 
cated through a dream. From the sovereignty of the 
Lagides, after his death, it passed to the Seleucidcs, 
whose pei-secutions gave occasion to one of the 
brightest pcriotls of its history ; the devotion of the 
Maccabees, who succeeded in deliveiing their country, 
and governed it with glory. A quaiTcl between 

' The identity uf tlic Sulcm of Mclcliizcilck with the Jerusalem 
of sacrc<l liistory, hiu been denionstrnted hy a close critieal 
analysis of all the passages in which the circumstances arc alluded 
to ; and it has been further shown to be highly probable that 
this patriarch was identical, not with Slicni, as has been some- 
time supposed, but with Heber, the son of I'elej;, from whom the 
Land 0/ Canaan obtoiiKd the name of tlip Laud of the Hebrews, 
or Ilcberitcs. 

The elucidation which the early history of Jerusalem receive! 
from the monuments of Egypt is extremely important and valu- 
able, as relating to a ficriod which is passed over in silence by the 
sacred historians. There is a city which stands forth with n very 
marked and peculiar prominence in the wars of the kings of 
Egypt with the Jebusitcs, Amoritcs, and neighbonriug nations. 
We meet with it first as a fortress of the Amoritcs. 8ethos II. 
is engaged in besiegin,7 it. It is situated on a hill, and 
■trcngthened with two tiers of ramparts. The name in hiero- 
glyphs, translated into Coptic, and thence into Hebrew, is Ckadaih. 
The next notice of Chadash belongs to the reign of Scsostris, and 
connects it with the Jebusite nation. The inscription further de- 
scribes Chadash as being iu the land of Ileth or of the llittitcs. It 
was thus apparently the metropolis of three or four of the most 

fowcrful Cannanitish nations before the timo of the Hebrews. 
ts metropolitan character appears in Scripture, nt the time of 
Joshua's invasion. We cannot hesitate in identifying the Cha- 
dash of the hieroglyplis with the Kadutis, or Cady lis of Herodotus, 
the Kbadatlia of the Syrians, and El Kuds of the Arabs—" the 
Holy City." It was not till David's timo that the Jebusitcs 
were finally expelled, nnd under his son, Solomon, it became the 
ecclesiastical head of the nation nnd the ark of the covenant, nnd 
the tabernacle of the congregation. The iii:uic, .Tcrusalem, is 
generally admitted to he a compound of two earlier names. Some 
have supposed of Jebusclem, " the tronipiing down of peace," 
euphonised into " possessio hereditaria pacis," or as others have it, 
•' the vision of peace." Old Sir John Muundcville si'enis to have 
anticipated the researches of the most Ivunicd scholars of £uroi)e 
when he says, " Yon must know that Jerusideni of old, until the 
time of Melchlscdck, was called Jebus ; and afterwards, it was 
called Salem, nntil the time of King David, who put these two 
name* together, nnd called it Jebiisolcui, which King Solomon 
altered to Jerusalem." . But he did not luUcipiite the 

Hyrcanua II. and Aristobulua II., who disputed its 
throne, brought to its walls the Roman armies under 
Pompey, and then the Farthians, and then again 
the Romans under Crapsus, from whom Herod, by suc- 
ces.sful intrigue, obtained authority to assume the 
honour of entitling himself its king. Antigonus, the 
son of Aristobulus, and the last of the Maccabees, being 
captured by Herod, an officer of his uncle's court, was 
delivered to Anthony, by whom the last descendant of 
the Maccabees was scourged to death. It vraB in the 
reign of Herod the Great that Christ was bom, and 
in the reign of Herod Agrippo, his grandson, that 
those events passed which liavo given to Jerusalem 
its immortal interest among Christians, — the life and 
death of the Saviour, and the appearance of a new 
religion destined to transform the world. Jerusalem 
next became apportioned for a time as one of the 
tetrarchies that replaced the unity of government 
under Herod, but the successive revolts of the Jews 
brought upon it capture and destruction by Titus, 
after a siege of seven months, the miseries of which were 
aggravated by internal discord ; then afterwards by 
Hadrian, who drove the Jews entirely away from 
it, gave it the name of JEXwl Capitolina, and dese- 
crated the Christian shrines, and even the revered 
sepulchre of Christ, by introducing the filthy rites 
of the worst part of Eastern idolatry, adopted 
into Pagan pantheism under the title of the woi-ship 
of Adonis. The once Holy City preserved its Roman 
name until the time of Constantine, whose mother, 
the Empress Helena, was the first to avail heraelf of 
her son's conversion to Christianity, and search for 
and restore the Christian monuments with a pious 
care, Tho subsequent capture by the Pei-sian king 
Chosrocs,the release of the holy shrine by the Crusadei's, 
and the final triumph of the h'aracens, with the subse- 
quent history of Palestine, need no recapitulation in 
our brief summary. At tho present moment, the Holy 
City is the seat of govei-nment of the district of Liva, 
and the residence of the Pasha of Palestine. How 
long it will thus remain is one of the questions immi- 
nent for settlement in the present disturbed state of 

Every dynasty has left its stamp upon the city. 
The site is Melchisedek's, and all around speaks of the 
Pastoral ages ; Zion tells us of David ; the Temple 
platform, of Solomon; the towers, of Herod; the walls 
and bridge, of the Romans; the Great Mosque, of Omar 
and the Turks ; the Holy Sepulchre, of Constantine ; 
the churches and monuments, of the Crusaders; 
the Mount of Olives, of the Saviour; the Valley 
of Ilinnom, of the worship of Moloch ; the Valley 
of Jehoshaphat and its tombs, of the Prophets and 
the Kings, and of the wretched People who live in 
exile and fear, and, trembling, beg to purchase permis- 
sion to lay their bones there. The whole Land in its 
desolation is a record of the wrath of an offended God. 

Such are the recollections, and these the solemn 
thoughts, to'which our first entrance into Jerusalem 
gives rise. But the day is far spent, and we will turn 
to tho left by the north-west angle of the castle, and 
take up our quarters, not at ony new inn, the Medi- 
terranean, or tho Malta, but at the Casa Nuova, a new 
building erected as an addition to their old convent 
by the establishment of the Latin monks, who, from 
time almost immemoiiol, have habitually entertained 
pilgrims to Jerusalem, of every rank. Walking out 
from this convent, and mounting the wall which i* 



close by, we obtain a general view of tlio City, and 
may obtain a cursory knowledge of its localities. 

The present walls of the City are about two miles and 
a balf in circumference, and average about forty feet in 
height ; but in some few places they are about twice that 
height. In position, they are nearly identical with those 
erected by Hadrian, which were so decayed in 1 1 78, (just 
before the final expulsion of the Christians by Saladiu, in 
1187), that largo sums were sent by Christendom for 
their reparation. Saladiu himself repaired them in 
1192 ; but Sultan Meiek el Miadh-Shem threw them 
all down, except the Haram walls (about the Temple), 
and El Kh.ilat (the citadel). In 1243, the Christian.<s 
to whom the city was again handed over by Barbacan, 
(it having been previously surrendered to Richard, 
Earl of Cornwall, in 1240, and c-iptured again), rebuilt 
the fortifications, principally at the expense of the 
Knights Templars ; finally Sultan Suliman I, the 
second of the Mirzan Sultans that reigned over 
Jerusalem, built the present walls in 1542 ; St. 
Stephen's Gate, and some portion of the Damascas 
Gate remaining as they were left by the Crusaders, as 
well as some portion of the existing walls. The fosse, 
then deep, is now filled up by accumulating rubbish. 
At a few points the native rock is merely faced with 
masonry, or often, as in Mount Bezetba, built into 
the wall. The gates — only the principal gates are now 
only open — face the cardinal points of the compass. 
These are the Jaffa or Bab el Kliahil (Gate of a Friend, 
that is Abraham, the friend of God), on the west ; the 
Damascus or Bab es Sham, or Bab el Amud, (Gate of the 
Column), on the north ; the St. Stephen or Bab Sitti 
Miriam, (St. Mary's Gate) on the eaxt ; and Zion or Bab 
en KcbiDaud(Gate of the Prophet David) on the south. 
These are kept open from sunrise to sunset every day, 
except an hour on Friday — the Moslem sabbath-noon, 
when they are closed while service is performed in the 
Mosque of Omar. The Mugharibeh* or Dung Gate,' 

> ThcMughnribcli, who hnvo a qaart«r named alter thenuclrc*, 
which tliFy no longer entirely occupy, are the people of the West, 
or of Barbary. There are some of them the desccnilants of the 
Moors driven from Spain by Ferdinand and Isabella. These 
exiles were charitably received in the Uoly City ; a iiiosqne was 
built for them, and they receive even now a liberal portion of 
bread, fruit, soup, and money (the latter rarely), allonred from the 
Hospice of St. Helena, or rather RoiaUna, for the poorer Mas- 
■ulmans of Jerusalem. The heirs of the proud Abenoerages, the 
elegant architects of the Alhambra, are become porters at Jem- 
salcm, who are sought for on account of their strength, and as mes- 
sengers esteemed for tlieir swillnesa and intelligence. Wh-it would 
Saladin and Richard sny, if, suddenly returning to this world, 
they were to find the Moorish champions transformed into door- 
keepers of the Holy Sepulchre, and the Christian knights rcprc- 
•ented by brethren of the Mendicant Order ? 

* Bishop Arculf, who travelled in the year 700, relates a 
cniions legend in reference to this eiit of the Tyropocon— once a 
fosse within a fosse, shutting in Zion and Moriah into one com|>act 
mass, which explains the origin of the Prankish name of its gate. 
Dung-gate— which might otherwise appear repulsive. "On the 
16th of September, annually, an immense multitude of people, of 
dilTcrent nations, arc used to meet in Jerusalem for the purpose 
of commerce ; and the streets are so clogged with the dung of 
camels, liorses, mules, and oxen, that they become almost impassa- 
ble, and tlie smell would be a nuisance to the whole town. Out, 
by a miraculous providence which exhibits Qod's peculiar attach- 
ment to this place, no sooner bu the mnltitnde left Jerusalem, 
than a heavy full of rain begins on the night following, and ceases 
only when tlie city has been perfectly chiansed." In other words, 
heavy mins carry off a torgo portion of the filth of the streets 
by this gateway. The so-called Uung Gate la suppowid to be the 
same as Josepbus'i Gate of the Esaeoes. (Neh. II. 18} xii. 81.) 
It has also been identified with "the sate betwaea two walle.'' 
(2 Rings UT. 4. Jcr. xxxix. 4). 

situated in the Tyropocon, is never opened except 
during seasons of sctircity of water. 

The other gates are walled up — the Golden Gate 
csfiecially, the Turks having a tradition that at 
some future time a mighty conqueror is to enter 
through it into the city.^ There aie several battle- 
mcnted towers of minor elevations, besides that of 
Hippicus. At the north-east coru'^r of the Temple 
enclosure, are remains of the tower of Hananeel. In 
the north-west comer of the city wall are also the 
remains of a large fortification called " Goliah's Castle," 
(Khalat-Julib), better known as " Tancrcd's Tower." 
The existing wall occupies only about one-third of the 
site of the original city, much of Mount Zion being 
excluded on the south, and nearly all of Coenopolis, or 
the Lower City, on the north. 

The streets of Jerusalem are narrow, seldom more 
than ten feet wide, and mostly not so much ; they are 
filthy and ill-paved, covered with stones of all sizes 
embedded in the earth. In many there is a ditch or 
trench in the centre, hollowed out for horses and camels, 
between side paths for passengers. The ditch is often 
two feet in depth, and one beast can only pasa at a 
time. The natives know only two or three streets by 
name. The Christians have endeavoured to remedy 
this inconvenience. Thus there is " Zion Street " from 
Zion Gate to Damaccus Gate, dividing the Jews 
quarter from the Armenian; the continuation of it 
which separates the Latin and Greek quarters from 
the Turkish, is called " Saint Stephen's," there being a 
tradition that the courageous deacon was martyred 
near the gate. The " Street of David " designates the 
great thoroughfare from Jaffa Gate to the Temple, 
dividing the Latin and Greek quarters from the 
Armenian. The continuation of this between the 
Turkish quarter and the Jews is called the " Street of 
the Temple." " Jilill Valley Street " runs from the 
Mugharibeh Gate at the end of the TyropoDon into 
DuniiUicus Street. The zigzagging street from Saint 
Stephen's Gate to the north- western comer of the city, 
as far as Damascus Street, is the famous "Via Dolorosa," 
up which the Saviour (Hissed frem judgment to craci- 
fixion ; from the point mentioned, it is the "Street of 
the Holy Sepulchre," the chiurch of which forms the main 
feature of it. The " Street of the Patriarch" is a short 
and narrow street from Hezekiah's Pool to the Greek 
Convent of the Foreranner, and is between David 
Street and the Street of St Sepulchre. The short 
street lying between Damascus and Valley Streets, 
immediately in front of Helena's Hospice, is some- 
times called " Market Street," but generally Tariki el 
Sitti (" Lady Street)," in honour of the lady who raised 

' The Pilgrim Socwulf, who travelled in 1102-1103, says ; — 
" There is a gate of the city, on tho eastern side of the temple, 
which is called the "Golden," where Joachim, the father of the 
blessed Mary, by tho order of the Angel of the Lord, met his 
wife Anne. By the same gate, tho Lord Jesus, coming from 
Bethany on the Day of Olives, sitting on on nss^ entered the city 
of Jerusalem, while the children smng 'Hosanna to the Son of 
Pwid,' Hy this gate tho Emperor Ilcraclius entered Jerusalem 
when he returned victorious from Porsia with the Cross of Our 
Lord ; bat the stones first fell down and closed up the passage, so 
that the gate became one mass, until, humbling himself at tho 
admonition of an angel, he descended from his horse, and so the 
entrance was opened to him," Sir John Mauudcville describes 
In his time (a. p. 1822) tho marks of tho ass's feet as being still 
seen In three pku^e8 at the Golden Gate, the steps of which are of 
very hard stone, Haundrell calls it the Gate of the Temple, 
and below this gate, lie says, in the bottom of the valley, was a 
broad liard stone, discovering the prints mado by our blessed 
Saviour's feet. f 



I I 

this magnificent Btructuro — either the Empress or 
Damo Toiishok — the wife wo believe of a Gorinnn 
crusader, wlio was exceedingly charitable in founding 
hospitals for poor pilgrims. What the Empress 
Helena endowed, the Sultana Boxulana seized, and 
pervertcdjiulding further endowments, to providing soup 
for poor Turks. The benefaction is still carried into 

The domestic architecture of Jerusalem, as can be 
seen, is of the simplest chariicter. The houses are 
all constructed of the common limestone of the 
country. There being no timber in Palestine, this 
material is of course exceedingly high-]>riccd here ; and 
the doora and casements of the windows ore the only 
portion of the houses made of wood, not a particle 
being used about the flooi-g, roofs, or any other part 
whatever. The windows are few and small, and all 
grated with ii'on if sufficiently large to admit a tliief. is a rarity but just introduced. Thei'e 
is only one door to the largest estjiblishments, and 
there are no windows below, which, as those above are 
gonemlly latticed, ensiu'es seclusion — almost that of a 
prison — to the inmates. The want of timber nece.'^si- 
tates an extensive use of ciTl)t.s, arches, vaidts, and 
domes. This characteristic will be remarked iu the 
View over Jerusalem at page 1 . 

We will now set fo^h to get another view over 
Jerusalem, and, ri .ching the Patriarch Struct, ascend 
to the top of the Coptic convent adjoining the noble 
caravanserai of the same church, thcuce looking donni 
njion one of the notabilities of the city, the Pool of 
Hezekiah. This deep cistern is nearly 250 feet long, 
and 150 feet wide : an immense resen-oir, capable of 
holding water sufficient for half the city. It is quite 
surrounded by houses. Its depth below the surface is 
eight or ten feet, but it is considerably deejier at the 
southern than at the northern extremity. It is usually 
thought to be supplied by rain-fall from the neigh- 
bouring liouses, but it is in reality in connection 
with the u])per Pool of Gihon — outside the Jaflii gate, 
and at the head of the Valley of Hinnom. Jerusalem 
was once abuurlaut in water ; it is a part of the curse 
upon it that water should be now deficient ; hence it 
sometimes fails at the end of autumn. The view we 
have from here {scs page 1,) is a tine one. But still. 


the dr'jiation of the city Is most consincuous. The 
whole of Uezctha beyond on the left, and a 
largo part of Acra to the left just below, is 
uninhabited ; the Temple enclosure is a vast void 
space ; the parts about Mngharibeh or Ophel, and 
the south-east of Zion, arc cither ploughed fields, 
or overrun with cactus ; the entire west face of 
Zion is occupied by the gardens of the Armenian 
Convent ; the space south of Calvary is vacant, and 
what is occupied is merely filled by mosques, convents, 
and churches; though even where there are houses, they 
are for the most part in ruins. We have now a fine 
l)rospect of the walls, which form almost au oblong 
scjuare, the longest sides running from west to east. 
The ancient J cru3.tiem could not have been much more 
extensive than the modern city, and must have occu- 
pied, in its palmy days, the same site, except that it 
comprehended within the walls the whole of Mo\uit 
Zion, but excluded Calvary, which was afterwards 
enclosed by Adrian. Solyman, tho son of Selim 
(1534), is reimrted to have slain his architect for not 
comprehending the whole of Zion within tho walls, 
but this, it is hinted, he did, as the readiest means of 
paying him. In modern warfare the City would 
be untenable, as it is commant' by hills on all 
sides. We are now on tho edge of Aora, between 
which hill and Zion — the sloping buildings of which 
are on tho right — the valley of the Tyropceon is seen 
descending. Over to the right, where once stood tho 
Temple of Solomon, may be seen two blue cupolas 
marking the octangular Mosque of Omar, with the long 
low roof of tho minor Mosque El Aksa. Tho minaret 
rising to tho leil of the Mosque of Omar (Temple 
Enclosure) was erected, we are told, by Tunguz, Prefect 
of Syria, when ho built the celebrated scliool at the 
side of tho Gate of tho Chain. It is served by tho 
most eminent Muezzins, and gives the directions to the 
otliera in announcing pra) >;r. It stands near the Gate 
of the Chain, which opens from tho Templo Enclosure 
into the Street of David, but into which it is not 
advisable to peep unless you desire a sound beating 
from the Turks. Around and about it are majestic 
planes and cj'presses, an union of nature and art peculiar 
to Turkish religious enclosures. It was from their liv- 
ing in this Mosque el Aksa that the Knights Templars 
took their name ; and in front of its porch lie buried 
the murderers of St. Thomas a Becket, who died at 
Jerusalem, upon a pilgrimage imdertaken in expiation 
of their crime. At the corner of the wall is tho 
"House of Pikte," now a barracks, late a stable, 
whence stolen views of the sacred platfoi-m were of old 
vouchsafed to favoured Christian pilgrims, such as 
Chateaubriand and Lamartinc. To the right, just 
below, are the swelling domes and heavy massive 
towers of the Church of the Holy Sepulchre — one dark 
elliptical dome overlooked by another, and a white one 
rising out of a cloud of little domes over an ocean of 
houses. This is Calvary and the Sepulchre. The line of 
walls, the pointedminoretsstandout iu bold relief against 
the deep blue of the orient sky ; but no voice is heard 
in the widowed City ; no roads seem to lead to her, 
and were it not Easter Week, few would be passing 
in and out of her gates. The centre of attraction for 
the Pilgrims is evidently tho square before the Holy 
Sepulchre : here beads from Mecca, and mother-of-pearl 
images from Bethlehem, and ciXHises of bitumen from 
the Dead Sea, are attracting purchasers of various 
nations. The tall and elegant minaret adjacent to the 


Church of the Holy Sepulchre belongs to a mosque, 
called El Ehauky, formerly the residence of the 
Latin Patriarch. Of this building we read a curious 
story, related by an Arab authority, who tells how the 
Christians were greatly distressed nt seeing this minaret 
arising in such close proximity to the Holy Sepulchre, 
which it entirely commanded. They offered a large 
.sum to Sheikh Ibn Ghancm, to bribe him to desist 
from his pious intention, but he persisted and completed 
the structure. The Frophet then appeared to a Holy 
Man and commanded him to seek out and salute Ibn 
Ohanem, and assure him of his intercession at the day 
of judgment for his meritorious work of having out- 
topped the infidcla But see ! how the eager pilgrims 
crowd to the portal of the Holy Sepulchre — where the 
whole scene of the Saviour's crucifixion ond entomb- 
ment are vividly brought Ijcfore their eyes. The church 
is a magnificent monument of the Byzantine age. 
{See page 9). 

We shall soon be down there, and following the 
eager enthusiasts in visiting the religious stations of 
that sacred spot. 

The spacious deserted enclosure close on the right, 
and on which grow two or three olive trees, a palm 
tree and a few cypresses, was once the maguiiicent 
house of the Knights Hospitallers, the Knights of St. 
John of Jerusalem. The Greek Convent foi-ms one 
side of tWs square, and that community had hoped to 
obtain thfso gardens and the ruins pei-taiuing there- 
unto, but withiu the last few years the whole square 
containing them, as well as the Church of St. Anne in 
another pai-t, have been made over by the Sultan to the 

Emperor Louis Napoleon. The very curious and pic- 
turesque gateway which forms the subject of our illus- 
ti-ation (pctge 17) stands at one end of this vacant spot, 
facing into the street leading from the Church to the 
Sepulchre. The external facade displays a flattened 
pointed arch, while the archway beyond is round headed. 
The carving is extremely rich. Among the ornaments 
and emblems is seen the Lamb, the emblem of the noble 
order of St. John of Jerusalem, of whose palace this was 
the entrance. Behind the gateway are seen some remains 
of the buildings. The interior is the receptacle of every 
kind of filth ; from the open area a staircase mounts up 
to a cloister, from which opens sundry rooms, not 
capable of being entered from multifarious pollutions. 
There is a large hall with painted windows absolutely 
filled with dung. How are the mighty fallen ! Im- 
mediately upon the capture of Jerusalem by the Cru- 
saders (in 1099) followed the foundation of the Knights 
of St. John of Jerusalem, the origin of which was an 
hospice founded in Jerusalem in 1048 by a few mer- 
chants of Amalfi for the accommodation of pilgrims 
from Europe. An hospital for the sick was afterwards 
added — hence the term. Knights Hospitallers, the 
members of which wore also known as Knights of 
Rhodes. When the Cinisaders entei-ed Jerusalem, 
many of the chevaliers determined on joining the 
order. Godfrey granted a donation, an example which 
was followed by other princes. To the usual vows of 
chastity, poverty and obedience, was added a vow to 
be always ready to fight against Muhammadans and all 
who forsook the true religion. In 1118 the Knights 
Hospitallers of St. John, then called also the Knights 



of Malta, became a military order. TIio building now 
so desecrated was deacribed in 1322, ns having 178 
pillara of fine stone, and having near it the church 
called "Our Lady the Grand" and "Our Lady the 
Latin," "and there otood Mary Cleophiw and Mary 
Magdalen, and tore their hair when Our Lord wos 
executed on the cross." Naixjleon Bonaparte expelled 
the last relics of the Order of St. John Hosi)itallers, 
when ho took Malta fi-om them. Will Louis NajOTlcon 
resuscitate their ancient glories? Stranger things have 

with the City thus lying before us, and its landmarks 
denoted, it will not bo difficult, looking down upon 
the valley of the Tyropoeon, which separated Zion 
from the Temple, and over which was a bridge con- 
necting the two parts of the City (each of which were 
separately walled), to imagine Jerusalem restored to its 
pristine magnificence under Herod tho king, and that 
during the anarchy that ensued after his death it was 
crowded, as Josephus tells ua, by two millions of 
jieople — when tho ridges of Zion — now covered with 
their crops of corn, and liero and there an olive tree — 
were adorned with magnificent structures. We have 
in our mind's eye tho beautiful city in its grandeur. 
Between that and its destruction and its preser.t desola- 
tion our Christian a.ssoeiations intervene. There to the 
right is the Mount of Olives, from whoso sacred brow 
tho Saviour saw the glory of Jerusalem, and wept over it 
and predicted its fall. Down that hill he approached 
theCityjandpassiiigintothedeepValleyoflliniiom, as- 
cended to the Tem))le, the crowd accomimnying him like 
a conqueror with their hozanuas, ond strewing palms. 
There is the Golden Gate by which he entered, now 
walled up. There is tho outer court whence ho drove 
out tho money changers ; there tho dark groves 
of olives, through which he passed to Olivet, or 
traversed on his way to tho house of Lazarus at 
Bethany ; and there tho garden of Gethsemane. 
There the scene of his Passion and his Ascension. 
To tho "governor's" to tho right was tho Saviour 
conveyed befoi-o Pilate ; and along tho " Dolorous 
Way," from St. Stephen's Gate to the Church of the 
Holy Sepulchre, was the scene of his long agony 
jirior to hia final suffering on the Cross of Calvary, 
which that building covers. The destruction of 
Jerusalem, in fulfilment of his prophecy, followed 
within a few years. Judea, after tlie death of 
Agrippa, was made a Iloman province, and a Koman 
Pro-consul appointed over Jeiusaleni, thus destroy- 
ing the independence of the city and abolishing its 
hierarchical or tbeocratical form of government. The 
Zealots resisted, howovei-, and were driven into the 
Temple by the High Priest and tho jxiople. Here 
John of Giscala, driven in from Galilee, united his 
forces with the fanatics within the city ; they together 
admitted the Idumseans by stratagem during a storm ; 
the barbarous allies plundered and slaughtered the 
Jews and the high priest, and the contending factions 
triumphed over the citizens, who, however, sought aid 
in a third party, and Simeon, son of Gioriaa, was ad- 
mitted to occupy the upper city, whence ho attacked 
the Zealots in the Temple. While the wretched city was 
thus divided within, the banners of the Soman army 
underTitus appearedat the noi-th-westera wall — you can 
trace it by drawing a line from the extreme left across 
Acra and round inside of the Holy Sepulchre, up to the 
Temple — but one legion was encamped to the right, at 
the foot of the Mount of Olives, facing the Temple. 

Step by step tho Jews defended the city. Driven from 
tho first wall, they fought upon the second, and the 
Iloman engines having broken in a breach, tho troops 
poured through, but became entangled in tho nan-ow 
streets, and were driven out, being unablo to withstand 
the missiles poured upon them from every roof. The 
misery of the Jews was indescribable, death and star- 
vation were everywhere. Titus withdrew from the 
attack and awaited tho result, having vainly offered 
mercy an<l terms to tho besieged. Josephus tells us 
of their indomitable obstinacy ; until, at last, Titus dug 
a deep trench round tho city, and closely blockaded 
it. This is said to have been completed in three 
days, and to have been five miles in e.vtent, and to 
have had thirteen gamson towers — a fiict wli'ch, a-s 
narrated by the historiun, an eye-witness, without any 
gi'eat expression of wonder, gives us a gi'eat idea of 
the engineering powei-s of a Eoman army. Tho City 
became a eharnel house ; the mothers " sotldcncd their 
own children for meat." A forlorn hope of Romans 
sealed *he walls, but were valoi'ously rej)ulsed. At 
liwjt tt breach was matle in tho fort by tho Roman 
engines; and one night the soldiei-s nished through it 
upon their prey. The fortress was taken, but the 
Jews retreated, only to defend themselves in the 
Temple Court below. Driven thence, they fell back to 
the inner court, and rallied round tho Templa This 
Titua had resolved to save. But the Jews having 
sallied forth in rage upon their enemies, were closely 
followed up by the Roman soldici's, one of whom fired 
the sacred precinct. The Jews rushed infuriated upon 
tho Roman swords, and a terrible carnage ensued 
around. One historian only has been equal in de- 
scription to his Wo have the places before us to 
our right. In the centre is the upper city. " It was 
an apj)alling spectacle to the Romans. What wa.s it 
to the Jew t Tho whole summit of the hill which 
commands tho city blazed like a volcano. One after 
another the buildings fell in with a tremendous crash, 
and were swallowed up in the fiery abyss. The roofs 
of cedai-s were like sheets of flame ; the gilded pinnacles 
shone like spikes of red light; the gate towers sent up 
tall columns of (lame and smoke. The neighbouring 
hills were lighted \ip, and groups of people were seen 
watching with horrible anxiety the progress of tho 
de-stiiiction ; the walls and heights of the upper city 
were crowded with faces, some palo with tho agony 
of despair, others scowling unavailing vengeance. 
The shouts of the Roman soldiers, as they ran to 
and fro, and the bowlings of tho insurgents, who were 
perishing in the flames, mingled with the roaring of 
the conflagi'tttion, and tlie thundering sound of falling 
timbers. The echoes -if tho mountains replied or 
brought back the shrieks of the ijeojile on tho heights ; 
all along the walls resounded screams and wailings ; men 
who had been expiring with famine rallied their 
remaining strength to utter a cry of anguish ond 
desolation." Simon and John cut their way, by 
desperate fighting, across the Tyropoeon bridge, into the 
" Upjier City," where, in spite of the remonstrances of 
Josejjhus, and the pci-sonal instance of Titus himself, 
they still held out. But, w'th the Temple, the hearts 
of the people had fallen, ^iiished with their victory, 
greedy for fresh sjioils, and chafing at resistance, the 
impetuous Roman conquerora bui-st into the upper 
city, exulting ; but found there only death and 
desolation — empty streets and houses full of dead 
bodies. £vcq now tho ruins over Ao ra, within, on the 



riglit, and ovor tto city to the left, even na far m? tlio 
Holy Scpulcliro, tell the talo of that fierce onulaiiglit 
and defeat. The raonuaient of this llomau triumph over 
a people left to their own devices and the wnith of the 
Almighty may bo seen on the Arch of Titus at Borne, 
whore Je^vish captives bear tho sacred furniture of the 
Temple, the golden cundlestioks and silver trumpets, 
to adorn tho triumphant show of their conqueror. 
in that one siege one million one htmdred thousand 
Jows perished, about one sixth of tho population of the 
■\\hole of Talcstine, at t'-at period. Ninoty-ninc 
thousand prisoners of war were carried off, some of 
them to labour in the public work.s, othera to 
march in tho triumph of Titus; after which they 
appeared in tho amphitheatres of Europe and Asia, 
and killed one another for tho amusement of the popu- 
lace. Those under the age of seventeen were put up 
to auction with the women, and thirty of them weio 
sold for a denarius —about tenpence. The blood of tho 
Just Jesus, as it ha.<i been finely said, was sold for thirty 
pieces of silver at Jcnisalem, and the people had cried ; 
" His blood bo upon us and our children." Qod heard 
this wish of tho Jews, and, for tho Iivst time, he giivnted 
tlieir prayers, after w^hich ho turned his face from the 
Land of Promi-se, and chose for himself another people. 
It was only thirty-eight years after the death of Christ, 
that the Temple waa burned, so that many of those 
who had heard the prediction of our Saviour, might, 
also, have witnes.scd its fulfilment. 

The Jerusalem that now lies extended before us, is 
btit the seventeenth shadow of the primitive one, for it 
has been seventeen times captured. 

Looking from this qiot, you may imagine that scene 
in the Crusaders' siege (1099), when, their army having 
taken up its position, Godfrey's ti-oops left their 
encampments before the Dama-soas Gate, and turning 
to tho East descended into the Valley of Jehoshaphat, 
whence they proceeded, like peaceful pilgrims, to ofter 
up prayera on tho Mount of Olives. It was on a 
Tuesday, the 1 3th of June, as chroniclers tell us, that 
the Crusadere attacked Jerussalcm by escalade, having 
fii-st beaten down the outer wall with their machines. 
The attack failed, although iiight, alone, put an end to 
the bloodshed. The Crusaders, feeling certain of 
fiucccas, had neglected to bring victuals, and for ten 
d.iys were without bread, luitil their ships reached 
Jaffa ; even then they suffered greatly from thii'st, 
their horses and mules having drank out Siloe, were 
sent six miles to water, while the soldiers dug holes in 
the ground and prcs-sed tho damp clods to their lijis ; 
they licked the stones wet with dew ; they drank 
the putrid water caught in hides, and even abstained 
from eating in the hope of mitigating by hunger 
the pangs of thirst. On tho 12tli of July, the great 
attack was made. Godfrey and his two brothers, 
Baldwin and Eustace, fought on the towers " like 
two lions defending another," until "at tho hour 
when the Saviour gave up the ghost," a Flemish 
warrior named Letolde leaped on tho ramparts 
of the city. He waa followed by Guieher, "Guieher, 
who had conquered a lion." Godfrey was the third, 
and all the other knights followed their chief — sword 
»n hand. The enemy fled, and the soldiers of Christ 
pursued them with loud shouts. The Count de St. 
Gilles, who was outside the Zion Gate, heard tho 
tumult, and summoned the Emir there to surrender, 
which he did. "But (says the chronicler) Godfrey 
with tho French was determined to avenge the 

Christian blood spilt by tho infidels in Jerusalem, and 
to punish them for the railleries and outrages to which 
thoy had subjected the pilgrims. Never had ho in any 
conflict ai)peared so tenible, not even when he encoun- 
tered the giant on the bridge of Antioch. Guieher and 
several thousands of chosen warriors cut the Saracens 
in two from the head to the waist, or severed their boilics 
in tho miiUlle. None of our soldiers showed timidity, 
for they met with no opposition. Tho enemy sought 
only to escape ; but to them flight was impossible ; 
they rushed along in such crowds that they embaiTasscd 
one another. The small number of those who contrived 
to escape took refuge in Solomon's Temple, and there 
defended themselves a considerable time. At dusk 
our soldiers gained possession of the Temple, and in 
their rage put to death all whom they found there. 
Such was the carnage, that the mutilated carcases were 
hm-ried by the torrcnta of blood into the court ; dis- 
severed hands and arms floated in tho current, that 
caused them to be united to bodies to which they had 
never belonged." " The Holy Sepulchre," says another 
historian, " was now free, and the blooily victoi-s pre- 
pared to accomplLfh their vow. Bareheaded and bare- 
foot, with contrite hearts, and in a humble posture, they 
ascended the Hill of Calvary, amidst the lend anthems 
of tho clergy, ki-ssed the stone which had covered the 
Saviour of the World, and bedewed with tears of joy 
and penitence tho monuments of their redemption." 
The scenes of these fierce and tender imssions we are 
now about to visit. 


Following the example of all pilgrims to Jerusalem 
in ancient times, and imitating their undoubting faith 
and reverence, wo determined to resign oui'selves > 
our feelings as Christians, and make it our first ("..i^y 
in the Holy City to follow the footsteps of our Lord in 
captivity, judgment, death, and entombment, up to his 
ascension. Catholic tradition, preserved through ages, 
by a succession of pious memories, — traditions as yet 
undisturbed, except by gue.?ses and suggestions merely, 
always disputable and mostly fanciful — enables us to 
recall with sufficiently distinct identity, the scenes of 
sacred Scripture and the localities of our Lord's sufter- 
ing.s. We are contented so to receive them. We have 
found Jerusalem ; we- shall see Bethlehem. 

llisingearly (it is hardly possible to sleep late in such a 
place), we set out from St. Stephen's Gate, to which wo 
shall shortly return on our solemn path with the captive 
Saviour. Before going farther from this gate, we may ob- 
serve the Church of St. Anne, said to be the birth-place of 
the Virgin, raised upon the site of the house of Joachim 
and Anne, and the scene of the Immaculate Conception. 
In the grottoes beneath this church, the building of 
which is attributed to Justinian, is shown the humble 
chamber where dwelt the Holy Family. It was con- 
verted into a Turkish school by Sahulin, and 
quently a mosque, but has recently by the able inter- 
vention of >L Thouvenel, aided by M. Barrere, the 
consul of France at Jerusidem, been made over by the 
Sultan to the Emperor of the French, and restored to 
the worship of the Christian faith under the pious care 
of tho Latin fathers. There are two Christian nations 
active in Jerusalem, France and Russia, and the 
oggi-andisement of the Greek and Roman Church makes 
itself everywhere conspicuous.' 

I The church of St. Anne is of great antiquity. Socwulf, 
a pilgrim of the twelfth century, dcacrib«a it at the p!«ce where 


The Pool of Bethesda, now a bi-oail deep ditch without 
water, lies just witliiu the gate, and is a specimen of the 
primitive arehitecture of the Jews at Jerusalem. It 
bounded the Temple on the north. It is a reservoir 
one hundred and fifty feet long and forty wide. The 
sides are walled and composed of a bed of largo stones 
joined together by iron cramps, a wall of mixed materials 
run up on these large stones, a layer of flints stuck 
upon the surface of this wall, and a coating laid over 
these flints. The four beds are perpendicular with the 
bottom, and not horizontal ; the coating was on the 
side next to the water, and the large stones rested as 
they still do, against the ground. The pool is now 
dry and half filled up. It is used as a threshing-floor. 
Here grow some pomegranate-treos, and a species 
of wild tamarind of a bluish colour. On the west 
side may be seen two arches, probably leading 
to an aqueduct that carries the water into the 
interior of the Temple. ^ The western angle is full of 

(he mother of the Dlcsscd Mary lived with her husbiind, and elio 
wut there delivered of her daughter Mnry. Sir John Maundevillc, 
who travelled in 1322, says that before the church grew a great 
tree which began to grow thu same night, that was the night of 
the conception, not of the birth. In Mauiidrell's time (1697) it 
was a convent or nunnery, the church of which was large and 
entire, as were also part of the lodgings; but both wero desolate 
and neglected. 

I Scewulf describes the pool called, in Hebrew, Sethcsda, as 
having five porticoes, of which the Qospel speaks. Maundrcll 
describes it as 120 pacet long and 10 broad, and ut least 8 deep, 

Here the Iambs destined for sacrifice were washed ; 
and it was on the brink of this pool that Christ soid 
to the paralytic miin, "Rise, take up thy bed, and walk." 
This is the only monument loft of the primitive Jeru- 
salem of David and Solomon. Outside this gate we come 
upon the great Turkish buryingground, a place, it would 
seem, of parade as well as sorrow for the Turkish popula- 
tion, for they resort hither in the evenings dressed out in 
their gayest attire — the women especially — who, flitting 
among the tombs, in their long white veils, are perhaps 
seeking, as widows, the consolation of a new husband, 
though many of them, it must be said, are seen for 
hours bending in faithful sorrow over the turbancd 
tombs of their lost lords. A rapid descent brings us 
across the narrow bridge of one arch that crosses the dry 
brook Kedron, and spans the gloomy and mysterious 
Jehoshaphat, the " Valley of the Tombs." Every step 
here is full of sacred associations ; the vast sepul- 
chral monuments all round ; the tombs of Absalom, 
Zcchariah, and Jehoshaphat, with the thousands of 
Jewish tombs everywhere about, tell a solemn story 
of death past, present, and to come. Hither wend the 
Jews, from the far corners of the earth, to purchase a 
final resting place near the Temple of the Lord in the 
land of their forefathers; thu place allotted being 

and void of water. At its west end it discovers some old arches, 
now dammed up. " These," adds the quaint but trustworthy old 
traveller, " some will have to be the five porches in which sat that 
multitude of lame, halt, and blind (John v.) ; but the mischief is, 
instead of five there are but three of them." 




-C^ . 



rere washed; 
it Christ said 
id, and walk." 
imitivo Jeru- 
1 gate we come 
place, it would 
irkish popula- 
dreaned out in 
—who, flitting 
3, are perhaps 
lew husband, 
I, are seen for 
the turbancd 
cent brings us 
crosses the dry 
nd mysterious 
' Every step 
B vast sepul- 
s of Absalom, 
thousands of 
, solemn story 
ther wend the 
to purchase a 
10 Lord in the 
allotted being 

Bomo old arches, 
: tnutworthy old 
1 in which sat that 
it the mischief is. 




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calculated at a price, ivbich goes to the Jewish chest 
for the support of their poorer living brethren. Here 
Mclchizedek met Abraham to congratulate him on his 
victory over the five kings. In tlus valley, the wicked 
Jews worshipped Moloch and Bel^hegor; Solomon 
here planted his cedant ; the Temple overshadowed it ; 
hero " flowed softly" the wi»terB of Siloam ; nere David 
snng his songs, and Jeremiah uttered his lamentations ; 
here Our Saviour underwent his agony; and here, 
according to the prophecy of Joel, all mankind will 
at last appear before one nwM Judge. " I will gather 
all nations, and will bring them down into the Valley 
of Jehosliaphat, and will plead with them there." (Joel 
iii„ 2).> 

The Valley of Jehoshaphat is but a deep trench at 
this spot, sinking rapidly southward until near Zion, 
where it is nearly five hundred feet below the top of 
the Motmt. Jerusalem is on one side : the Mount of 
Olives on the other, and the dark shadow of the Mount 
of Ollenco, — so denominated from Solomon's idolatry, 
for there he liad his gardens and his "won.<;n'8" 
palaces, and was led by them to the worchip of strange 
gods. The atone on which we are now standing, just 
nca.' the bridge, is reverenced as the spot of St. 
Stephen's martyiilom.^ The two contiguous hills rise 
up close to us, nearly naked, and of a dull red colour. 
Their sides are bare, but of some scattered wild olive 
trees, aiid, here and there, a scanty few black and 
parched vines, with sjmrse chapels, oratorios, and 

1 The traditioiu connected with this point ue cnrions. 
Bcrnnrd the Wiac, a monkith pilgrim, who trmTelkd in i.D. 867, 
duscribes a clmrcii in tlie Valley of Jdmhiphat, called that of St. 
Leon, " in which it is uid that Onr Lord will come at the Last 
Judgment." Sir John Maondeville aajs "A'm in coming doirn 
from Mount Olivet is the phce where onr Lord wept over 
Jcrusnlem. And there beside is the place where our Lady 
appeared to St. Thomas the Apostle after her assnmption, and 
gave him her girdle. And very near is the stone on wliich onr 
Lord often sat wlien he preached i and upon that same shall he 
sit i-.t tlie day of doom, right as he aid himself." The permanence 
of till) I'ldition is not a little remarkable, the Mnhammadaos 
have ev nuviiiledthemBclvtiofit. l)pontheedgeoftuehill,ontbe 
oppT''.',^ ,«<dr of the valley, there runs along, ui a direct lioe. the 
wr.1l <'\ th\s 'iti, near the comer of which there is a short end of a 
r:<l;>r Jutdi 1, out of the wall. Upon this pillar, the Mussulmans 
l:7>.i n trit'l:' m that Muhammad will sit in judgment at the last 
dr.j ; ^nti v.i^t i>ll the world will be gathmd together in the 
T&'"/ hii'oiv to receive their doom from his mouth. 

i III' tA'utl^:!? of olden time* are SO much the more deserving 
of aicoi . . ' jn ac ( h i>y <vere neore- to the time of the events to which 
th.;" re! rl. )' c<u hardly oo suppoaed that the Christian 
inhiibiut.. > ' Jerusalem and it* neigfahmrfacod, coder the 
Iloman^, uit) u^it preserve some authentic tndition* concerning 
the localities of the more important events cf Gospel History. 
The earliest notice we meet with of the site of the martyrdom of 
St. Stephen is that of Bishop Arculf, who travelled aj>. 700, 
who describes it as being on Mount Zion. Bemid the Wise, 
who followed in a.d. 867, also place* the scene of the proto- 
martyrdom on Mount Zion, and describes a clinrrh as etisting at 
the spot in commemoration of the event. Sownlf, who travelled 
in A.D. 1102, describes the stoning ol C. Blephen as having 
occurred about two or three arbelist shots without the wall on 
Mount Zion to the north, where a very handsome church was 
built ' which has Iieen entirely destroyed by the Pagans." 

So fiirfVom the eighth till the twelfthcentorie*. Inthefiiurteeuth 
rwiitury we flrst find the site of the tmditian rcasovcd. Sir John 
^'anndevillo, who travelled in lSlS,*By* " over against that vale 
: ' boshnphnt, out of the city, is the cfanrdi of St. 8te|4Mn, when 
was ti'Mfi to death." After this the truditioa grew in 
Crenjrth, and we And Mrundrell.In A J>. 1607, speaking of abroad 
stone on the way up the hill to the city, guii^ from the Virgin's 
Tomb to Bt. Stephen'* Oate, on which the Saint aallered martyr- 
dom. Th* gate which h»A previoialy been called that of 
Jcboahaphat, a* in the Umeof Keiyaninaf Todela, that la in 
AJ>. 1164, became the Qate of St. Stqihcn, and ha* remaiiicd ao. 

mosques in niins. The bottom of the Motmt of 
Oflence and its sides (no preferable place, and sold at 
small price to the poorer Jews) are covered with tombs 
in heaps, right up to the poor and badly clmractcred 
village of Siloam, whose houses seem like sepulchres 
themselve.^, and are so. The grave, melancholystillness 
of Jerusalem, the silence of a great city, smokeless, 
noiseless, suggests to the imagination that the tombs are 
here, the dead have not yet been summoned to awake. 

Mounting the Hill by a rocky path, tho same along 
which Dtvid went lamenting when driven forth 
from his beloved Zion by the rebellion of Absalom, we 
proceed down a few steps to the left, lending us to 
an open court surrounded with rocky walls, at the end 
of which we reach a beautiful building of Ootliic archi- 
tecture, of a severe and antique character, with a pic- 
turesque fngade, opening by a marble door, into a sub- 
terranean chapel, where are the tombs of St. Joseph and 
the V irgin, excavated in the solid rock. Down fi-om this 
solemn entrance, tifty marble steps, each twenty feet 
long, lead us to the floor. The tomb of the Virgin is 
on the right, in a large recess, with an altar over it, 
and a painting of her death, with the Saviour himself 
standing by her bedside to comfort her. The tomb of 
St. Joseph is higher up, as are also those of St. Anne 
and St. Joachim. Mary, who died at Ephesus, was, 
as they tell us, miraculously buried here by the 
Apostles, according to the tradition of the Fathers ; for 
there is a full relation of this marvellous funeral by 
Euthymus, who tells how " St. Thomas," (who was 
always desirous to satisfy any doubt by ocular testi- 
mony,) " having caused the coffin to be opened, nothing 
was found in it but a virgin robe, the simple and 
mean garment of that Queen of Qloiy whom the 
angels had conveyed to Heaven." 

Arculf, a Gaulish Bishop, who travelled in A. v. 700, 
speaks of the " round church of St Mary, divided into 
two stories by slabs of stone. In the upjier part are four 
altars ; on the eastern side, below, there is another, and 
to the right of it, an empty tomb of stone, in which the 
Virgin Mary is said to have been buried; but who removed 
her body, or when this took place, no one can say. Ou 
entering this chamber you see, on the right hand side, 
a stone, inserted in the wall, on which Christ knelt on 
the night on which ho wus lietrayed, and the marks of 
his knees are still seen in the stone, as if it had been 
as softas wax." Arculf alsotells another traditional story 
that he heard on the spot, of tho disapi>earanco of the 
Ixxly of the Virgin Mary, that " St. Maiy expired in 
the middle of Jerusalem, in the place called St. Sion, 
and as the twelve apostles were carrying her body, the 
angels came and took her from their hands and earned 
her to Paradise." He odds that the church is called St. 
Mary, not because her body rests there, but in memory 

' Tlie traditions which associate the to-nb of the Virgin Hary 
with the locality in question appear, nriih the exception given 
above, never to have varied. Manndeville, who was partial to 
wonders, saw there " the stoue which the angel brought to our 
Lady from Mount Sinai, which is of the same colour as the rock of 
St. Catherine." St. Thomas appears to have been of a very sceptical 
turn of mind ; for Manndeville describes a great stone as lying at 
the bottom of the Mount of Olives, " upon which you are told tho 
Blessed Virgin let fall her girdle after her iissumption, in order 
to convince St. Thomas, who, they say, was troubled with a fit 
of hi* old Incredulity upon this occasion. There is still to bo 
seen a *nwU winding channel upon this stone which they will 
have to be the impreaslon made by tho girdki when it fell, and to 
be left for the conviction of all luch as shall suspect tbu truth of 
their (tory of tho auuinpllou." 



Thirty paces from the border of the Valley of 
Jehashaphat, at the foot of the Mount of Olives, is nn 
enclosure of about forty-seven paces long by forty- 
four wide— the Garden of Gethsemane. Tread reve- 
rently, for under the shade of that scared trunk of the 
oldest of those eight venerable olive trees, — so old that 
its roots are growing in strangely-shaped monstrosity 
out of the earth,— was the Saviour betrayed with a kiss 
by the traitor Judas. la a cavern outside is a sombre 
grotto, — the place where the Apostles hid themselves 
on their Master's being captured. The wall around is 
high, and plastered, and whitewashed. The garden has 
become the property of the Fathers of the Latin Con- 
vent, who have planted young trees among the old 
ones, the grim gnarled arms, pillar-like tninks, and thin 
foliage of wliich have a weird and solemn ai:tiquity a'^^i i( 
them that strikes the beholder. The scene is 
that has its fitness for the monmful scene of < ! 
Saviour's Passion. The deep valley, the dark and 
barren heights, the sorrowing moan of the streams 
below, and the shadow of the guilty city o^er all! 
They point to us a stone marking the spot where 
Christ pi-ayed that the cup might pass from him ; a 
little further the place where he swate great drops of 
blood, and, a littie further on, the spot where he found 
his disciples sleeping. The traditions of this place are 

It is Easter week, and wo have a host of pilgrims 
of all nations with us, mounting in long procession 
upwards towards the Chapel of the Ascension. About 
half way up, by a rngged winding path, worn with the 
footsteps of ages, ai'o the ruins of a monastery — on the 
site of the stone from which Christ, looking over towards 
the sinful City, bewailed the approaching desolation of 
Jerusalem. It is just ou this spot that the Sixth Roman 
Legion is said to have encamped during the siege by 
Titus. From the Rock of the Prediction we march up 
to some curious gi-otto excavations, called the Tombs 
of the Prophets. Their ground plan is very singular, 
something in the shape of a quadrant, and there ore 
more than fifty tombs. Some have said they are the 
Apostles' tombs ; others caves for the worahip of Baal ; 
othei-s, again, consider them as belonging to the Priests 
of the Temple, but all this is guesswork. 

Going upwards from these tombs, and imagining the 
scene of the raising of Lazanis as taking place in 
some such place, we climb up a few more feet of the 
ascent, and stand before the Chapel of the Ascension — 
the last grand consummation of our Saviour's history in 
the form of man. We are now gazing up to the same 
Heaven tliat opened to receive him ascending to Hia 
Father's right hand, upon the accomplishment of the 
atoning sacrifice which took place in that City, wo have 
but to turn our heads to look upon. The chapei is a 
small octa<,'onal building with a dome, and half in 
ruins. This is the Chapel of the Ajcension. Within 
it is the rock or stone from which Christ is said to have 
ascended. Tl era is the print of a left foot. It has 
been said the Turks removed the print of the right, and 
placed it in the Mosque of Omar ; but this may only be 
!• /n the tradition of Mahomet's foot on El Sakharo, 
thorities that assure us we are now gazing on the 
le foot-print of our L jrd are St. Augustine, St. Je- 
:.*aulina, the Venerable Bede, and Sulpicius Sevenis. 
Thu iijot is turned towaitls the north; Tradition says, the 
Saviour had his foot towards the north, at the moment 
of his Ascension, as if to renounce tho south, involved 
in errors. The scene of tho Ascension has not been 
without its describers. Traditions of the Fathers tell 
that the Lord " ascended to heaven, attended by the 
souls of tho patriarehs and prophets, delivered by him 
from tho chains of death. His mother and one 
hundred and twenty disciples witnessed hU af";ension." 
" He stretched out hLs arms like Moses," says St. 
Gregory Kazianzen, "and commended his disciples tohis 
Father ; he then crossed his almighty hands, holding 
them down over the heads of his beloved friends, in 
the same manner that Jacob blessed his sou Joseph ; 
then, rising from earth with inexpressible majesty, he 
slowly ascended toward the eternal mansion, till he was 
enveloped by a brilliant cloud." The Empress Mother 
Helena first identified the spot by the erection of a 
church, ou which, however, says St Jerome, " it was 
found impossible to cover in that part of the roof 
through which Christ pursuwl his heavenwai-d way." 
The Venerable Bede declares that in his time, ou the 
eve of the Ascension, tho Mount of Olives was all 
night seen covered with flames. Wo find tho meaning 





of this story in Arculfs writings (he visitedJcruialem 
in A.D. 700), and tells us that, " On the highest jwint 
of Olivet, where our Lord ascended into Heaven, is a 
large round church, having around it three vaulted 
porticoes. The inner part is not vaulted and covered, 
because of the passage of our Lord's body, but it has 
on altar on the east side, covered with a narrow roof. 
On the ground in the midst of it are to be seen the 
last prints in the dust of our Lord's feet, and the roof 
apix'aring open above where He ascended ; and although 
tlio earth is daily caixicd away by believers, yet still it 
remains as before, and retains the same impressions of 
the feet. In the western ]>art of the same church are 
eight windows, and eight lamps, hanging by cords op- 
posite to them, cast their light through the glass as far 
as Jerusalem, striking the hearts of the beholders with 
a mixture of joy and divine fear. Every year, on the 
day of the Ascension, when mass is ended, a strong 
blast of wind comes down and casts to the ground all 
who are in the church. All that night lanterns are 
kept burning there, so that the mountain appears, not 
only lighted up, but actually on fire, and all that side 
of the city is illuminated by it." 

The foot-print is in the rock, enclosed by an oblong 
block of marble, and we bring away with us an im- 
pression in wax, which pilgrim after pilgrim treasures 
as one of his dearest reminiscences of the Holy Land. 
Wo are now about twenty minutes, — hardly a mile, 
from the walls of Jei-usalem, so wefiuisli our " Sabbath 
day's journey " by going over the crest of the hill to 
Bethany. As we walk down the footpath so often 
trodden by the Saviour on his friendly visits tothehouse 
of Lazaras, whom he loved, many landscai)es of wildly 
pleasing variety open before us. We seem to have left 
the desolation in Judea on the other side, and pass 
through open corn-fields, across which, among groves 
of olives, are seen the w!.lte roofs of the little 
I that stands almost on the border of a desert 

land. Here Jesus picked the corn by the way-fcide, 
and here the sister of Lazarus met him, as she came 
forth with the mournere from her brother's tomb. The 
hotuie of Lazarus, where the Saviour so often received 
hospitality, has given place to a church founded by 
Queen Melisenda. A chapel marks the dwelling where 


Simon the Leper addressed the Lord, and perpetuates 
the memory of the devout Magdalen, who anointed the 
feet of Christ. Lastly, the rock, whose hallowed sides 
formed the tomb of Lazarus, has been surmounted 
by a mosque, the entrance to which is down a 
stair of twenty-four steps.1 Christian and Moslem 
alike reverence tliis spot, and the pilgrimages to 
it are numerous. The sick children we see here 
have been brought by the Mahometans in the neigh- 
bourhood, from a persuasion that some trace of the 
divine virtue of the great Prophet Jesus, the Spirit of 
Ood, still rests upon these stones. Towards the left, 
about three-<iuarters-of-a-mile farther on, is Bevhphage, 
the Village of the Figs, and a little farther some bold 
interpreter and guide ventures to show the very fig-tree 
that withered at the Saviour's word. It was very old, 
and certainly very withered, but we may not vouch 
further for the tradition. 

Betuming back over the crest of Olivet, after 
pausing to admire the view of Jei-usalem, — the whole 
panorama of the Qospel narrative spread out before us, — 
we proceed obliquely, by a sloping path that brings us 
to the village of Siloam, where the natives have made 
their dismal dwellings among the rock-hewn tombs. 
Hence wo look down upon the dry bed of Kedron and 
the platform of the Mor \ (the Temple enclosure) over- 
banging it. It slopes down, gray and bare, 500 feet. 
We gaze upon a perfect City of Tombs — everywhere 
along the valley. Opposite to us is the Foimtain of 
the Virgin, where the water rises and fulls with 
sudden-flowing swell. Here come the neighbouring 
flocks to water. There is a cavernous connection 
between this and the Fool of Siloam lower down, along 
which some topographers have crawled more than 
1750 feet. It was once a sealed fountain — that is, 
closed with a stone. Tradition tells that hero the 
mother of Jesus was accustomed to wash her garments. 
Mohammed declared that these waters flowed from 
Paradise, and some say it is the very stream brought 
down subtcrnineously by Hezekiah into the city when 
he ordered the fountains without Jerusalem, and 
the brook to be stopped, saying, "Why should 
the Kings of Assyria come and find much water t" 
The stream has been ascertained to run down 
from the Temple area — indeed, it is said, from 
Zion. It is pleasant in the heat of the day to 
descend the flight of steps that lead under a dark arch- 
way down into this fountain, and, standing on the 
upper steps worn with the footsteps of ages, to look 
deep into a mysterious cavern, down into which again 
goes another flight of steps to the spring. The women 
coming up and down the steps with water-jars grace- 
fully balanced on their heads, the wayfarers trending 
hitherwards from all sides, and the horses and sheep 
that are being watered at the trough aljove, form a 
picture that reminds us of the imtriarchal aces. There 
is an old Arabian tradition connected with this well 
which was in days vciy, very old, called the " Foun- 
tain of Accused Women." Women accused of adul- 

' Canon Stanley lias ilciigimteJ tlio religion of Palestine, from 
the moment it fell into tlio Imnda of Europeans, as fiir na sacrcil 
traditions are concerned, as "a religion of caves;" but if wo coin- 
puro the reports of pilgrims and tnivellcrs between the ninth and 
seventeenth centuries, it will bo readily seen that in the instance 
of the Orave of Lazarus that: it was the Muhammadans who pro- 
nte<l by tho paseiun for cave history and mythology, and who 
improTcid upon it by removing tho site that was traditionul in tho 
eighth century, to n grotto of far larger dimuuaioiu before tho 



tcry used to coiuo here and drink the water, which, if 
they were innocent, did not hurt them, but poisoned 
them if guilty. When Sitti Miriam (the Virgin Mary) 
was found with child and accused, she submitted to this 
ordeal, and was thus proved guiltless : she then prayed 
that the water might never harm any faithful woman, 
and from that day the waters have been intermittent 

Following tho arid path above Kedron we nowcome to 
tlxe Tomb of Absalom, ono of the most striking monu- 
ments about Jerusalem. It is a monolith, or square 
massi of stone, measuring eight feet each way, cut from 
the solid lock of the neighbouring hill, from which it 
stands detached fifteen feet. Twenty-four columns 
of the plain Doric order, six on each front, are hewn 
from the rocky mass, and support a triangular pyi'amidal 
top, evidently not of the same style as the monument. 
It is forty feet in height. May not the old stone 
pillar, " wliich is in tlio king's dale;' (2 Samuel, xvii., 
18,) have been thus ornamented by after hands; "it is 
called to this day Absalom's place." Kvory pious pilgrim 
— Jew, Turk, or Christian — still shews his abhorreifo 
of the rebellious son of i>avid, by flinging a stoue at this 
monument as he passes : a circumstance of which Jeho- 
sliaplmt, the pious King of Judah, " who walked in the 
ways of the Lord," might justly complain; for his tomb, 
also cut out of tho rock, with a Doric portico, is just bi- 
hind, and receives an undue proportion of the ungracious 
missiles. Close to this stands the tomb of Zachariah, 
similarly hewn away from tho rock, and surrounded 
by a plain pyramid. Thi.s is without an entrance, in 
fact merely an ornamented stone. Further down the 
valley, and just above a dry pool, lies a garden, close 
ujion the point of the junction of the valley of Jehosha- 
phat with the valley of Hinnom, that runs round at 
the foot of Mount Zion, now rising above us in rough 
tenticod ground, dotted with scattered wild olive trees. 

Near this garden is a rugged old tree, raisedon aro\igh 
broken bank, said to nuirk the spot of Isaiah's martjT- 

■1' The bank is protected by a wall of stones, half 
ii. I'l'ins, and the old tree still puts forth green foliage 
from its scarred and aged tnmk. 


JU'Idw this, in a little coni-covered hollow, we come 
upon the well of Job. It is the En Eogel where Adonijah 
summoned a meeting of liis foUowei's, to proclaim 
him king,— a deep old well, consisting of a fountain, 
a tank, and three drinking troughs, under an orched 
chamber of rough hewn stones, part of a byegono 

mosque. A constant train of donkeys, bearing its water 
to the city, are seen ascending and descending on the 
hill-sides by a steep path to Zion Gate. In tho 
winter, when the rains are abimdant, the water of this 
well bubbles forth, from a hole, about fifty paces below 
and flows with a strong stream into the brook Kedron, 
which then becomes a itial torrent for some weeks. 
At such times, in this dry parched land, such an over- 
flow causes a general holiday, and parties are made 
from the city to enjoy the Jifle, The water collects 
for this pui'i)ose iu the subterranean basins of the 
Temjilo, which are mostly supplied from tho collected 
rains ditwned oft" from the city in wet weather ; hence 
the overflow, but Muhammedan traditions give 
another reA-son. 

" Tho Hanim Sherif (Mosque of Omar) is guarded 
at all houi-s, night and day, by a guard of honour 
consisting of 70,000 angels, always present in the holy 
precincts. By a decree of the Most High, while this 
celestial garrison watches and prays about the sacred 
rock (El Sahkanih), an einial number of infernal spirits 
are groaning in the depths of the moiintain, condemned 
to support the sacred building, and the vast plain 
about it; upon their accursed heada This wciglit is 
hei.-y enough, but, beyond this, every time a faithful 
Mui'sulman, in a pure state, places his foot on tho 
))Iatform, the mere weight of his body augments, by 
sixty times, the pressure of the burthen already piled 
on the demons. If the devout be numerou'?, the 
sufferings of these Shayatin (evil genii) are propor- 
tionately augmented, and they shed tears of agony 
and rage. The greater the fervour of tho true 
l)el levers at the sanctuary, the more plentiful these 
tears, until the reservoirs of the Temple vaults are filled 
by them and overflow into the neighbouring wells. 
The , 'mndance of the water in the Bir Ayaub (Well of 
Job) is a measure of the Creator's goodness. Only 
prayers are wanting to ensure abundance of water, and 
a consequent good harvest." 

Such is the legend. These wells are called, by the 
Jews and Christiuns, the Wells of Nehemiah ; and it is 
here, we are told, that the prophet preserved the 
sacred fire of the Altar in concealment, after the depar- 
ture of tho Hebrews in captivity to Babylorj, and, 
here, he found it safe and burning on his return. 

Returning back up the valley, just as we come to 
the foot of Zion, b the Fool of Siloam ; — 

' Siloah'8 brook that flowed 
Fut by tho oracles of Qod." 


It is a square basin, about fifty feet long and twenty 
deep, from which trickles a small stream, spreading 
verdure where it goes, but soon exhausted in small 
giirdens of radishes and cucumbers. The taste of the 
waters is no longer sweet — it is like that of rain-water 
too long standing in a cistern. It was different in 
Isaiah's time — out of this jkxjI was drawn the water of 
separation, to bo mingled with the ashes of tho reil 
heifer, at the Feast of Tabernacles, and hither was 
tho blind man sent to wash and be clean ; (John ix., 
11, 17,) and now, at this moment, wo see the pilgrims 
bending over the walls and washing, like ourselves, in 
its hallowed waters. The scene is beautiful from the con- 
trastof this sjwt withthegeneral nudity and arid sterility 
of tho soil around Jerusalem. This was the " king's 
dale, near the king's garden and wine-press" — a garden 
and pleasant green, a sparkling gem — hard by Tophet — 
a parivdise close upon Gehenna I On reaching the brink 



a^.ovo til is pleasant place, tlio waters, that have thus 
far " nin softly," tumble over, and dash, splosh, and 
rush from a hundred little cascades, to bia distributed 
in a thousand murmuring rills, for the irrigation of this 
delightful spot. Upon the rock in which this pool is dug 
down twenty steps, stood the pleasure palace of David. 
The stones comprising its walU are polished by ages, 
and carpeted with ivy and mosses— a solace and relief to 
the eyes, wearied with (lerpetual sunshine. The women 
of the valley — like the daughters of Judah of old — 
come down these steps which shine like marble from the 
tread of centuries,— come up and down the cool steps 
with naked feet, to fill their pitchers. We bathe our 
hands and foreheads, and listen to the evening wind as 
it sighs up the valley, sweeping over us and rustling in 
the trees — a music the more delicious to the ear from its 
slmngeness, iu this otherwise treeless, bare and silent 

We now return, further upon our footsteps, upwards, 
nearly back to tho tombs of the Jews, whence a few 
lingering mourners are hastening homewards, belated, 
from a funeral, to reach tho gates ere nightfall. Here 
we cross the brook Kedron, by the passage, now dry, 
where tho Saviour is said to have passed over, dragged 
along by the brutal hands of the servants of the High 
Priest. They point out to us a stone in its dry bed, bear- 
ing the impress of the knees, the mark left by Our Lord 
in falling on the spot. The path up here is steep and long, 
by the City wall, audit will be as well to pause awhile and 
admire tho " Golden Gate," which opened, iu Herod's 
time, under the eastern porch of the Temple. We have 
told you of the traditions among the Turks that a c ..i- 
qucring Christian King is to enter here, and how they 
have walled up both its arches, and keep a guard over it. 
Here you will observe enormous blocks of stone — be- 
velled round the edges — the characteristicsof the ancient 
Hebrew architecture, and just such as are to be found 
in the walls of Boalbec. Could we remove the stones 
from the archway, and enter within tho walls, we 
should find the interior passage of the " Golden Gate," 
inside the tower, to be seventy feet high, and orna- 
mented with lofty pillars, bearing rich and elaborately 
carved capitals. Thera is a legend about the closing 
of this gate related by Soewulf (a.d. 1103), who tells 
us of a lesson of humility given to the Emperor He- 
nicliuB, who rode up to this gate proudly after his 
victory over Cliosroes, king of Persia, returning in all 
the pride of a conqueror, and with, as he thought, a 
justificatory oblation in the True Cross, wliich he 
had valorously recovered from the Infidel. He thus 
advanced victorious to enter the Golden Gate at the 
head of his chivalry ; but the stones fell down and 
closed up tho passage, so that the gate became oue 
solid mass, until Heraclius, at the admonition of an 
angel, humbling himself, got off his horse, and so the 
entrance was opened uuto him. The lesson is a good 
one for human pride and human sufficiency in the face 
of God's all absorbing vastness. 

We are now under what were onco the Temple 
walls. These very stones, if not so old os Solomon's 
time (which they are believed to be, nor is there any 
reason to suppose the contrary), are, at any rate, as old 
OS King Herod. Josephus speaks of the enormous 
proportions of tho materials used by that magnificent 
monarch, and these are the great stones spoken of 
^ark xiii, 1, 3.) "And as he went out of the 
Temple, one of his disoiplea saith unto liim : Master, 
Bee what manner of stones and what buildings are 

hero ! And Jesus answering, said unto him : Seest 
thou these great buildings J There shall not be left 
one stone upon another, that shall not be thrown down !" 
Keeping along the wall towards the south, we remark 
the end of a column jutting out like a cannon from an 
embrasure. This is the mortice on which will be sup- 
ported the abutment of tho famous bridge, Sirath, that 
immense passage-way which is to be thrown over (as 
Mussulmans tell us) the abyss of infernal punishment, 
and over which, on the Day of the Great Judgment, all 
the good will have to risk a passage, before arriving 
at the mansions of peace. This bridge, not over wide, 
a.s we sec, in its commencement, is to be no thicker 
than a hair, and as sharp as a Damascus blade. Many 
will fall at the first step, but the just will be held up 
by guardian angels — as many in number as they have 
done acts of charity and mercy in life. 

We have now reached the angle of the wall 
Here is a projection like a seat, and on this the Prophet 
will stand on the Day of Judgment, near the foot of 
the throne, to intercede for the faithful. Jesus and 
Mary being by his side. 

Tui-n the angle of tho southern portion of the 
eastern wall, and wo are under the mosque El-Aksa, 
formerly the CliMrch of the Presentation, and erected 
by Justinian. Wo now follow the course of the conduit- 
pipes conveying water from Solomon's Pool, just by 
Bethlehem, into the city, under the wall, by the 
Tyropceon. To the right is the grotto whither St. Peter 
withdrow to lament his fault after hearing the cock 
crow thi-ee times, rud near to it — just above — on tho 
hill top, separated by a small interval from the Zion 
Gate, is the house of Caiaphas, the High Priest, now 
covered by a small Armenian convent. 

In this chapel are shown a dark corner, where 
Christ was imprisoned till the morning, when he was 
curried before Pilate, and a little to the west is tho 
place where, as some say, the Virgin died, and whence 
she was carried to her tomb on Mount Olivet by the 
disciples. They also show " the very stone " which 
secured Our Lord's Sepulchre, a stone two yards long, 
one yaitl deep, and one broad. It is now, after long 
argument, recognised, we learn, as the true stone ; but 
all say (and the Armenians do not deny the fact) that 
it was stolen from the Church of the Holy SepiUchre. 




Hero, lilcewlao is the small room where Peter was 
friglitcnecl into the denial of bis master. 

The Cccnaculuni or " largo upper room," the scene of 
tlio Lnst Supper, is now a Turkish Mosque, which has 
s\iccpedcil to a church and monostery formerly oc- 
cupied by the Fathers of the Holy Land. The room 
is on the second story, is constructed of stone, and 
is liirgo and dreary, about fifty or sixty feet 
long by some thirty in width. An ancient tradition 
mya, that here Our Blessed Lord celebrated the Pass- 
over, and, at the close, instituted the Sacrament. Here, 
too, he gave us the gi-eat lesson of humility, in washing 
his disciples' feet. Hero he appeared to his disciples 
on the day of his Resm-rcction. Hero, too, the Apos- 
tles are said to have assembled together on the day of 
Pentecost, when the miracle of cloven tongues was 
sliown. This sanctuary is equally celebr-ited in the 
Old Testament. Here David built himself a palace 
and a tomb : here he kept, for three months, the Ark 
of the Covenant. The place liallowcd by the Last 
Supper was tr.ansformed into the first Christian 
church the world ever beheld. Here James the 
Less was consecrated first Christian Bishop of Jei"u- 
salem, and St. Peter held his first council of the 
Church. From this spot set forth the Apostles, on 
their mission to seat their religion on all the thrones 
of the earth. 

Below this is the most sacred of all sacred places in 
the estimation of the Tui-ks. This is the Ncby Daud, 
or Tomb of the Prophet David — the word Neby mean- 
ing Prophet. It is situated beneath the Cocnaculum, 
or "Upper Room." Its traditional locality as con- 
nected with the Last Supper of our Lord, and the 
repute of its containing the ashes of the Sweet Singer 
of Israel and his son the wisest of men, as well as 
millions of buried treasure, has led to much bribeiy 
on the part both of the Jews and Christians to obtain 
admission ; but in vain, for the old Sheikh who has the 
care of the tomb invariably receives the bribe and 
piilms off upon the spectator a tumulus of richly 
canopied stone and mortar on the floor of an upper 
room. To one person only, besides Sir Moses and 
Lady Monteflore, (who were only allowed, ot an 
immense cost, to "behold it through the lattice of a 
trellioe door,") has it been permitted to see the sacred 
and royal deposit of the best and noblest of kings. 
This was the daughter of a physician, Dr. Bai-clay, 
who went disguised, and thus describes what she saw 
and did ; — 

" The reputed Tomb of David is just outside of Zion 
Gate, hard by the Ca:naculum or 'Upper Room,' and 
the Armenian cemetery. It is surrounded by an irre- 
gular pile of buildings, and surmounted by a dome and 
minaret. In the interior are some of the most grotes- 
que architectural embellishments imaginable, on the 
capitals of some remains of the Crusader's architecture 
— the frightful owl occupying the place of the c'assio 
acanthus and the mystic talus. We passed several halls 
and corridors before reaching the consecrated apartment, 
tlie entrance to which is guarded by double iron doors. 
In front of these, an aged dervish lay prostrate in 
earnest prayer on the stone floor, and, not being privi- 
leged to enter within the sacred precincts, he gazed 
eagerly at the tomb through the iron bars. The key 
was fetched, the dervish dismissed, and the doors closed 
and double locked behind us. The room is insignifi- 
cant in its dimensions, but gorgeously furnished 
and decorated to produce a splendid efiect. The tomb 

is apparently a sarcophagus of rough stono of very large 
size — (about four times the height of a man) covered 
by green satin tapestry, richly embroidered with gold. 
On this is fixed a tablature of black velvet, framed in 
gold embroidery, ond having inscribed upon it in rich 
golden bordering certain vei-ses of the Koran. A canopy 
formed of red, blue, green, and yellow satin, in stripes, 
is suspended over the tomb. At one end of the room 
hangs a piece of black velvet tapestry, embroidered in 
silver, with an arabesque pattern ; this, they told mo, 
covers a door leading to a cave underneath. Besides 
this door, and fronting a grated niche in which is 
suspended a golden lamp, stand two tall silver candle- 
sticks, each about the height of a man. The ceiling 
of the room is vaulted, and the walla covered with 
blue and pink porcelain in floral figurea The golden 
lamp of which I have spoken iskept constantly burning, 
and, to my surprise, my devout companion took from 
it the wick, thoroughly saturated as it was with oil, 
and swallowed it eagerly, doubtless with unction, mut- 
tering to herself a prayer, with many a genuflexion. 
She then, in addition to the usual form of prayer, 
prostrated herself before the tomb, raised the covering, 
pressed her forehead to the stone, and then kissed it 
many times. Having remained here an hour or more 
and completed my sketch, we left, and great was my 
rejoicing when I found myself once more at home, 
out of danger and, still better, out of my awkward 

Josephus tells us how Hyrcanus the High Priest, 
when besieged by Antiochus the Pious, opened the 
tomb and took out three thousand talents, with which 
he bought off his attack ; and subsequently how Herod 
the king ojiened another chamber and took away some 
furniture of gold and precious goods ; and how two of 
Herod's guards wore slain by a wrathful flame that 
burst forth from the tomb, (supposed to be the 
mouth of the cave covered with the black velvet 
tapestiy) and how Herod the king built up a pro- 
pitiatoiy tomb of white stone. Another chronicler, 
in whom some trust is placed, Benjamin of Tndela, 
and who visited Jerusalem about IIGO — 1170, tells 
the following story of this tomb : — 

" On Mount Zion are the sepulchres of the House 
of David and those of the kings svho reigned after him. 
In consequence of the following circumstance, however, 
this place is hardly to be recognised at present. Fifteen 
years ago, one of the walls of the place of worship on 
Mount Zion fell down, which the patriarch ordered 
the priest to repair. He commanded him to take stones 
from the original wall of Zion, and to employ them 
for that, winch command was obeyed. Two 
labourei's who were engaged in digging stones from the 
very foundation of the walls of Zion, happened to meet 
with one which formed the mouth of a cavern. They 
agreed to enter the cave and scaix;h for treasure; and 
ic pursuit of this object they penetrated to a large 
hall, supported by pillars of marble incrusted with 
gold and silver, before which stood a table with a 
golden sceptre and crown. This was the Sepulchre 
of David, King of Israel, to the left of which they 
saw that of Solomon and of all the kings of Judah 
who were buried there : they further saw locked 
chests, and desired to enter the hall to examine them, 
but a blast of wind like a storm issued from the cavern, 
and prostrated them almost lifeless upon the ground. 
They lay in this state till the evening, when they 
heard a voice commanding them to rise up and go 



forth from the place. They proceeded, terror-stricken, 
to the patriarch, and informed him of what had oc- 
curred. He Bummoned Rabbi Abraham, of Constan- 
tiiii, a pious ascetic, one of the mourners of the down- 
fall of Jerusalem, and caused the two labourers to 
i-epeat the occurrence in his presence. Rabbi Abraham 
hereupon informed the patriarch that they had dis- 
covered the Sepulchre of the House of David and of | 
the Kings of Judah. The patrarch ordered the place 
to be walled up, so as to hide it effectually from every- 
one to the present day." 


We come foi-th from the Tomb ot David, and by 
the light of the moon, gaze down upon Jerusalem. 
The hill slopes down to the south by terraces, and is 
of a yello^vish colo\ir and barren appearance, opening 
in form of a crescent towards the city. By the full light 
of the harvest-moon of Judtea — in April — we look out 
ujion what was once the scene in the world. 



The eye rests upon the Valley of Jehoshaphat, once 
green with many waters, and pleasant with gardens 
and palaces. The opening in the eastern hills leads 
it from steep to steep across many heights, rising 
over each other like tumultuous waves, to where 
the Dead Sea lies shining in the distance. To the 
right is the beautiful esplanade of the Mosque of Omar, 
the glittering domes, and the embattled walls. Beneath 
and near are tombs and ruins. A universal silence 
reigns over all ; save where the voices of the muezzin 
from the top of the high minarets of the Mosque ring 
out in prayer, which murmurs pgain as if an echo, 
from various parts of the City. I ive times every day 
the sound of prayer may be heard around Jerusalem 
alone breaking the silence. These prayers or namaz 
are five in number, and have each their .otted 
hour. First, that of daybreak (salalh Ser^h) ; this, 
as we learn from the MuUaka (a collection of 
the canons of the Mahomedan Faith), was composed 
by Adam, at the moment when, after his expul- 
sion from the terrestial Paradise, ho saw, for the 
first time the light of day, and was released from the 
fear of perpetual darkness. Second, the prayer of 
midday \saUUh Dkahw), recited by Abraham on the 
occasion of the sacrifice of his son Isaac. Third, that 
of the middle of the day {saUUh aier), the expression 
of Jonah's gratitude on coming forth from the belly of 
the whale. Fourth, the prayer at evening {tcUath 




Mughruh) was Httcrctl, towards twiliglit, by Josus 
Christ, to nssuro tlio Eternal of liin own submission 
and that of the Virgin Mary. Lastly, tlio fifth, that of 
tlio night {idath Ereba), has Moses for its author; that 
irophct, having lost himself while going forth from 
Midian, was, just at nightfall, in the plain of Wady 
Eyham, comforted by the voice of God, and composed 
this prayer, in thankful acknowledgment of His mercy. 
And thus ends our first day iu Jerusalem. 


To "go round about Zion and mark well her bul- 
warks," and SCO her beauty and her strength, is a task 
that requires no slight ])edestrian strength, i^ well as 
determination, in a pilgrim traveller, We are up and 
out early, strongly tempted everywhere throughout our 
route by narrow, intricate, half-covered streets, or 
rather alleys, darkened with canvas where not by 
arches, to turn aside hither and thither by celebrated 
localities, long before we have reached the gate of 
Zion. Passing through this, wo place ourselves once 
moreatthe House of Caiaphas, where we paused last night 
in the footsteps of the Saviour, leaving him imprisoned, 
and awaiting the morning to be taken before the San- 
hedrim or Council of the Jews, by them to be con- 
demned, mocked, and blasphemously maltreated. We 
proceed on our way to the spot where was the 
Council-Chamber, first ])au3ing to look down upon the 
Christian burying-grounds. That of the English is on 
the south slope of Zion, overlooking the Valley of Hin- 
nom. Here lie Bishop Alexander, Robert Bateson, 
M.P., Dr. Schultz, the Pnussian Consul, and others. 
That of the American Missionaries, which is on the 
Hill of Zion itself, though but a few years established, 
lins some remarkable names. The burialgi-ound ot 
the Roman Catholics is nearer to the gate; and the 
story of an unfortunate there buried is so curious as 
to be worth noting. This is Costigan, an Irish tra- 
veller, who was the firat in modern days to navigate 
the Dead Sea (a feat since successfully performed in a 
thoroughly professional style by Lieutenant Lynch ol 
the American Navy), and whoso death from so doing 
the superatitiou of the jieople hereabouts — Jew as 
well as Christian — have invested with peculiar tcrroi's. 
Ho had a boat brought over from the Mediterranean 
to Lake Tiberias and came down the Jordan ; sliding 
through its rapids with some danger, and even enter- 
ing with it into the Dead Sea, into which its waters 
constantly pour, and where it lo-ies itself. He had 
only a Maltese sailor with him, and they i-owed toge- 
ther round the sea, taking eight days to accomplish 
that journey. On their return Costigan wt\s exhausted. 
It was in the month of July, and from nine to five 
dreadfully hot ; every night a north wind blew, and 
the waves were worse than in the Gulf of Lyons. They 
had suffered exceedingly from the huat, so the sailor 
reported ; Costigan taking his turn at the oars for the 
first five days ; on the sixth day the water was ex- 
hausted, and Costigan gave in. On the seventh day 
they were obliged to drink the water of the sea ; and 
on the eighth, they were near the head of it, the sailor 
also being exhausted, and unable any longer to pull an 
oar. There he made coffee from the water of the sea; 
and a favourable wind springing up, they hoisted their 
Etui for the first time, and in a few hours reached the 
head of the lake. Feeble as he was, the sailor set off for 
Jericho; and, in the meantime, poor Costigan was found 
by some Arabs uu the shore, a dying man, and by the 

intercession of an old woman was carried to Jericho. Ho 
was next conveyed up to Jerusalem, where ho died in 
the Latin Convent ; but ho never oneo oftei-wards re- 
ferred to his unhappy voyoge ; remaining silent and— -as 
the jMiople about him imagined — teiTorstricken at the 
horroi-s he had seen while floating over the doomed cities 
of Sodom and Gomorrah. We now enter the city by 
the Zion Gate. Turn to the left towards the Jewish 
quarter where, even before reaching it, wo find our- 
selves in the midst of all kind of filth, ruins, and 
desolate waste ground overrun with the cactus. The 
walls of the Armenian Convent rise high on one side, 
Hhutting out all view ; on the other side the ground 
slopes down towards the Tyropoeon through half-minous 
houses over to the site where the Temple enolosuro 
i-i.scs. A little on one side are the houses of the 
leiiers — a loathsome race — whom we must avoid. 
See where "the grass upon tho house-toiis" is 
"withered before it bo grown up." Sco wliei-o tho 
woman is sitting at that hovel-door, spinning woollen 
yarn with a spindle, while another near her is twirling 
the onoieut distaff. 

As we are looking over the Tyropceon, the Valley of 
the Cheesemongers, in coming down the slope, towards 
the Temple wall — that within the city — let us imagine 
one scene of the olden times. Take the Temple in its 
splendour ; the Priests in all their jwwer. Let tho 
murderess-queen, Athijliali, hear across the Tyropoeon, 
as she sits stately in tho Zion Palace, tho rejoicings of the 
people, i>s the High Priest points to the young king, — 
preserved within those sacred precincts from the wholesale 
murderof his race (2 Kings, xi. 16) — "Treason 1" shecries, 
and rushes over the connecting bridge from the Palace 
to the Temple, but the High Priest orders her to be 
taken out immediately, " and they laid hands on her," 
and carried her out down by "the Horse Gate," to 
Kedron, and there was she slain. Tho " great stones " 
of part of one arch of this bridge that Athaliah crossed, 
on which, too, Titus stood in order to hold a parley with 
the Jews in the Temple — are still here. Let us meosui-c 
this one ; it is twenty-five feet long, another, twenty ; 
the width of the bridge we can tell from the spring of 
the arch remaining, and its length must have been 
over the Tyropceon from Zion (as it were from Snow 
Hill to Holbom Hill, across the Volley of the Fleet) 



not loss than three hnndred and fifty foct Of course 
there mtut have been several piers and arches. What a 
magnificent iMwsage along this causeway, from the 
south porch of the Temple to Zion ! 

But this is not the place to spoak of the glory of 
Zion. We are now nearing her wall ; that narrow 
jHissage like a corridor open to the sky, with that hugo 
massive wall rising about forty feet, and at the boKO of 
the Willi which supports the west side of the Temple 
area, is the Wailing Place of the Jews. Doubtless 
these large stones with levelled edges — some of them 
still preserving the polish so carefully tooled upon them, 
as you will notice on the old Egyptian monuments — 
formed part of the foundations of the Holy Temple 
itself, certainly they are not later than Herod's day. 
Here we sec a sad and affecting sight, the most pninful 
spectacle iu Jerusalem ; there are at least fifty Jews, 
old and young, white-headed, turbanncd, fur-capped, or 
broad-hattcd, along the wall, praying and lamenting, 
with tears ninning down their checks. They lay their 
foreheads against the sacred stones, they kiss them. 
They lean against the wall, and seemingly try to pray 
through cracks and crevices. The tradition which leads 
them to pray through as well as against this wall is, 
that during the building of the Temple, a cloud rested 
over it, so as to prevent any entrance; and Solomon 
stood at the door, and prayed that the cloud might be 
removed, and promised that the Temple should always 
be opened to men of every nation desiring to offer up 
prayers; whereupon the Lord removed the cloud, and 
promised that the prayers of all people offered up in 
that place should find acceptance in his sight; and now, 
as the Mussulman lords it over the place where the 
Temple stood, and the Jews are not permitted to 
cuter, they endeavour to insinuate their prayers 
through the crevices in the wall, that they may rise 
from the interior to the throne of Grace {see p.32). 
How long and fervent their prayers I See how they 
stand, with the right foot extended, and the Bible iu 
their hand, intoning the Lamentations of Jeremiah 
(v., 21, 22, 23), or the Psalms of David, or singing with 
Isaiah (Ixiv., 9-11) : " Be not wrath very sore, OLord, 
neither remember iniquity for ever. Behold! see! 
we beseech Thee ! we are all Thy people. Thy Holy 
cities are a wilderness, Zion is a wilderness, Jenisalem 
a desolation. Our holy and beautiiiil house, where 
our fathers praised Thee is burned up with fire, and 
all our pleasant things are laid waste." Benjamin of 
Tudela mentions this touching custom in the twelfth 
century. After the capture of the city by Adrian, the 
Jews were excluded from entering within Jerusalem, 
and it was not until the age of Constantine that they 
were permitted to approach so as to behold Jerusalem 
from the neighbourirg hills. At length they wei-e 
allowed to enter the city once a year, on the day on 
which it was taken by Titus, in oi-der to wail over the 
i-uins of the Temple ; but this privilege they had to 
purchase of the Koman soldiers. 

The present condition of the Jew at Jerusalem is 
exactly what it was when Kehemiah attempted their 
restoration. " The remnant that are left in the cap- 
tivity, these are in great affliction and reproach." 

All the J'^ws in Palestine are under the spiritual 
domination of a Chief Babbi, called Chackham Bashi, 
" the First Ir< Zion." He is assisted by a special 
council of seven leading rabbis, and a large number of 
snb-rab^::;. nither, to the Holy City, asking but to lay 
tbblr bones in Jehoshaphat, Jews crowd from all (larts 

of the world ; but liait u no trade, no employment, 
and they are, ctinwcrataiillT, wiweniAj poor. The sub- 
scription for \hi Jers, pxueniXj, thronghont the world, 
does not avail to aiUw ii&« poorer Jews more than 
thirty shillings a yrar, <ai wyck wretched pittance they 
live miserably, Htarre sail >{ie, constant in their faith, 
though strongly Uan^Md uirie by schools, and ho.<ipitals, 
and allowsnceK, asA mifftvraitnt, offered in |iious zeal 
by the different diriniMirt rd Pmteatant Christians, who 
lay out large sanis ««f iBoaey annnally in Jerus<dem for 
the puqjose. The iimivauA Jew is despised by his 
brethren and rei^urciM m % isaA man ; but the un- 
converted Jew is lo(Ai«t4 KSowB upon dike by Christian 
and Turk, nay, it mtaM eiuiti a Jew his life, even at 
this moment, Kboold be rtnitr^re into the Church of the 
Holy Sepulchre, or «i«ii within the outer court of his 
beloved Temjile. Tlifr M»«liTiaibIe into Scphardira and 
Askcnorim, or tLe j$}«ai»& aiui German communities, 
or southern and ii'.«l3itenii it-wt, the latter numbering 
4,000, the former jiIkjoi 7/j<0O. Each class has its owu 
synagogui^s, and lire n^^iuiiii «{rri>Jed. The old Pharisees 
still remain in the P<«iv]»-ehniu, which means '■sepa- 
rated" or "isolntel.^ ll» daas aasnming that title 
affect great jurty, an j a knowledge of the mysteries of 
the Kubala. Aluicisl uil ^rree, however, iu adopting 
the Talmud and itc txn&sirma as their canon. Yet 
there is a sect of Jer* »&i:I» rejects everything but 
the sacred Seripture»^ : InBit in e4 ik very small community, 
and rarely repreMOitiui ia Jerusalem. That swarthy 
proud-looking feUuw wiih thtr [ittchfork in his hand {see 
p. 49), reminds ue limit ihs: Becbabites, still exist, and 
boast their dcHceiit frooa JecKro, the father-in-law of 
Moses, and High Prieettifliiriiaa. They are still dwellci-s 
in tents, and still, «» m ikn: time of Jeremiah, offer an 
examide to the isJtiLlesf tmaa of Israel (Jeremiah xxxv., 
8). They drink so ■wistt, atoA would deem it a trans- 
gression to dwell in bvitMa or obtain a living otherwise 
than by agriculture. 

Near this wall or VTailSa^ Place is a hospital founded 
for the Jews by tihe lumDuiaity of M. de Rothschild, 
Each bed bears tbe taamt: nt one of the members of 
that family— a mooioiiKnit at their charity. Here, too, 
is a school for JewiA cyidien recently erected — 
and bountifully tnippsillicxt hj Sir Moses Montefiore, but 
here, as eyerymhare, niit Jewiah quarter is full of dirt, 
and dust, and ziastr au^Hlk. The men have a magni- 
ficent appeaiunoe, im i^te of all the poverty and 
the squalor aroni«L 

Having serai the J'tvx in their present degradation, 
we now revert to tbe itwii^ Sanhedrim, in its haughty 
pride, and look fcir t&it place whither the i^ v. ' of 
the world was broajiiil leli>re the Council o* 'i > ws 
to he queKtioned. We imd it in the present Aiaili^iiieh 
or Council-houBe <'r CiniMiiaU), of the Turks, at the 
western wall of ti»e TnBipfe, joat where Josephua tells 
ns the " first wall ~ 'X Jeroailem abutted. We learn 
from the Psalmist itlLum h was boilt on piers or arches, 
and that like tlie \ma)aiA Imlding it had one entrance 
to the Temjtle ana. asd uiother to the city. It has 
now a splendid Saxatxnior porfcii, and here is the most 
beautiful Saraoenic Forantaia in Jerusalem, of which 
our artist has mMLe a <irxvmi^ {a^e p. 8), showing the 
women of Jerasaksui as nf old, fetching and canyiug 
water from it. " Y«ai iliaQ meet a man bearing a 
pitcher of water," wm thm a special direction whereby 
to notice the indmisaid. mxt to engage the attention 
of the disciples oi vsr Losd, when searching for a fit 
place and pecHBiopRfac the Last Sapper. TheSan- 



hodrim and jtH (tnbalternfi, hnviiiR condemned, mocked, 
and blasphemously maltrca,ted ChriBt, " then led they 
JcHUS from CHia|iliaf<, tinto the judgment seat of Pilate," 
and it was early, and they thomHclveg went not into 
the judgment hall, lc«t they Hhould Ik) defiled ; but 
that they might cat the passovcr. Pilate then went 
out to them. The judgment hall of Piluto wbh 
undoubtedly a largo apartment in the Tower of 
Antonia, situated on the north-west corner of the 
Temple area. Pilat<t, without condcnniin;; him, sent 
him up to Herod Antipas, Tctrarch of Oalilcc, who 
had, no doubt, come up to the foawt, and was occMipying 
the magnificent Palace of Herod the Great, ui'iir the 
Tower of Hippicus, whore the chief priests and scribes 
8too«l, and vehemently accused Jesus; and Herod, with 
his men of war, set him at nought and rr.jcked him, 
and arrayed him in a gorgeous robe, and sent him back 
to Pilate. The governor having examined him, in- 
formed the chief priests and the riders and the people 
assembled in the yard of the Fort of Antonia, that as 
neither ho nor Herod could find anything worthy of 
death in the Messiah, he would chastise and release him. 
But the malicious liicrarohs having finally extorted 
his condemnation, he is taken into the Prietorium by the 
Boldicrs, aiTayed in mock royalty, and smitten, treated 
with the utmost indignity and cruelty, and finally 
Pilate, occupying his judgment seat out on Oabbatlm, 
or " the pavement," brought him out of the Prietorium. 



The Via Dolorosa is a steep, nanow, crooked street, 
vaulted with arches, and gloomily impressive in ap- 
pearance, even were it not for the awful reminiscence 
that up this steep ascent — along this gloomy way 
reviled, spat uiwn, and beaten, the meek Saviour of 
mankind was comiielled to toil, laden with his cross, 
from the judgment seat of Pilate, to the Hill of Calvary. 

Standing with our backs to the city wall, at St 
Stephen's Gate, having on the right (behind us) the 
cluux;h of St. Anne, where the Virgin was born, and 
close to the spot where the woman was healed by 
touching his garment, and on the left the Pool of 
Bethesda, where "The angels used to come from 
he.ivenand bathe," we have, to the right, a small 
tower of modem construction upwards, but ancient 

below, which is regarded as one of the five towers of 
Fort Antonia, and stiuids by an archway of I'.ointcd 
architecture. A few paces to the left of this is a 
small ])orch; hero was said to have boon the celebrated 
S'cala Sancta, or Sacred Staircase, up and down which, 
on his way to Hoitxl's I'alaco and back, and also, 
after his delivery to the soldiers, the Saviour must have 
severaltimesascendcilanddcscended. Itwosramoved by 
the pious care of tho Eni|ieror Constantine to St. John 
the Lateran's convent. This gate opene<l into the Piie- 
toriumbytheguanl-roomofthe Romansoldiers. An iron 
door under a gateway here, about twenty paces further 
up, leads into the Convent of the Flagellation, which 
marks the place where the soldiers mocked and scourged 
Our Lord. The early Christians raised a chapel on this 
spot ; one Quaresniius will tell you how this church 
was in ruiiia in 1C18, and how the son of the 
Governor of that day reiiaireil it and made a stublu 
of it, and how on tho night of tho 14th January, 1019, 
the ffite of the Holy Name — all tho horses placed 
in it died, and so tho Turks abandoned the buildings. 
A pious Pilgrim, Duke Maximilian, of Bavaria, saw 
it in 1838, deplored its condition, and paid for rebuild- 
ing the convent and chapel. There is still to bo seen 
a beautiful mo.saio |)avcmcnt, whether of the Prietorium 
or the original Chapel is doubtful. 

Coming out of this gate wo have before us the Palace 
of Pilate,nowonlyaruincd portion ofahouse. ATurkish 
post use it for barracks. It commands a charming 
view of tho (Temple) E<<planade of tho Mosque of 
Omar, and tho gai-dens ind corridors, and marble pulpit 
of that sacred locality isee p. 33), from that up|X!r 
chamber, whera you may see tuo Turkish colonel 
smoking at the window as ho tranquilly enjoys the 

Christ having been scourged with rods, crowned with 
thorns (probably of the cactus, as thorny and common) 
and dressed in a jjurplo robe, was presented to the Jews 
by Pilate. Ecce Ilomo I "Behold the man !" exclaimed 
the Judge, and you still see the window from which 
these memorable words wci* pronounced. 

Over against the northern corner of Pilate's hovse 
the arch of the Etce Homo crosses the street. A lofty 
gateway with a narrow gallery at the top, from which 
Pilate is said to have addressed the Jews on delivering 
the Saviour into their hands. 

Ecclesiastical tradition commences from these 
points, the numbering of what are called "The Stations" 
of our Lord's, journey to the crucifixion. 

Passing through the arch with the procession of 
people, soldier?, and the meek Saviour, sorely burthened 
with his cross, we look up tho narrow street, and wa 
see it rapidly ascending, sometimes open, at others, 
gloomily covered with arches. The walls on either 
side rise like those of a piison. There is just such 
a place within Newgate, whence the prisoners pass 
from the cell to the gallows. It is called the Debtor's 
Yard, and has a passage just such as this — no 
wider; with just such walls and stones, which, marked 
with numbers, the turnkey will jraint out to your 
shuddering attention as denoting the graves of 
murderers, the very mention of whose names, with tho 
memory of the awful crimes associated with them, is 
appalling. Go there and imagine this Via Doloroaa. 
The stones are rugged and slippery. A few small 
doorways or grated windows, or a rare wooden lattice, 
open into it; and at these bend the spectators, gazing 
on the Procession of Death. We mount the steep 



Mcent until we turn the street by which stands the 
neatly built hoiuoof the Austrian Consulate. At this 
corner, on the left, is a column, which murks the " Third 
Station," being the jilace where 0\ir Saviour (irst sank 
down under the weight of the C'rosti. Turning our 
I ftcks to this column, we see on the side of this street 
a dilapidated church, — what is left of the niins of " Onr 
Lady of Sorrows," — built on the spot where the Holy 
Mary — who had been ntfirstdrivonoway by the guards — 
met her Son, bundiug beneath the weight of the Cross, 
St. Boniface and St, Aiuielm have preserved the tra- 
dition, which the love of every Christian mother has 
perpetuated, Mary, we know, was at the foot of the 
Cross, with Mary, the wife of CleophoB and Mary Mag- 
dalen (John xix,, 29). St, Boniface tells us, that the 
Virgin " sank to the ground as if lifeless, and could 
not utter a single word," St. Anselni asserts tliat 
Christ said, "Hail, mother!" "Eighteen centuries of 
persecution without end," says Chateaubriand, " of in- 
cessant revolutions, of continually increasing ruins, have 
not been able to erase or hide the traces of a mother 
going to weep over her son," This is the " Fourth 

Tho road, which before ran east and west, makes 
hero a sharp angle, and turns to the north and south, 
tho Via Dolorosa continuing in tho latter direction — 
tho former trending np to the Damascus Qate. Pro- 
ceeding southwards, about sixty yards to the left, we 
come to the House of tho Rich Man (Lukexvi. 1.), 
now a Military Hospital. Tho stones of which it is 
built arc laid in courses of red and white, so that you 
can easily recognise it. Clost? by here, the Jews, seeing 
tliat their victim was not able to carry his Cross auy 
longer, caught hold of Simon the Cyrenean, who was going into the city toward.s tho Gate of Ephraim (a 
Ntreet from which leads up here), and made him assist 
in can'ying it. This is the "Fifth Stotion." A niche 
in the wall at tho angle of tho street on our right 
hand, shows at a short distance on the left the broken 
shaft of a column marking tho situation nf the house, 
on the threshold of which Berenice, afterwards known 
as Saint Veronico (or the Holy Woman of tho True 
Image), canio forth to wipe the sweat of agony from 
the suffering Saviour's brow, and received on her hand- 
kerchief the full impress and .-l-amcter of His Holy 
visage. This is the " Sixth Station." 

Here ends tho Via Dolorosa and commences tho 
descent of Calvary, Here begins what an Amci'ican 
missionary has called " the most interesting half aero 
on tho face of tho earth ;" for within that space are 
Mount Calvary, Golgotha, and tho Holy Sepulchre, 
the scene of our Lord's Passion, 

We have reached the top end of the Via Dolorosa, 
and begin now to descend. We now p,iss through a 
portion of a vaulted Turkish bazaar, and on coming 
out again, see three columns denoting tho spot of 
another, the third, fall of Our Saviour under his 
oppressive burthen. Each time was he driven forwai-d 
as we are told, by the blows and revilings of the im- 
patient soldiers, amid the tears of his followers, and the 
pitying daughters of Jerusalem, and the outcries of the 
fanatic party of the Jews, many of whom — strangers 
from the outer country — were present for tho Feast. 
Up the little street to the right, and we reach the 
square of the church of Calvory, or of tho Besurrection, 
which is included, together with that of the Discovery 
of the Holy Cross — three Churches, under the one roof 
of the Church of the Holy Sepulchre. 



Thus far wo have traced tlio Sacred Scene. It is 
impossible even to peruse, in the Gospels, the mournful 
history of Our Lord's sufferings, without the most jiain- 
ful emotion. What must be tho feelings of a Christian 
mind, when, with ])rofound and melancholy admiration, 
it traces the scenes around, and follows the very foot- 
steps of the Saviour at the foot of Mount Zion, in 
sight of tho Temple, and within the very walls of 
Jerusalem ! The Via Dolorosa itself is only a milo 
in length, but it has taken just two houra to ascend it 
to the present point. It has been calculated that the 
distance traversed by the Saviour between the " Upper 
Room" and Golgotha, was from four to five miles; 
from Zion to Gethsemane, 900 yards ; Gethsenmno to 
House of Annas, 2,400 ; House of Annas to High 
Priest's Palace, 2,100 ; High Priest's Palace to Council 
House, 400 ; Council House to Pra:torium (in Auto- 
nia), 400 ; Pnetorium to Herod's Palace, 1 ,000 ; Herod's 
Palace, back to Pnetorium, 1,000 ; Prtetorium to Gol- 
gotha, COO. Total yards, 8,000. 

Wo may now step acro?s the square and proceed on to 
the awful consummation of the day's proceedings as set 
forth before us in the magnificent and world-reuowncd 
Church of the Holy Sepulchre. 


The representation we have given of this noble 
Church (page 9), taken us it is, from a photograph, and 
therefore unexaggerated, will give a correct notion of 



tho maguificent ;haractcr of this august edifice, which, 
in its combination of style, calls to mind memories of 
tho Cnisailprs, n.s well ns the Byzantine age of its 
erection. The Convents that cluster round it, as if 
under its sacrctl shelter, add to its impressive ma- 
jesty by increiiMO of area, and to its iiicture.squeness by 
tlieir harmonious iiTcgularity. Constantine's mother, 
tho Empress Helena, built tho Chureh of the Holy 
Sepulclu'e. It has Ixicn fire<l and ravaged, but not 
destroyed ; and though restoretl and in some parts re- 
built by the Crusaders and other Christians, ancient or 
otherwise, retains its ancient foi-m, Wlien Jerusalem last 
frll under tho Muhammadan yoke, the Syrian Christians 
ransomed the Chuixih of the Holy Sejmlchre witL a 
considenible sum, and monks repaired thither to defend 
with their prayers a spot entrusted in vain to the arms 
of kings. It is said that., witliin three centuries of 
Our LokI's saciifice, tho Christians obtained jicrmia- 
siou to buMd, or mthcr rebuild, a chureh iver the 
Tomb, and to ciitloco in the now City the sjwt venerated 
by the Christians. These places were afterwards pro- 
faned, but i-ecovered and restored by the Princess 
Helena. Tho letter of Constantim; the Emperor, to 
2\Iucurius, Bishop of Jerusalem, is still extints in which 
he commands liim to erect a church on the place where 
tho great mystery of Salvation was accomplished. 
Coming into tho coui-t, we observe the pavement — 
worn under the feet of innumerable rilgrims — the 
high tower, the Saracenic arches of the windows and the 
entrance, as well as tho ruins of pillars of Byzantine 
architecture. This court is paved, you see, with the 
common flag-stone of Jerusalem, and is about ninety 
feet long by seventy wide. The two ample doorways 
are elaborately ornamented, but the whole is gi-eatly 
dil.ipidatc( . The tower on the west lias a grand effect : 
there are now but two stories, and the ruins of a third, 
li;it there were once five. The under story is the 
Chapel of St. John ; south of it is that of Mary i[ag- 
dalene, and adjoining this is the Chapel of St. James ; 
connected with it and facing the western aide of the court, 
is a i-ange of chapels; the apse, or semicireidar operlng 
behind the altar, (by which the priest passes to pre- 
pare tho Host), appearing externally as buttresses. 
The whole is a vast and beautiful monument of the 
Byzantine age, of an architectui'e severe, solemn, grand 
and rich. The monument appears, if not worthy of 
the Tomb of the Son of Man, certainly of those whose 
wish has been to do it honor. The small Mosque 
which faces this magnificent edifice was built by Omar, 
when, after conquering the city, he came to offer his 
prayer at tho Holy Tomb. But a difficulty arose in 
the gcncreus mind of tho pious Chief of the Faithful. 
The act of his kneeling there would immediately, accord- 
ing to usage, have converted tlie whole building into 
a mosque, and so deprive<l the Ohristians of tlsir most 
cherished monument Desirous, withal, of not passing 
tho Tomb of tho Prophet Jesus without offering up 
his thanks for the victory ho had obtained, Umar 
ordered the place on which this mosque stands to be 
cleared of the filth and ruing which encumbered it, 
and, prostrating himself there, addressed a namaz, or 
prayer, to the Etenial, of which the mosque itself 
was, subsequently, erected in commemorat'on. The 
property in the Chureii of the Holy Sepulchre 
IS vested in the Snitan, as a means of ensuring 
free_ and joint access to all communities of the 
Christians and Turks : whose representatives, resident 
ou the B[)ot, would otherwise, as they too oilcn do 

even now, profane it by their indecent qnarrela Even 
DOW, Turks and Christians alike unanimously refuse 
admission to the Jew, who, an a desceudaut of the 
Saviour's murderers, would enter at tho sure peril of bis 
life. The key ii in the hands of the governor of tho 
CHy. The door is opened only at fixed houi-s, and then 
only with the consent of the three convents, Armenian, 
Latin, and Greek. The rush of pilgrims this day 
is something tremendous: we have some difficulty 
in pushing our way through the motley throng. 
Eveiy man of any sensibility must feel affected at the 
sight of so many people of all nations, thus pressing 
to the tomb of Christ the Saviour of all, and at hearing 
prayers offered up to Him in so many different 
languages, here on the very spot where the Holy 
Spirit gave to twelve humble men, the Apostles of God, 
the gift of speaking in all the tongues of the earth. 

With this serious and solemn imprecision we enter tho 
nave, i)a.ssing the Turkish giutrd, who, sitting on a divan, 
in the western entrance, have their coffen cups and pi|)es 
placed before them on the carpet. Pilgrims, travellersand 
visitors of every hue and dye of the Frank order, are ex- 
pected, if not required, *.o make bare both head and foot 
ou entering any of the saired localities of the Holy City, 
whether Jesuit, Moslem, or Christian ; and at the 
Holy Sepulchre, the visitor is expected to doff his shoes 
as well as his hat : nor must you cross your bonds 
behind your back, or show the slightest gesture of 
"taking it easy," or longing disresi)ect — if such vul- 
garity of mind could by possibility display itself within 
such precincts, or in the presence of such memories. 
We see, at once, on issuing from the vestibule, that 
we are in the first of the three churehes that 
constitute the great whole, and that tho Churoh of 
Calvai-y, the first we enter, is built in the form of a 
cross, the Cba|)cl of the Holy Sepulchre constituting 
in fact the nave of the edifice. We stand at once 
under the krge cupola of the dome. This grand rotunda 
is most strikiug and impressive. It rises to a height 
of about one hundred feet, and the circular opening 
at the top, for light, is about fifteen feet in dia- 
meter. We have to observe, that to tii'< rhnme of 
Christendom the roof is out of repair, for tli'< covering 
of lead has been torn off by the wind, and there is a 
contest for ilie right of repairing it Sixteen marble 
columns adorn the circumference of this rotunda. 
They are connected by seventeen arehes, and support 
an upper gallery, likewise composed of sixteen columns 
and seventeen arehes, of smdicr dimensions than those 
of the lower range. Niches cor.-esponding with the 
arches appear above the frieze of the second gallery, 
and the dome SP' iugs from the arches of these niches. 
The pictures ^f the twelve apostles, St Helena and 
the Emperor Constantinc, with some other portraits, 
unknown, that once adorned these niches, were 
destroyed by the fire in 1808. Tho Church of tho 
Holy S'>pulchre stands at the foot of Calvary, its eastern 
front adjoins that eminence, beneath and upon which 
are .he two other churches connected with it by courts 
and itaircases. 

Vv'o have omitted to mention that in tb<« original 
dome were large beams of the cedars of Libanon,' 

' The Cedkr of tho Bible U now coafined to one kx«!!ty. The 
celebnted Cedan of Lebanon are ntoatcd high op In the mountain i, 
ten houn (or abont t«entT.«iKh( miles) sontb cast ttaa 'l'>ipok^ 
Beiherrah !• directly weet in the romantio gorge of the Kbadluw, 
two tboniand feet below then, and Ehden U three boon' dirtant 
on the road to Tripoli. In ov other port of Syria are the mountains 

-J I 


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c. .. «ai^.: •'i'r.ili Mil' 

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destroyed by the fire of 1808, and impossible to be 

The Greek church opens from the Botunda, and is 
in a line with it, though separated by a partition of 
painted wood hung with pictures and singularly profuse 
with ornaments of every cescripilon. It is a gorgeous 
iifiair; blazing with gold quite up to the dome. It has 
a high altar at the east end, and wide transepts at the 
west, and is about a hundred feet from west to east, 
and the same from north to south. The dark-looking 
chapel of the Latins, opening from the north-east, will 
not sustain a comparison with the gorgeous glitter of 
the Greeks ; nevertheless, these churches altogether do 
not fail to create a solemn and impressive feeling. 
Erected as they are on an unequal surface, illumined 
by a miUtitude of lamps, a sombre, dim, religious light 
(lervades the whole, and is singularly mysterious. 
Priests of the diffurent divisions of Christianity are 
seen moving about the building. From the arches 
above, from the chapels below, and subterranean vaults, 
their songs are heard, the organ of the Latin fathers, 
the cymbals of the Abyssinian priest, or the plaintive 
accents of the Coptic friar, alternately or at once assail 
the ear. You inlude the perfume of incense all around, 
and merely perceive the pontiff — who is going to cele- 
brate the moat awful of mysteries on the very spot 
where they were accomplished — pass quickly by, glide 

>o alpine, the proportioiu to gigantic, the rnfl itio proronnd and 
awrul. The platform on which they atand i« more than ilx thon- 
•and feet above the Mediterranean', and around it are gathered 
tlio very tallest and gmyett heads of Lchanon. The fotcat ia not 
large, not more than five hundred trees, great and anull, grouped 
irrcgulurly on the sides of shullaw ravines wliich mark the birth of 
the Khailislia river. A niglit amoni; the cedara is never for- 
gotten— heneath the giant arms of tlictc old pntriarchi there come* 
a solemn liusli upon the soul. 8ime of the trees are ttmck down 
by lightning, broken by enormous loads of snow, or torn to frag- 
ments by tempests. There is a complete gradation from old to 
young— young trees are constantly springing up from the roots 
of old ones and from seeds of ripe cones. The girth of the 
largest is more than forty-two feet : the height of tiie highest 
may be one hundred. These largest, however, part into two or 
three only a few feet fVom the ground. Their age is very uncertain, 
judging flrom what are called the groKthi or annual concentric 
circlet. The birth of tome of them ma^ be carried bock three 
tliouaand five hundred years. They are carved full of names and 
dates, iud the growth since the earliest date hat been aliaatt 
nothing. At this rate of increase they miut have been growing 
ever since the Flood ! 

■ Of the fire which attacked the tomb in 1808, the fol- 
lowing account it given by on eye-witnesis — "The heat 
was to eicetsive, that the marble columni which nirroimded 
the circular building, in the ceutre of wliich stood the lacrcd 
grotto, were completely pulverised. The lamp* and chan- 
delier*, with the other vessel* of the Church- bras*, and ailver, 
and gold— wore melted like w«X| the molten lead from the 
immense dome, which crowned the Holy Sepulchre^ ponied down 
in torrents j the Chapel ei ected by the Crasadcrs on tue tup of the 
monolith was entirely consumed ; lialf the ornamental hon^nss 
in the ante-cliape) of the Angel were scorched ; but the cave itself, 
though deluged with a shower of lead and buried in a roonntain of 
fire, received not the sliglitest injury internally i the lilk haiwing* 
nnd the painting of the Ilesurrcction remaining, in the mi£t of 
the volcanic erupUon, unscathed by flame, tlie amell of fire not 
having passed upon them." This was not tliefirtt escape of the 
Holy Hepulchte fVom destruction by fire. In 969 the Kalipb 
line* gave order* to destroy the building*^ aa fkr, at leaat, at 
deetmetion could be eompa**ed by fire i aid during the Khalifiite 
of El-IIakim, the prophet of Iho Druse*, in 1010 tb* chapd of the 
Holy Sepulchre was dcfliced and special eflbrta made to deslrogr it. 
Qlaber, a contemporary chronicler, reUtes that thtnr ndaavoored 
to break in pieces even the hollow tomb of the sepakhr* with iron 
hammers, bat withont ancee**, and Andemor, another ehroniclCT 
and pilgrim, atate* that whan they fonnd it impoasibla to break 
in piecea the stones of the monument, they tried to destroy it by 
the help of fire, but that it remained firm and solid a* adamant. 

behind the columns, and vanish in the gloom of the 

There are some seventy "stations" within, and con- 
nected with this mass of buildings, and a visit to them 
all is no light achievement. The whole pile of edifices 
is three hundred and fitly feet long from St. Joseph's 
sepulchre, within the "aisle on the west of the Rotunda, 
down to the extremity of the Chapel of the ' Inven- 
tion' on the ea«t, and it is not less than two hundred 
and eighty feet to the north side of the apartments 
belonging to the Latins. We will, therefore, for the 
sake of a more lucid order in visiting the shrines, 
resume our footsteps in the procession of Our Lord 
towards Calvary, and pass through the localities of the 
last impressive scenes described in the Evangelists, 
We enter the Latin Chapel, and cross it to where, at 
the right hand, is the Altar of the Scourging, where, 
through an iron railing, is a portion of the pillar to 
which the Saviotur was attached while flogged by the 
soldiers in Pilate's court-yard. There are pilgrims 
here, like the curious country folks who, when they 
visit London exliibitions, desire to touch everything. 
For these is provide<l a long stick, with a handle outside, 
which the pilgrim thrusts in to touch the pillar, and 
then draws out to kiss the point, made sacred, as ho 
supposes, by the contact. Pnasing hence, to the ex- 
treme of the left nave, wo enter a small vaulted 
chapel— seven feet long, and six wide^-called the 
Chapel of the Bonds, where Our Ijord was confined 
pending the preparations for his crucifixion. This 
chapel is on the opposite side to Mount Calvaiy. In 
the circular cave adjoining is the shrine of St. Lon- 
ginuB, the Jewish soldier who pierced Our Lord's side 
after his death. Hero ho retired after the deed, and 
reflecting on what ho had seen, received the inspiration 
of his new faith. In this chapel the inscription on the 
Cross is said to have heev long preserved. Very close 
to this is the "Chapel of the Division of the Gar- 
ments," five paces long and three broad, standing on 
the very spot where Jesus was stripped by the Soldiers 
before he was nailed to the Cross, where they mocked 
him, cast lots for his apparel, and divided it among 
them (John xix., 23). This is called the " Tenth Sta- 
tion." Leaving this chapel, and turning to the left as 
we come out of it, we find a great staircase pierced 
through the wall — (on the other side of this opening 
is the small " Chapel of the Mocking") — and, diving 
down, dark and mysteriously, into a kind of cellar dug 
out of the rock, pass by a flight of thirty broad stairs 
down to a moat striking spot, on the left. This is the 
Cha[x>l of St. Helena, a large chamber, nearly a square 
of eighteen paces, with a small cupola in the centre, 
having four small windows, that admit a dim light. 
The cuimla springs from arches supported by four short 
Byzantine pillars, with ponderous but picturesque capi- 
tala. Strings of ostrich eggs, suspended from pillar to 
pillar, and a few silver lamps, are the only ornaments. 
The pavement is broken and rugged. Hero the 
Empress Helena ofi'ered up her prayers, and here ia 
the marble chair on which she sat and watched the 
workmen digging for tho True Cross. Lower and 
lower wo descend, by thirteen steps, into tho subtcrra- 
ncMi cave." This is covered with red tapestry, and a 
marble shib, bearing on it a figure of tho Cross, closes 
up the mouth of the pit from which the venerated relics 
of the True Cross were dug out, "together with tho nails, 
the crown of thorns, and the head of tho spear, after lying 
buried in this place upwards of three hundred years. " 




There are but few lights here — the scone is solemn 
and impressive: what wonder that the o'crwroiight 
feelings of enthusiastic pilgrims have regarded even 
the moisture exuding from tiio heart of tiie rock as 
tears wept for son-ow at Our Lord's sufferings ! 

Returning up the double flight of steps, emerging 
from the sombre cavera to the still dim light of St. 

iNTiRign or the holy sepulcnm 

Helena's chapel, into the full- 
er twilight, as it then looked 
to us, of the great church, 
studded with lamps like stars, 
we feel the full effect of its 
solemn antiquity and sacred 
gloom, its dim retiring arches, 
and shadowy corridors, its 
lamps, and lights, and pictures, 
its pealing organs and chanted 
prayem; while fancy called 
before our mind the long array 
of knights and pilgrims who, 
century after century, through 
so many perils, had come to 
kneel around the Sacred Tomb, 
and, like us, turned their feet, 
shviddering and awe-struck, 
towards Calvary. Immediately 
after coming up the forty-nine 
stairs, we see, on our right, the 
"Chapel of the Mocking," a 
little place four yards long and 
two and a half broad, under the 
altar of which is a pillar of 
gray marble spotted with black, 
two feet high, on which Jesus 
was forced to sit down while 
the soldiersin mockery crowned 
him witli thorns, and ci-ied, 
" Hail ! King of the Jews !" and 
smote him. Forty yards far- 
ther on we come to a narrow staircase of eighteen 
marble steps, up which we a.>iccuded to the top of 
Mount Calvary, the place of the crucifixion. This 
]>lacc, once so ignominious, having been sanctified by 
the blood of Our Lord, was an object of particular 
attention of the fii-st Christians. Having i-emoved 
every impurity, and all the earth which was upon it, 
tliey surrounded it with walls, 
so that it is now like a lofty 
chai>el inclosed within this spa- 
cious church. It is fifteen feet 
squai-e, ])aved with marble in 
mosaic, and hung on all sides 
with silken tapestry, with 
lamps descending fi-om the 
ceiling. Two short pillars 
supiwrt the spring of two 
arches; that towards the north 
is the spot where Our Lord was 
nailed to the cross, and is the 
"Twelfth Station" of the Pil- 
grimage. Hero thirty -two 
lamps are kept continually 
burning, which are attended 
by the Franciscan brothers, 
who daily j)erform niaj.4 in 
this sacred place. In the 
other part, which is to the 
south, is where the Holy 
Cross was erected. You 
still see the hole dug in 
the rock to the depth 
of about a foot and a-half, 
besides the earth that was 
about it at the time. This 
is at the foot of a large 



altar at the eud, adorned with paiiiliiig.s and iigurca. 
Tinder that nltar is a round pliito of silver, with a 
liolo in the centre. On each side, rnther close, is 
another, wherein the crosfC" of the two thieves were 
erected. That of the >>»'l>,ent thief was to the north, 
and the other *'i *'.o »outh, so that the llr^t was on 
the Savioiu o riglit hand, who had his face turned 
towards the west and his back to Jerusalem, which lies 
to the east. Fifty lamps are kept constantly burning 
on this B|)ot, which is the " Tliirteonth Station." The 
thieves, it uiust be noticed, are wiid to liavo been 
buried, as was the custom with such culprits, chwe by 
their crosses — generally with them — and it is said that, 
imder the pavement of St. Helena's chapel is a IkjIIow 
jilace that was used for that purpose. Look down on 
this same platform of marble (for all is richly encased), 
and you will see some brass bars, having a silk cover 
over them. Lift that silken cover, and you will 
observe a fissure or crevice in a rock, — the rock that 
was rent asunder by the dying cry of Our Lord — in 
the agonies of Death — " My Ood I My God I why 
hast thou forsaken me!'' There is an iron grating, 
with steps, down which yon may descend and see the 
cleft, going further into, and splitting the rock.* 

Opiwaite this place is a large moiumient, said to be 
erected over the skull of Adam, — a singular Ai*ab 
tradition strangely connecting with the Saviour's death 
on this spot the first man through whom all sinned, 
and the God in man through whom the sins of ninn 
are remitted. There is evidently some very ancient 
tradition respecting a skull connected with this locality, 
for the names of Golgotha and Calvary given to it in 
the old times are, otherwise, inexplicable; and the 
learned, who have not taken this tmdition into ac- 
count, or perhaps have never heard of it, seem to have 
puzzled themselves greatly about the interpretation of 
these words. 

We descend from Calvary down by a second stai' 
case, that brings «s oat again to the jiorch of the 
Church ; so tliat we now see before us, level with its 
l>avement, surrounded by a railing, with six colossal 
candlesticks burning beside it, a long flat slab of white 
marble, not quite eight feet in length and about ton 
feet in width, round which crowds of pilgi-iuis, old men, 
young women, and children are prostrating themselves 
— the rich man and the beggar, the pale Frenchman 
and the swarthy Copt, kneeling, praying in all attitudes, 
and kissing the " Stone of Unction," for such it is; that 
upon which the body of our Loixl wtvs said to have 
l)een anointed with mvrrhs and aloes before it wivt laid 
ill the Sepulchre. This consequently is the '• Four- 
teenth Station." This stone is by some saitl to l)e of 
the sitmo rock a.s Mount Calvary ; othei-s assert that it 

' Henry Mnumlrcll, in liis jonrnnl (1C97), says ; " At iilwut oiio 
yard nml a-linlftlistnnco from the hole in wliicli tlio foot of tlie 
cross was fixnl, is seen that moinomblo clcll in the rock, said to 
have been made by tlio earthquake wbich liappencd at tlie suHcring 
of the Ood of nature, when, as St. Matthew witnosseth (Math. 
Jxvii., 51.), ' Tlio rooks re:it, and the very irravci were opened.' 
This cleft, as to wliat now appear) of it, is about a »|ian wide at 
its tipper part, and two deep, after wliich it closes, l)ut it oiwns 
again below, as you may see at another clinpel, contiguous to tlio 
tide of Calvary, and runs down to an unknown depth in the earth. 
That this rent was made by tlic eartb(|uako that happened at Our 
Lord's passion, there is only tradition to prove, but that it is a 
natand and genuine breach, and not counterfeited by any art, 
the sense and reason ^f every one that see* it may convince him ; 
for the sides of it fit Ilk) two tallica to each other, and yet it 
rani in such intricate wii.iings, as cannot well be counterfbitsd 
by art, nor arrive ! at by any tuttrumonti." 

was brought to this place by Josejdi of Arimathca and 
Nicoilemus, who were secret disciples of Jesus (Jhrist. 
There arc pieces <if it to bo seen in dilii'i'ciit |>iirts ot 
Europe, which arc of a gi'cciiish colour; indeed, so 
iiiiliscreet were pilgrims in breaking away relics that 
the whole wouM have been lust, and it wivs at last 
found necoasjiry to cover it with white marble and 
surrouml it with an iron railing. On tin' left is 
another .spot encircled also with laiiiuf.', and having a 
lamp burning within it. Here sIockI " the women,' the 
Virgin Mother and Mary Magdalene, and the sister of 
Lazarus, sadly gazing on the loved and honoui-ed dead 
during the anointing. 

The Entombment follows the Anointing. It is the 
last stage (the Fifteenth Station of the pilgrimage) in 
the awful story. Thirty paces further on, to the right, 
wo arc under tho cupola ; just in tho centre of 
the great dome, approached by a slightly elevated 
platform, reached by two steps from the side, but 
gradually led tip to from the front, we perceive sixteen 
golden candlesticks, exceeding tho height of a man, 
with blazing wax candles of colossal dimensions, placed 
in front of a beautiful CEdicula or small marble church 
enclosing the tomb in which the Lord of Life lay in 
death. It stands quite alone, and is about ten feet in 
breadth and twenty feet in height, and twenty-six 
feet long. It is here that tho ]iilgrim is ex|)ected to 
throw off his shoes, " for tho place is holy." We 
enter within the first of the two sanctuaries into 
which it is divided ; here is the stone where the Angel 
was seated when he addressed the two Maries 
" He is not here, but he is risen ;" and, as well on 
account of this, and to prevent tlic Sepulchre from 
being entered, the (ii-st Christians erected before it 
a little chapel, which is called the Angel's Chajiel. 
The .seetmd Sanctuary incloses the Sepulchre itself, 
which i.', in fact, the rock that contained the Sepulchre 
hewn bodily away, as the rock itsclt can be .seen under 
tiiu lintel of the low entrance. Within is a sarcophagus 
covered with white marl>le,and the rock itself is all ca.sed 
round with greenish marble, like verd-antique. Forty 
lamps of gold and silver, always burning night and day, 
light this chaitel. The air is warm and balmy with 
perfinne. You enter through a curtain, and if possible 
— exci'pt on such days as this, of Easter festival — alone, 
with but one guardian monk. The inti'iior of the 
Sepulchre is nearly .sipiare; it is six feet in length, 
(except an inch), and six feet (all but two inches) in 
breadth ; and eight feet high from the floor to the roof. 
Tho entrance, which faces tho east, is only f"ur feet 
high, and two feet and a quarter broiul, so that all 
must stooj) th'i' 'ter. Nor within is tliei-e much 
room, for the solid block of the same stone, left 
in excavating the other i)art, and hewn into the 
.s<ircophagus shape, is two feet four high, and being 
six feet (but one inch) long, and two feet wide, it occu- 
pies half the Sepulchre. On this table the bo»ly of Our 
Lord was laid, with his head towards the west, and 
the feet to tho east ; but on account of a notion of 
the Oriental Christians that, if they place their hair 
on this stone, God will never forsake them, and also 
because the pilgrims broke ofl" jiieces, it was covered 
with white marble. 

We enter with reverence, ond we come forth with 
awe. Such impressions admit not of woi-ds. " Death," 
says Chateaubriand, " lies conquei-ed and enchained in 
this monument" " All the pious emotions," says 
Lamortine, " which have affected our souls in every 



period of lilb ; all tho prayers that bavo been breathed 
from uur hearts and our lips in the name of Him who 
taught us to pmy to hiii Father and to oiini ; all the 
joys and gricft, of which these prayers were the intor- 
pretcrs, arc awakened in the depths of tho soul, and 
jiroduco by their echoes, by their very confusion, a 
bewildering of the understanding and a molting of tho 
heart which Kceks not language, but transpires in 
moistened eyes, a heaving breast, a prostrate forehead, 
and lii>s glued in silence to tho sepulchral stone." 

This stone has liccn aptly called tho material visible 
foundation uf tho whole edifice of Christians. Tho 
respect which all men ocknowledgo to have felt on 
coming near to these relics U one of the most remark- 
able facts in tho modern world. An incontestable 
tnith seems to take its departure from this spot. 
Doidjt, hesitate, suggest, as many do, — it has been found 
impossible by any to approach this one spot without 
awe and veneration. " To tho Christian or the philo- 
Nophcr," as has been finely said, "to the moralist, or 
to the historian, this tomb is tho boundary of two 
worlds — the ancient and the modem. From this ]K>int 
issued a truth that has reversed the universe ; a civili- 
siition that has transformed all things ; a woi-d which 
has echoed over tho whole globe. This tomb is tho 
sepulchre of the old world, cradle of tho new; never was 
earthly stone the foundation of so vast an edifice; 
never was tomb so prolific ; never did doctrine, inhumed 
for three days or three centuries, so victoriously rend 
the rocks which men had sealed over it, give the lie 
to death by so transcendent a resurrection." i 
1 Twelve yards from the Holy Scpulchi'o is a cliaiiel 
containing a largo block of gi-<?y marble, about four 
feet in diameter, placed there to mark the sjiot where 
Our Lord appeared to Mary Magdalene in tiio form of 
a gardener. (John xx., 16.) Farther on is the "Chapel 
of the Apijarition," where, as tradition asserts. Our 
Lord first apjieared to tho Virgin Mary, after his 
resuiTection. Tho Copts, a very small commimity, 
have an altar imme<liately behind the Holy Sepulchre 
itself. In a straight line from tliis, the Syrians have 
a cha])el, behind which is a small door between two 
pillai-s to the left, as we stand with our backs to the 
Holy Sepulchre. In this cavern are two openings, 
constituting, as we are told, the Tombs of Joseph of 
Arimathea and Nicodemus. As you pass from the 
entrance of the Holy Sepulchre, into the Greek 
Church, yon see in the centre, under the cuiiola, a spot 
marked out as the navel or centre of the world. But 
it is Easter Sunday, and the Turkish Guards are enter- 
ing, for it is now mid-day, and the great Greek cere- 
mony of the Sacred Fire is about to take place. We 
must pass, therefore, with rapid glance, tho Tombs of 
Adam and Melchisedek, an Arab and Turkish intro- 
duction into tho Church. Greeks, Arabs, and Copts, 
Germans, French and Italians crowd in upon the entrance. 

' Accordiiiff to Euaebiua, tlio Emperor Ooiutantine, being 
divinely moved thereto «oon after hia memorable vision of the 
Cro«», "/if hoe Migno riiKw*"— ("Under thia banner «h»!t then 
conquer") caiucd the dirt and other obitructiont with which 
lln(lrinn Imd covered tlie rocky cavern, ai well aa tlie sanctuary 
of Venus, tliat had been erected by liis order upon a vast hill of 
cnrth licnpcd over tlie ancient Christian chapel which marked hia 
shrine, to be removed, and a mnsniScent Temple to be built about 
It. The monticule containing the sepulchre of our Lord was cut 
on-ny until it beciinic only a foot or two in thickness around the 
cavern, wliiih seems at that time to hara been converted into a 
double-roomed sepulchre, and was oorered with aurUe within sod 

and all rush tumultuously towxuxls tho orifice on the 
right side of tho Holy Sepulclire. Tho Greek Arch- 
bishop, with a long I'otiuue of priests, marches in pro- 
cession round tho tomb. At last tho Archbishop enters 
tho Chtt|M;l of the A . , , ^1, and, after a few moments of 
awe-stricken silcncr he multitude expecting the 
Divine presence, ar ' iniraculous fire from within,— 
thnists through an 0]>ening in the CEdicula, a bunch 
of thirty-three wax candles — one for each year of tho 
Saviour's life. These are alight, and are received from 
him by a pei-son specially privileged.- It is im])ossible to 
dcscril)o tho tumult that ensues. There were thousandu 
of pilgrims of all nations ]>rcscnt, all in a state of frantic 
excitement, and they shouted and screamed. Tho 
tremulous motion of the arms of so many ]X!opIe at 
once raised above their heads was in itself surprising. 
Hands wcio cros,scd in every direction, torches blazed 
in every hand, and a mounted horseman waiting at the 
gate rides off full speed to Bethlehem to light up tho 
Greek altars there from this sacred fire. The Arch- 
bishop was carried back in triumph to his sanctuary, 
brandishing his torches as he went, and looking liko 
one possessed. The smoke of the torches, and the 
waving lights, and the shouts of the people, create an 
intensely exciting scene. The first huny is to get 
a light for the candle each cairics, and then each 
tries to snuff out his candle, after a short time, with 
his sktdl-cap of linen, called ttitie, and worn under 
the turban, tarbush, or fez. This is to be reserved 
for his burial head-dres-s. The noise increases, until 
fervour rises to fury, and enthusiasm becomes con- 
vei-ted to a riot ; so, at last, the Turkish soldiers 
quietly but imceremoniously clear the church of its 
excited and cxidting congregation. As wo go forth, 
wo look in at tho side of tho vestibule, at the tombs 
of Earls Baldwin and Gotlfrey de Bouillon, the cru- 
sading Kings of Jerusalem, which are two stone cofhus 
supported by four little pillars. The epitaphs, which 
were inscribed in Gothic letters^ but are now efiaced, 
may be Englished as follows : — 

" Here lies the renowned chieftain Godfrey of Bou- 
illon, v.'ho gained over the whole of this land to the 
worship of Christ May hLs soul reign with OhrLst. 

"Baldwin the king, another Judas Maccabeus, his 
country's hope, the strength of the Church, the valor 
of both, whom Candia, and Egypt, and Dan, and even 
the murderous Damascus, held in terror, and paid 
tribute to, lies below, inclosed within this tuurow tomb." 

irhe pious deliverers of Jenisalem were worthy of 
reposing near the tomb they rescued from the infidels. 
These are the only mortal remains interred near the 
shadow of the tomb of Chiist. 


From whatever part we view Jeru'ialem, the Moriah 
or Temple Enclosure, with its cypresses, minarets with 
eMilanade, and its domes and colonnades, and the 
Mosque of Omar the Great, forms a conspicuous object 
in the grand picture. To enter within these precincts 
is not easy. It was worth a man's head to do so a few 
years ago; but an Englishman first got in under the 
disguise of an engineer, then an American doctor, then 
an English artist, then some ordnance officers, then 
some naval officers of our own country, then a nnmber 
of Omar Pacha's Hungarian and Polish Mends : until, 



finally, tolenble interest with either Coniul, and the 
companyofan artist, supposed by the fanatic Mussulmans 
to be sketching for the purpose of repairs by the Architect 
Effendi, will open the way to you, or any one else, as it 
did to lu. 

We have seen the Temple of Solomon and of Herod 
fall under the arms of Titus, while not even the device of 
the Emperor Julian the Apostate, whodesired to raiscit 
in aggravation as he thought of the Christians, sufficed 
to execute the work. Firo springing from the earth, 
and terrible utterances, as we learn from Ammianua 
Marcelinus (xxiii., 1.), prevented the accomplishment 
of his impious defiant boast. But when the Caliph 
Omar took the city, he searched on tliia siwt, the 
ancient mountain of Moriah, where Abraham hod 
oflered up his son, for the sacred stone on which the 
Prophet Jacob, ' Tlie dreamer of Glod,' (Israel Allah) 
had laid his head during his vision. (Gteuesis xxviiL, 
10.) This he found, and cleared from the dirt that 
covered and surrounded it, and built upon it the 
Mosqtic, which he called Kubbah, orKubbet eHhSakhra, 
(the Dome of the Stone or Rock).' 

Abdul Malik the First, when he prohibited the pil- 
grimage to Mecca, and ]ilaced the Mosque of Jerusalem 
on a level with the Kaaba ut Mecca, aggrandized the 
value of the spot in Muhammedan eyes. The Cru- 
saders converted the Mosque into a Church. But 
Saladin restored the rights of Moslemism, and they 
tell us how he caused the Holy Place to be purified by 
washing the whole witli rose water, brought for the 
))urposo ov the backs of five hundred camels. At this 
day, Jerusalem stands next in Moslem estimation to 
Mecca and Medina, as the present concourse of pilgrims 
shows us, as well as the ])erpetual muttering of the 
pious, while reading the Koran for themselves and 
others. The Guard of seventy thousand angels is re])re- 
sented, visibly, by two hundred negroes, whose post or 
bamcks disguise the beauty of the esplanade (tee pi 33). 
In our view the area is free, the phot<^raph huving been 
taken early in the morning ; but, when we were there, 
you might have seen in every direction numerous groups, 
many of them composed of females, some kneeling in 
prayer, others gossiping, as is their custom on a warm 
afternoon. Dervishes in various costume, and people 
drawing water at the many fountains (there are 34) 
are also visible. The " Dome of the Chain," an exqui- 
sitely elegant building, a mosque on a small scale, 
stands in front of the Great Mosque on the Eastern 
side, between it and the Eastern Gate, where are some 
steiis up which fiurak, the steed that bore Mahomet 

' The only meritoriotu itttrnpt that has been mido to nrrive 
at some knowledge of what tliU Temple of Solomon and of 
Zerttbbabel waa, has been made by Mr. S. Sharpo. Tliat gentle- 
man proponnda, upon aoand dnto, that it was not n eovered 
Iniilding, as the Knglish word might lead us to anppoec. The 
Hebrew and Oivek words mean a h<i1,y place, which included 
several courts, in one of which stood the covered building of the 
House of the Lord. Hr. Sharpe believes that Solomon copied 
the pUn of some of the Enptlan temples, the simplest of which 
consisted of a covered building, with a court in fVont surrounded 
by a wall or colonnade. Such are the phuis oi' ine temples of 
Upper Egypt. In the Temple of Bubastis, in Lower Ktnpt, 
there was a wall surrounding the whole, so that the building 
stood not at one end of a court, as in the Theban temples, but in 
the middle of it. Solomon's Temple resembled in some respects 
both of these. There was a court in fVtmt of the house, and a 
yet larger court which inclosed the house with the inner court. 
The pweh of this tompio with two square pilhva— Jachiu and 
Booi— may be nplained by the pilbuv Id fh>nt of an Egyptian 

to Heaven, earned the prophet to his sacred rock. It 
is supported by seventeen marble columns, and here it 
is that the Prophet, as tradition says, saw the Houris 
during his nocturnal journey heavenwards. Here is 
a praying place turned towards Mecca, said to be the 
Mihrcd), or Praying Place of David; for, here was 
" David's Judgment Seat," they tell us. Nor was his 
toHk difficult, as to this spot came down a chain from 
Heaven — (hence the " Dome of the Chain") — to which 
each party in the suit stretched out his hand in 
swearing to his evidence, and from which a link dropjied 
off in case of iieijnty. David's people were not over- 
strict in evidence: for they swore away the whole 
clutin during his reign, and not a link of it, says 
Turkish tradition, existed in Solomon's time. The 
Eastern Gate hero is called "The Gate of Death." The 
northern gate (in front of us) is the gate of Paradise. 
On coming u]> into this second esplanade which rises 
from the great enclosure, we had to take off our shoes 
and put on red Hlipiiers, which arc sold for the ]nu'- 
pose in the bazars. The whole of the Haram onclosura 
as it is called, is very large, containing about thirty-five 
acivs, or 1600 feet on the east side, ICOO on the west, 
I 1000 on the north and 000 on the s<juth — including 
Fort Antonia on the north and the Mosque of El Aksa 
on the south. 

At the eastern end was, according to an Arabic 
MS. by Kadi Mejr-ed-din, the GeUe of Eepent- 
ance. " When an Israelite transgressed, his sin was 
found in the morning written on the door of his house ; 
then he went to this place to repent and beseech God. 
The sign of his pardon was the disappearance of the 
writing; and so long as it was not obliterated, he 
dared not approach any one." 

The Great Mosque is pannelled outside with beau- 
tiful aniliesque and mosaic work, and verses of the 
Korai in letters of gold, and both courts are paved 
with vhite marble. The Mosque, it will be seen, is 
octagonal, with a dome of an egg shape covered with 
lead, and a lantern with eight sides, having a window 
in each, a pinnacle under a crescent overtopping aU. 
The eight windows in the lantern are fitted wi'.ii stained 
glass, and the whole has a Saracenic appears '.ce. There 
are twelve porticoes like the cloisters of the Alhambra, 
of throe or four arehes, the largest of which is said to 
be the Beautiful Gate of St. Paul. Near the one on the 
south side, not visible in our illustration, stands a 
beautiful Muhammadau pulpit and staircase, the stair- 
case, pillars and arohea of which are exquisite specimens 
of Arabian taste. 

Within the Mosque the light is dimmed by the 
stained glass windows; the effect is one of a ri';h 
simplicity. The pavement as well as the walls ir. of 
marble, groy or white; 28 columns of porphyry form a 
concentric nave, a second range of sixteen columns sii|>- 
]K>rt8 a dome covered with golden arabesque ; but the 
general prevalence of pil'urs gives a Byzantine appear- 
ance to the building, and ha« led, in some quarters, 
to a suggestion that this may have been a snperstructuro 
raised by Constaiitiue.* 

' Father Roger tells of a curious legend. " Besides the thirty- 
two colums which support the vault and itome, tliere are two of 
smaller dimensions very near the west door, which are shewn to 
foreign pilgrims, who are made to believe that if they can pass 
with ease between those columns, tlioy are are predestined to 
share the Joys of Mahomet's iiaradhie." It is likewise said, that 
"If a Chnstian were to pau between these columns, they would 
ckse upon him and crush him to death." 



Immediately under thm dome is El Sukrab, or tho 
Itock, hIho called Hiidjnr, or tho Stone par excellence, 
a maxa of native rock, the solo remnant of tho top 
of Moriah, »ouio sixty feet long by fifty wide, and 
ten or twelve feot high on the lower side. It is Hur- 
rounded here by a railing of wood I'laborately canned 
and gilt. 

Soowulf, 8)peaking of this rock in tho t'nisaders' time, 
when ho niiulo liin jiilgriniago to Jerusalem, miys, " In 
this place Solomon placed the Ark of tho C'uvenant, 
having the manna, and the rod of Aaron, which 
floiirinhed and budded there, and produced almonds, 
and the two tables of tho Old Testament. Here Our 
Lord Jesus Christ, wearied with the violence of the 
Jews, was accustomed to repose; here was tho place 
of confession, where his discijiles confessed themselves 
to him ; hei-o tho Angel Gabriel appeared to Zacharias, 
saying, ' Thou slialt receive a child in thy old age ; ' 
here iiacharias, the son of Bcrachias, was slain between 
the Temple and the Altar; hero was tho ofl'ering of 
Our Lonl ; and hero ho wa.s found sitting in the midst 
of the Doctors ; tho footmarks of the Lord were her<' 
made wlicn ho concealed liiniself, and went out of the 
Temple, lest the Jews should stone him ; and, finally 
here tho woman taken in lulultery was brought before 
him for judgment." 

There are many niiu-e traditions, but we will go on 
with the Tm-kish legend, From this rock, Mahomet, 
after his celebrated night journey from Mecca, on the 
'"".-* I]l Burak, accompanied by tho Angel Gabriel (as 
describcu in the seventeenth chapter of the Koran) 
ascended to Heaven, leaving tho ])rint of his foot, 
which is an object of veneration to all true believers. 
Some say that tho impression of tho foot is that 
of tho prophet Enoch, called in Arab Ur Idrist, 
or tho studious. Ho was a great astrologer and the 
inventor of writing. His charity was ecpial to his 
knowledge, and to reward him God preserved him from 
death, and translated him alive to Heaven. This also 
is tho rock from which the four great rivers of the East 
How. It is said to be suspended in space, or supjwrted 
on an invisible palm-tree, which is itself held up by the 
mothers of the two grcvt prophets, Jcsusand Muhannned. 
The Blessed Mothers sit at the universal spring, busied 
in weaving garments for the just who have traversed 
Sirath (tho invisible bridge), without falling. Jewish 
tmdition makes this rock that on which tho Ark 

rested, within tho Holiest of ITolies, It was hidden 
by the curtain behind which tho High Priest alono 
had the right of entering to pronounce there tho holy 
name of God, — the pronunciation of which word, tho 
liabbis tell \is, is now lost, — tho letters only, of 
Jehovah, remaining to us. Down eight stops, wo como 
to a large chamber or cave hewn in the Uock. 
Around this are five hollow )ilaees, at which Alira- 
hani, David, Solomon, Jesus, and Muliammod are said 
to have successively prayeil. 

The cave is 8 feet high and 15 feet sfpiare. Tho 
ceiling of this cave is about four or live feet below tho 
siirface of tho rock, Irom four to six feet thick, and 
jpierced with an oval-shaped hole about three feet in 
diameter. Tho sides are plastered, " in order," as is 
said, " to produce tho imprcs'-ion that this immense 
rock is now supported by a wall of masonry," pcojilo 
having been frightened at seeing so large a rock su|>- 
ported on nothing ! There is a round piece of stone 
about tho centre of tho lloor, which marks tlio site of 
the Bir Arruah (Well of Souls), formerly kept open for 
tho convenience of holding intercourse with departed 
spirits — of the wicked, we ought to say, for this is 
supposed to bo the eutmncc to tlie Muhammedan 1 1 ell. 

There is something like a tongue cut in the rock 
above the entrance, ami this, they say, siwko to tho 
Caliph Omar very much after the fashion of the Irish 
echo, which replied to Pat's "How d'ye do?" with a 
" Very well, I thank you;" for when Omar, in his 





dullglit at fimliiig Jacob's Pillow, said to tho stone, 
K»h lalatn aleik ("Hoalth to you"); the olonc, not to 
bo beiiind in civility to tho iVophot's nophow, 
replied at once, " Tho Romo to yon ; " A leiki esh talaiii I 
Down in tho cave wo saw tho mark of Muhammed's 
turban, wliero ho knocked his head against tho wall in 
his fervour after thn rido in ono night from heaven to 
this place. Up stairs wo go — unable to believe any more 
— but horo wo arc shown on a dcnk tho Caliph Omar's 
copy of tho Koran, a MS, with pages four feet long, 
tho sword and standard of Ali, tho shield of Hamzeh, 
tho Prophet's companion, and a stone strongelv sha|icd, 
♦l,r> - ^.j,Jie of Burak, tho Prophet's mule! There is, a 
few jiaces from tho rock, a green slab of marble, with 
tho marl, sf eighteen nails, said to havo been of gold, 
ten onlj remaining. There are now only three iron 
nails left in it, and the priests say that at certain 
great events a noil is drawn, ond that 'ho three 
remaining, mark tho distance of time before the destruc- 
tion of the world, there being three ages only between 
us and that consummation. Then Issrafil is to sound 
Buvun (the trumpet of Death), and forty years after- 
wards, the trumpet of Kesurrcction, upon which tho 
judgment will ensue.* 

Coming out of tho mosque by the Gate of Heaven, 
which faces us in the viow (net page 33), and turning 
to thn loft, wc come to two little domed mosques or 
shrincH, w'>'i i iirble pillars. Tho nearest i.s that of 
Fatinif, tliu lophet's Daughter, whoso descendants 
ruled i I ^■■"' and Morocco as the Fatimite dynasty. 
The other j.; the Chapel of Muhammed's Ascension, and 
at the wall, close by, is the staple to which ho fastened 
Burak, while ho made a shoi-t prayer before ho started 
on that wonderful voyage, which was so rapidly exe- 
cuted, timt although he held various conversations with 
Moses and others whom he saw in Heaven, he returned 
in time to prevent the falling of a silver urn, which 
Uabricl'g wing happened to strike as they mouuted on 
high. Just within the east gate is the famous Well of 
the Leaf, concerning which there is a pretty legend, as 
follows : — 

" Tho Prophet said, ' One of my jHioplo shall enter 
into Paradise walking, while yet alive.' It hapj>encd 
in the time of Omar that some persons camo to Jeru- 
salem to pray. A man of the tribe of the Beni-Temin, 
named Sberif Ibn-Habasha, went to bring water for 
his companions, and his bucket fell into the well. He 
^' nt down to recover it, and found a door in tho well 
winch led to gardens. He entered tho door to the 
gardens, and walked in the gardens, and took a leaf 
from their trees, which he placed behind his ear. Ho 
rr 'ned by the well, came to the governor, and re- 

' Father Roger tells a dlftertnt stoiy. He aaya, apcaklng of tiM 
Rook, "At the dbtance of three nacee from these two colamns" 
(mentioned in a former note) "there is a stone in the pavement, 
which appears to be black marble, about two and a half feet 
square, and raised a little above the pavement In this stone are 
twentjr-thrc* holes, i' hich it seems as if then had formerly 
been nails, and ind« . two are yet ranaining. The purpose of 
these is not known) the Hnhammedans themselves believe that 
it was 00 this stone the prophets set their feet when they alighted 
fhim their horses to go into the Temple, and that Mubammed also 
alighted upon it when he arrived from ArabU Felix, on his Jonmey 
to Paradisa to hold consolution with Ood." 

8o Ikr Father Roger. But ^U Bqr reporii this stone to be 
"The Door ol Panxiine," and ai rs that IW devil palled out the 
nails when ha trio ,o enter th«,.^ '„„ was nrevnted by not 
being sbia to pall out Ibosa that remain. To thu mixture of Old 
and Mew Teatamaot Saints with Unbammedan Ieg'^'1^ later agea 
have added the aaM of Gaotge of Cappadoda. 

ported what he had found in tho gardens, and al)ont 
his cntvrins them, Ho sent some men with hint to 
tho well, who descended with him, but they did not 
find any door, n"r arrivo at tho gardens. And ho 
wrote to Omar, who answered, that the tradition of 
tho Prophet concerning tlio man that should enter 
Paradise alive, was true; but it should \xs ascertained 
whether tho lenf was fresh or dry; for if it had 
changed colour it could not be fr)m Paradise, where 
nothmg changes." The tradition adds, *! .. il.o lenf 
had not clmiigetl. At tho west gate, outside, are two 
birds, or something like them, in tho veins of tho 
marble, said to be two wicked magpies fixed in stone 
by Solomon, as a perpetual punishment and sign to all 
birds, that oven tho air was subject to his power, and 
that tho birds of the air were bound to reverence tho 
sanctity of tho Temple ho was then building to tho 

Wo now turn to tho South and proceed to tho 
Mosquo El-Aksa, originally a Christian foundation by 
Justinian on a portion of tho Tempio of Herod ; then 
again a Muhammcdan building; then again a Crusa- 
ders' Church and tho seat of tho Knights Templars; 
and now a mosque of the highest sanctity. It is 300 
feet in length, and includes the Mosquo Abu Behen, 
a largo Hall, princiiMlly used for educational purposes, 
400 in breadth. It is supposed to cover tho spot of our 
Saviour's Presentation or Purification, tho old chinch 
having borne that title. Tho front has a piazza of seven 
slightly pointed arches. This portico is said to have 
been at ono time completely plated with gold. The 
ceiling is flat, and supported by six rows of pillars, 
of brown marble, and there are three naves on each 
side. There is an enormous octagonal pillar, dedicated 
to Sidi or Lady Omar, and two granite columns, dedicated 
to tho Lady Fatima, which are said to have replaced the 
famous brazen pillars, Jachin and Boaz. One hundred 
and seventy lamps are hero burning brightly, being 
only ten less than blazo in the Orcat Mosquo of Omur. 
Below this mosque are vast vaults, tho truo sub- 
structure of the 'Temple of Solomon. There is an en- 
trance hall, fifty feet long and forty-two wide; and 
in tho centre of this hall is a column formed of one 
stono («ee page 48), six and a quarter feet in diameter, 
and barely ono foot high, with foliated capital of no 
special onler, but yet tasteful. This is certainly of 
the time of Solomon. From tho top of this spring 
the arches that support the fine dome constituting the 
ceiling. There is another pillar of an oval shape (««« 
page 51),at the northern end, and fourwhito Corinthian 
pillars attached to the doorway. There are nine steps 
right across the hall at the western end, which are 
blocked up. There is talk of tho furniture and trea- 
sures of tho Old Tempio being concealed on tho one 
side or the other of this passage; and a closed door 
on the eastern side seems to indicate a vacant space, 
but no attempt to open it has been made in modern 
times. At the south-east comer of tho Temple espla- 
nade, there are oi)en vast substructures, known as 
Solomon's stables. These are pia2za-like structures, 
on square pillars of gigantic bevelled stones, such ns 
are seen in the most ancient portions of tho hall. 
The whole of the under portion of the Temple area 
is pierced with caverns, and tanks, and archways, for 
sewerage and runningwater. Indeed, the under-ground 
of Jenisalcm is really moro ancient, and may ulti- 
mately prove more fruitful in sacred relics of the earliest 
ages, than what remains to be seen above ground. 



About midtTAy in tlio costcrnmosit range of these 
subt'Trniicnn nrcailt^s i\ rock is pointed out to us, and we 
are toUl that tliis in tlio jilnce where Solomon toitiircd 
♦.lie demon. Some bold follow in the oWoii time, 
who tlioiiglit that treasures were hidden iindor it 
stnipk at it with a pick-axe; but, nt the first llov, 
the clo\il cried out, " Let mo nlom. !" We noeil not 
say that the afl'riglitcd searcher aft 'r ntlicr ponple's 
property complied with this rnqiie.-l. Tliis rock is six 
feet high, four and a-h.'ilf long, and four luoad Hun- 
dreds of small ]iyramidal piles of (tones arc sren about 
the floor, deposited by ISIoslcm devotees from all parts 
of the world, and the roots of olil j)ine-trees hang ilown 
in mat<y places from the roof into which they have 
penetrated from the Ilanim above. 


A .soUN'D night's sleep — nowhere docs a man sleep 
so soundly as at Jerusalem, where be is all day 
enijdOycd in walking about from one famous object 
t) another — s«'rvc8 to clear our brains from the 
confusion and distortion of the grandeur of Old 
Testament Ilistor}', and the simplicity 6{ Christian 
truths, into the monstrous legends of Arab intixwture; 
and we start forth, at early dawn, with a party of 
Amb attenilanis, to finish our |>ilgrininge round the 
walls of Jerusalem. Our journey from St Stephen's 
Gate up the Mouat of Olives down through the Valley 
of Jel>.>shaphat and up to Mount Zion, has already 
earricd us halfway in the circuit, and made us masters 
of the eastern and southern sides. Wo have already 
crossed dnd n^rossed the City either way, and a 
journey, therefore, from St. Stephen's Gate round by 
the north ami western sides, ending where the Valley 
of Hinnom unites with that of Jehoshaphat, will com- 
plete our circuit. Tuniing to the left from St. Stephen's 
Gate by a naiTow path, tinder the walls, siupended on 
a ridge along the i)recipice of Gethsemane, we gradually 
.■iseend to the north-east angle of the City wall, which 
here goes oflf square and shar)). Turning by this 
angle, we perceive that the wall is hero protected by 
a fosse, and rests u|X)n a foundation of rocks, rising 
up into high cliffs, while there is another rocky ridge 
on the other side, the roadway i-ound the City jmss- 
ing between them. In fact, we are now niiou the 
ridge or crest of Bczctho, cut away by Ilei-od. It 
sJKHits up here to a hundrcil feet, a solid tower of rock, 
lietneen this point and the north east angle was 
the part seltvted by Tancred for his attack; hence, 
too, iSaladiu foRtil his way into tho City. A short 
distjuice farther is the mouth of a cavern in the rock 
on whic:h the wall is built. It leads under the houses 
of the eity, the first hall extending seven hundred and 
fifty fect.aml U'lng three ihousaud feet in circumference. 
It is cvidi'iitly the quarry from which the stone of tho 
Temple and other great Jewish buildings were cut, and 
it seems t<> have been known to the Cnisatlers, though 
not o)M'neil to modern ius|)ection until within ii>e last 
ten yesirs. There are many intricately meandering 
possngi's leading to larger halls fui-ther within, with 
walls white "as driven snow," and snp|Kirte<I on 
eolossid pillars of irregidtr shape, as left by the stono- 
hewei-s. Tlifse ore evidently the quarries of King 
Solomon, and, not imju-obably. King Herod cut 
through tliem in digging out the fosse in which 
wc MIX" now walking ; for we are only two hundred feet 


■EMAlk tf AieiEHI TEHrLI llllli. 





from a similar cuvcrnous exPUVBtion, the reputed 
Grotto or Cave of Jcrcmiiili, on tho ojtposito hill uf 
Sahara, near to a Turkish burial-ground of sucli bad 
repute, for tho living at least, that no ono will venture 
near it after sunoet. ThiH cavo is deeply sunk in a 
brown ridgo of n.;k, by the way-side, and is a [iroibund 
and gloomy cavern, aliout fifty yards ileep, supported 
by two enormous natural ]>illura of rock. Tlu'rc is a 
court or 0|ien iioHsage in front of it, and a wall with 
gt-vorul houses, for the place has been \iscd as a (piarau- 
tiiie station, a dervish (a very civil jicrsonuge) acting ns 
its guard and showman. There is a miniaturo luko 
or vast cistern, generally on tho floor, and under- 
neath, tho water of which is bnghi, and ])ui-e. Thu 
cavo is divided into {lartitions, nests or dwelling for 
the sick or suspected, and is othorwiso, with plaster 
and whitewash, made to look clean, tidy, and actually 
couifurtablo. For its being Jeremiah's Pool or Cavo 
there is, of course, no sutKcient authority. The place 
wiiero the prophet was confined, and tho jiit where ho 
scukiuthomire, wei'cinthuKing'scourt(Jer.xxxvii. 21.,) 
This cavern, though of great size, has a limited aspect 
in comiNirison with tho unknown "aptness of the 
quari'ies on tho other side, in which tho whole City, 
for aught we know, might be stowed away. Then' 
."angc is as immense as that of the catacombs of I'uris, 
but they have been unexplored for ages ]iast, 

A little to the letl — as we stand with our faces 
towards the City wall — a whole nulo of towers and 
battlements at one view, in a l>right simlight — old 
and yellowish in tint, aiul crumbling minutely, yet 
large and massivo in their whole aH|MH:t — is " Herod's 
Gate," now closed up. It is also called " the (iate of 
Flowers," and is tho gate where the Kmpn>ss Helena, the 
mother of our countryninu — for Constuntine the tJreat, 
and tho first Ciu'iatian Emperor, was an Kuglish- 
nian, and bom at \''ork — enterc<i in {wnano-, us u 
humble suppliant, in all her iiower, for Gisl's niei-cy and 
forgivonens of her sins. Wu are now nt about thu 
highest ]>art of the wall, and this gate towers high on 
the hill which hence Wgiiw to descend to the Uato of 
DanuiHCUS. All along here the olive trees gi. tf cloxe 
up to the vrall, and it is a ]>rctty sight to w*e thb doxes 
and other birds flying backwards and forwnnls ,r'>m 


the trees to the old wall and from the old wall to the 
trees. Tho Jews of old, it will be rcmembci-cd, were 
great pigeon fiinciei-s', and the dove houses and pigeon 
towers of old Jerusalem were quite an institution. This 
Damascus gate, " the tower that looketh over towards 
Damascus," Is as it now stands, exteniiilly, a chai-raing 
nionimuul of A nib taste, flunke<l by two towers and 
crowned with arali<f<iue battlements of stone in tho 
form of turbans (ace page 13). It is undeniably the 
finest of all the gates of Jtrus:ilem, and in its gatewoy 
j w»! notice whi;t is remarkable as a first example of 
the jKiiuted arch, which the Crusad.i-s aie consi<lered 
! to have carrii-d back with them into Eui-ope. In the 
j bose of the towein of this gate may be seen great 
i stoni-s bevelled rounil the edges, similar to those in 
what remains of the wall of Solnmou's Temple. This 
gato is said to be identical with the " Ohl Gate "of 
Nehemiah, which ■ Jehoiada the son of Pit-enh, aiid 
Meshullaiu tho son if Bcsodeiah re|«>'red ; they laid 
the beoms tiieix'of, an<l the Imi-s tbenof, and set up 
tho doo.s thereof" (Nehemiah, iii., fi). The very 
ancient, massive, and clmraeteristie Jewish itjmains 
which we see in the two turret chambers on each side 
indicate this ns a portion of tho "Second Wall." 


TOHI OF llllt 



These cliamhers, and tbe pillars in the vault of Solo- 
mon's Tfrnjilo [lee pages 48, 51), are almost tlio 
only relics which tlie battering rum, tho coiToding 
tooth of Time, and tho vengeance of God, have left 
us. Tlir winding square - shaped stairciiao within 
the chambers lately discovered in both towers is 
tho kind of ascent by which "they went up witli 
winding stairs into the middle clmmbcr," (1 Kings, 
vi. 8). One of the stones lying tliero is seven and a- 
half feet long, by three and a-half feet high, ami another 
six and a-half feet long, by tho same height. These 
apartments ate conjectured, by the learned in such 
matters, to have been guard roonis of tlio old gates ; 
built upon and round by Neheniiah, then by Herod, 
and aftcrwaiils by tho Saracens. Tliey are vaulted, 
and their massivencaa is very iiupi-essive. Before 
iwssing on wo atep within these gates into tho City, 
curious to see tho condition of the vicinity. Tlio 
streets about hero aro filthy, and almost in solitude, 
overshadowed with darkness from the numerous vaulted 
arches which cover them. E-erywhero thei-o are ruins 
and rags. As for inhabitants, you see them seldom, and 
when seen they apjicar to be eaten up with idleness 
and wretchedness. The iiassMn-s by civep close to the 
houses, and look iw if they have p . jmi-jKiso, only walk- 
ing for the sake of walking; tho bliopkecpcrs apjiear 
to be always waiting for custom that never comes, 
and everywhere there is a lock of life, interest, and 
activity. The rocky mound oppiwite this gate, within, 
has evidently been tho founiLition of some gr'^at 
building, for it is excavated in many places, but not 
into tombs. There was a St. Stephen's (;liurcli along 
hero once, ami this may be tho spot. We gladly quit 
the dreary seme, and linston to the free air without 
the walls. About half a mile right out of t\.,< 
gate, a little to the right, after parsing a heap or hill of 
oshcs and soapmaker's wsustc, wo iniss along the level 
surface of a reddish rock, with a few olive tii-cs, hardly 
enough to call a grove, growing up<m it, and then 
come upon an excavation in the middle of a field, like 
a neglected ipiairy. In front is a sqiwro court liown 
out of the rock and ojien to the air, just like a deep 
fi-ench. It is entered by an archway. Tliis court is 
ninety feet square. The areh is in tho cciitrooftho 
wall, and to tliu left, as wo enter, wo see sumcthing 
resembling a large jiortico, nine yards long, sup|)orted 
evidently, at one time, on two pillars, which mis<:liievous 
I)eoplc of various ages, byo-gono simpleton.s, and profane 
fools now grown grey or gone to their account, have 
knocked away, one after tho other. The architrave hiw 
fruit and flowers sculptured upon it, but these aW are 
sorely defaced — n shameful outrage, of wliich the Arabs 
must not bo accused, as noun but civilLsed £uni|ieans, 
fur the most |)art — wo aro sorry to have to say it, for 
Inith our sakes .— Americans and Kngliih, violate 
tho habitations v>f the deal. Our torches are lighted, 
let us enter. Wo -leem to be going into a ruck, 
tho interior of which liaa been hewn out, and 
the focQ of vhich has been cut into arehitectural 
designs. Such is really the fact; but the grapes, 
garlands, and festoons, the Corinthian capitals, .ind the 
I'illars, have all been ruthlcsslybroken and chippodaway. 
When whole they must have resembled a very large and 
very handsome marble chimncy-pi<-ce, from whi.^ii the 
gmtc hiui l)een ren-.ovod. Tlu-ough a low door in tho 
south-west comer, we ad v&nce — caudles in lihnd, and not 
without Blteudant Arabs, for this is not a pleiuiant place 
in wliich to find ouc8<;lf alone in the dark — opening 

into a kind of ante-i-oom, about 20 feet square, a place 
for the mourners, while the body was carried on to its last 
receptacle. This opens into another room, thirteen feet 
square, in which are a dozen catacombs for colfins and 
a passiigo to another apartment lOfcetsquare. Thesouth 
side of the unte-room has a door leading int< other rooms, 
in many of which are felics of rich saroqihagi, torn 
from their places and thrown uixtn the ground. One 
of these has been preserved entire and carried to tbe 
Mehkemeh, or Council House, in Jerusalem, just by 
tho beautiful fountain we have illustrated (in page 8). 
Hero it supplies the Divan of Jerusalem Effendis 
with water ! The contrivnuce of the doors of stone, 
which, fitt<!d in with mortice and tenon hinges, is 
noticeable, and should lie seen by some of our stone- 
masons, as a good hint for a fire proof closet ; so also 
is a imind disk, sliniied like a mill-stone, curiously 
contrived to close a tomb, and then be itself concealed 
by a jKJol of watjr. An ins|>ectiou of these cunning 
contrivances, for an apparently unnecessary security, 
assists us in understanding the question in relation 
to the entrance of the Holy Sepulchre : " Who chall 
roll us away tho stone from the door of the sepulchre }" 
Of what kings tho rocky excavations in which we stand 
are the tombs, is an unsettled question. Not so 
of that tomb on the other side of the valley of Kedron, 
which sweeps all round here, and into which wo 
descend and go over it to reach tho tomb — ^just in timo 
to see a flock of sheep, who have been folded there, 
come streaming forth into the open valley. This is the 
t<mib of Simon the Just, a Jewish Saint, if we uiay use 
tho term, who K|H.'nt his gn-at wealth in providing a 
feast for the poor yearly, and having been ullowetl a 
great ago as a ruward for his charity, was so iJBinted 
at thij sorrows ho saw coming on his rut ion from their 
obstinacy in losistiiig Titus, as to find the burthen of 
life too heavy, and so pray to be released from it. 
His jiraytr was granted, and his tomb ],rovidc<l under 
this little hill, Ihit his wealth having been buried 
with him, Simon (!io Just feels conscientious scruples 
rcsiNH^ting the feast ho iiad annually promised to tho 
poor,- -a promise from which, as his death was by bis 
own wish, his scrupulous justice docs not consider him 
to bo discharged. Kvery year, therefore, he comes to 
life, at the feast of Ff.rim, and places a piece of 
money outside to provide food for the poor. A great 
|)ilgi'iniage is held to his tomb by the Jews. To make 
a profit out of this vencraticm, as well as to keep in 
the sheep, tho Turks have ]iut up an iron door to the 
tomb, and aiijiointt'd a guardian, who, lieing a shepherd 
of the dead, fleeces to the liest of his ca]iability the 

Wo now recross the Kedron valley, and coming 
to a jimction of two roads, take the one that leads us 
to tho nortli-wesf angle .if tho wall, tho towtra of 
which, rising prominently before us, are evidently of 
modern construction. The ground rif « from the hoi • 
low by the Damascus gate to a low ridge, just over 
which li<>s, in tho deeper hollow, the Valley of Gihon, 
under the vestern wall, sloping down towards Hinnom, 
under the southern. At this comer, near us, is a 
I'erebinth tree, conspiouons as rising at tho highest |K>r- 
tion of the city. Ilcreabout, the vino and the olive 
begin to be more abundant, and have been made — 
of lato years only, as we learn — to take root in tho 
scanty, but prolific soil. Jerusalem grows good wine, 
and the Greeks have planted it pretty exteimively in 
tho new purchases of h»nd thojr havo made, Every 



vhere that water is ccUeotAd and diatribated, the 
( rateful land, all bare as it looks, retams most abnndant 
< rops. The fields of Iwrley in this vicinity (about a 
<; uarter of a mile from the walls), are full in the ear, 
end the grain of the finest. It is now just ready (it is 
April), for the sickle. They say this new spirit of 
oultivation is due to Russian gold ; but money is of no 
nation, and its profitable emplojrment an universal 
good. We should have thought some English money 
might hav..' ui on advantageously employed here. 

How is iK that jicnionM who are obliged to leave 
England in search of a milder climate, or others who 
pitifer living abroad, do not choose the kdoet interesting 
country in the world for their residence ! Vf hy should 
not young clergymen at least, spend one year among Bible 
scenes, and in acquiring Bible languages lit-fore enter- 
ing upon thei." lictive duties. Sixty pounds per annum 
wo\ild bo quite enough fur all ex]iense of board and 
lod);ing (inokuiing the keeping a hoise) for a single 
pcnion, and sixty pounds more would cover the expense 
uf a journey there and back. Tlie mighty tide which 
during throe centuries impelled half the nations of 
Europe towards the rocky shores of Palestine — has not 
yet subsided. It is rising again. Travellers from every 
nation, and 10,000 pilgrinu from the East, visit the 
shrines of Bothlclicro and Calvary ; Moslems from 
Arabia, Tartary and India, and from the utmost shores 
of Africa, come to worship at the (so-called) Tomb of 
Moses. The JewiHh people go to pray over the rtiins 
of their city and Temple that the time of their deliverance 
may be hastened. The deep religious interest which 
has for two thouHand years been gaining strangth 
among the nations of the earth is becoming more intense, 
and high and mighty potentates, study with anxious 
care politics, whoso interest centres in Jerusalem. 
Here however, where, above all places, Christianity 
should be most Catholic, it is most sectarian. But 
God disposes and all are working and can only be 
working to his glorious and final purpose. 

We now approach the Jaffa or Bethlehem Gate, and 
foil into the road that takes us across the Valley of 
Rcphaira — which runs down on the right, |iast the 
Greek convent of St Geoige, to the Valley of Hinnom 
— procee<ling on our way to the Tombs of the Judges, 
by a road lying lietween tliat to Jaffa and that to 
Bethlehem, both of which liegin, one to the right and 
tim other to the left from this gate ; hence oslled, at 
option, the Jaffii or the Bethlehem Gate, and, univer- 
sally, the Gate of the Pilgrims. On our left lies the 
Upper Pool of Gihon, or Birket-MamiUah — the Pool 
of Serpents — at about one hundred and fifty rods from 
the City Gate, near the bend of the shallow valley. 
This is about three hundred feet long, two hundred wide, 
and twenty deep. There is sometimes no water in it, 
as it is now HU]>plied only by rain-water drained from 
the surrounding ba.sin, its former feeder by a water- 
course from Etliam having been broken. In the .te ison 
of winter, and just now, boys and men bathe in it 
Wo leave on our loft some Moslem tombs, the remem- 
liered graves of Saliulin's warriors, and turning to the 
right, at about a mile's distance from the city, reach 
the "Tombs of the Judges," Martyrs or PropheU 
These are of the same character as the " Tombs of the 
Kings," although ornamented in ii different |iattem. 
They constitute a catacomb of sixty tombs, hewn in 
the solid rock of limestone. The pediment is sculp- 
tured in the Grecian style, and the main room is twenty 
feet sqtiare by eight in height This is even more re- 

markable than the Tombs of the Kings, and is said to 
have been hollowed out for the use of the Sanhedrim, 
the Jewish Council, numbering seventy-two members. 
Hence we return back to the head of the Valley of 
Rephaim or Gihon, and, bending towards the right, as 
we face the Jaffa Gate, go down its sloping declivity 
along by the western wall. We come along by the 
Bethlehem road from the Gate down into the Valley 
of Gihon, and across open fields of corn that thinly 
cover the stony, dry soil. A few struggling olives, 
silver-toppe<l, are scattered on thehilL Above all frowns 
the City Wall, and the huge Towers of the Citadel. 
This deep excavation of 200 feet by 600 is "The 
Lower Pool of Gihon,"— the " Great Pool" that once 
held four acres of water — the Pool Solomon was so 
piond of (Elcclesiasticus, xlviii., 17), and at which he was 
anointed King of Israel ; hence it is even now called 
"Birkel esh Sultan," or the " King's Pool." It has been 
formed by building two walls across the valley (the 
lower very massive, the upper rather slight), connect- 
ing them by side walls, scarping the shelving edges of 
rocks on its sides, and plastering the whole over with 
water-cement. The Pool is now ruinous and dry ; the 
bottom is used as a thrashing ground. From this, 
Ic ':ing upwards, on the left, to the lowest ]>art of Zion, 
we see, enclosed with a wall, the English burial 
ground ; a little below runs an aqueduct on nine small 
arches, which conveys the water from Heiekiab's 
Pool into the City. From this point we enter the 
valley of Ben Hinnom — the " Valley of Shrieking 
Children" — crying out in agony at their murderous 
sacriti.ce in tho red-hot, brazen arms and lap of the 
statue of tho idol of Moloch, from which they fell into 
the blazing furnace below ! — the Valley of Tophet, or tho 
Drum, beaten with hurried hands, and accompanied 
with shouts to provent those childish cries of sufl'ering 
from being heard by mothers. Oh ! the horrors uf these 
ancient and modem heathen practices! This crime of 
the Jews, — so carefidly separated by God as his chosen 
people, from these and other hideous rites of Paganism, 
— was punished afterwards in this very place ; for, in 
this same valley, says Joiephus, " no fewer than 
1 18,880 dead bodies were earned for burial under the 
charge ot one officer during the siege of Tittis." King 
Josiah, to provent such sacrifices to idols as we have 
mentioned, ]iolluted the place by throwing filth and 
dead men's bones into it (2 Kings, xxiii., 10). Fires 
were kept constantly burning in it to consume the 
filth thrown here. It became at last the emblem of 
everlasting punishment among the Rabbinical writers- 
Gehenna ! — Tophet 1 

" — Holocb, horrid Una, bc«nnred with blood 
Of hoinan ncrittco sod parents' tears, 
Tlioagh for the noiu of dmint and trunipeta load 
Their children'! cries niiheard, but pnMcd through fire 
To thii frrim Idol, 

In the pfcaaint vale of Hinnom, Tophet thence, 
And black Qohenna called, the type of hell 1 " 


It was here, that standing .in one of the rugged erai- 
nonccswhichovtrhang Tophet, the Prophet Jeremiah,at 
the inspiration of God, did, in t?ie presence of the wor- 
eliipiiers Atul tho Priests, address himst^lf to Jehoiakin 
and his courtiers, and lifting up a pitcher, dashed it to the 
earth, after denouncing terrible judgmenU upon them. 
(Jer., xix., 1-12). You will remember how Napoleon, 
during the conferences for tho jwace of Campo 
Formo, dashed a porochtin jar to atoms at his feet, 



111!! |!i;i|iii|i|l|iy -^*ifcyr : -^-«^ __ 

ii itill! Iiiillilillilll 'il 


as he suitl to tlio Austrimi I'lcnipnteiitnrics, ■' In one 
month your nioiiiirehy would liavo been «lmtt«R'il 
like that vaso." 'J'lio people liorc, iibout JcruMuluni, 
have the Hame cuhIoui of liroaking a jiii- wlivn they 
wish to express thoir dutcsttition of any one. They 
come behind a niun and siniuih the jar *^o ittonin, ihuii 
imprecating, upon him and liis, a hopele.'i.-. ruin. Yuu 
will remark from this and fi-oiu many other inHtanci's 
imriietuiilly coming under your notice in the Holy Luiul 
as common objects, that the Uiblo minutely nnrratcH, 
does not invent; and thus many circuuiHtaucos, though 
to tu novel and surprinitig, are to those on the iijH>t now, 
and were then — fur Eastern life never changes its liubitK 
— ordinary and cM-ry day circumstances and alluHlons. 

The valley descends rapidly into a nigged glen. On 
the other side of this rises abrupt, broken, and frown- 
ing, with precipitous banks, the ilill of Kvil C'uunsel. 
The ruins on itt top are those of the liouse of Annas, 
the High Priest, or u convent that succeeded them. 
Hero it was " the S«.'ribes and Pharisees took counsel 

ttgiiinst Jesus to ])ut him to doath," (Mat. xxvii. 1 ), 
and juxt here, on the brow, about a hundred yards 
away from the house (just time for repentance in tiie 
distance), is thot occui'^i d tree stretching its ominous 
arms, darkly frowning, with crooked bruucheji, and as if 
with stretching fingers, — that tree on which the traitor 
Juda3 himself. There— dose by it, is what he 
Bolil himself for- -the i'olior's-ficld— "the Field of 
Blood " (see p. 16). A jirccipico overhangs it, and 
it looks down another into the glen beiow where there 
is a deep charnel-liouse. The pious pilgrims used to 
be buried there. St. Jerome marked the locality, 
Annas Inmseli was biu-ied here.' 

' We ore tolil by Moiime, thot " by order of the Ein|ircw 
Helena, two hanili'ixl knd ievcnty iliiplindt of iti earth were tram- 
lated to Rome, nnd dcpuiltcd in tlio Cuinpo Santo, near the Vntlca.i j 
wbero it wna wont to rrjt.ct tbe Wliet of the Roman*, and only 
coiKume tboao of •Irnnifcr*." " Tlio interior of tlio C'ampo Santo 
at Piw ii aim," aaya Dr. Uarclay, "Ailed with tbii soil, wbieli I 
•aw tro yean a^o (1858) producing a rank crop of alopecurui 
and other granct." 




There are tombs of all kinds in this vicinity — down 
the sIopcB all about, some of them ornamented like the 
Tomba of the Judges and the Kingx, but none with 
chambers except one, in which it is said the Apostles hid 
themsclvcH. It is called "The Apostles' Retreat" — and 
is scarcely large enough to hold eleven ; but St. Peter 
we know was away, and all were not together. The 
view of Jerusalem, from hero, is a remarkable one. 
Wo can 800 the Vallry of Hinnom in its full extent, 
with all "the dark idolntrira of alienated Judali" full 
undei our eyes. The hewn tombs, the dark mggfd 
hill, the accursed tree, and the fatal field — the grey 
gloom of the trees, and the old time worn wall of Zion 
ovei'bnnging all, constitute together a wild and mourn- 
ful picture of Jerusalem in her desolation. Badness 
and gloom attend our {larting : wo entered in disap- 
pointment, and depart in mournful stillness. The 
curse of God seems to us still to hang like a darkening 
cloud over the doomed city. 


Haviko started with the earliest dawn, we have 
even now most of the day hetore us, and at this part 
of the Valley wo take horse, for we have a long journey 
liefore us of five hours' riding ere wo visit the Lirth- 
placo of our Lord, and Hebron, and retu»-n to Jeru- 
salem. We leave the hill of Evil Counsel on our left, 
and ascend up the steep sides of the Valley of I-Hnnnm. 
to where the broad, green, long Valley of Reiihnim 
spi-eads itself before us. As we know tliut rrlays of 
horses will bo provided for us by the joint care of our 
own clever and excellent consul, Mr. Finn, and tlio 
French Consul — for we are travelling witli French 
artists high in favor — wo stretch towards the light 
to the extreme westernmost part of the Valley, to where 
the Convent of the Holy Cross lii-s prettily retired 
within a sheltored hollow, one of the pleasantcst H]wta 
about Jerusalem, which citj' lies behind us in a white 



lino level with the iliiii. You would hardly think 
thcru existed tho Uci'p ojiening of tho two valleys 
bi'twceii lis ; till- citadfl towcra, the Armcniim 
convent, mill tin- niiiinret iiver the Mos(|iio alonn 
liroiikini,' tho line, above which towers Hiuniih (of 
Kenjaniiiil lii;;h on the dark hill beyond. It is 
kniiwii as Nibi Sainwcl — tho Timib of Sainin'I. "A 
ven I'.iii' and delici'ins i)lace," Siiys Sir Jnlin Maun- 
deville, "and it i.s eallcd 'Mount Joy,' beciinse it givi's 
jiiy til pilKiinis' hearts, for frnni that jilaoe nn-n fn-st 
Nee .lernsaleiii." One rcminisceneo is pleasin;; to ua 
Englishmen. 1 Fere the nubie Kielmrd C'lunr do Lion, 
ndvaneini{ from his camp at Askelou, stood in sij^ht of 
the elty, and buried his face in his armour, with the 
gnmd e.Kclamation, so full of chivalry jnid piety; "Oh I 
Lord (!odl 1 pniy that I may never see thy Holy 
City, if so be that I may nut ri'scne it from tho hands 
of thine I'nemies." Wo shiiU soon have this hill on our 
ri!,'ht. ItiiW an hour brinifs. us to the Convent of the 
Cross. It lojks like a fortress; nnd it is well that it 
is Mil in this wili! country, fur one Superior hits already 
been murdeii'd by plunilering Arabs. Now, it lies all 
pejieeful, mii'iounded with rich olive-grounds, with a 
liiK'k ground of hills, and every semblance of wealth 
and comfort, It owes this wealth and fame to its 
covering tho spot where the tree from which the Cross 
was made grew; the gooil-natured Cii-oek papas 
shows the hole under the high altar. The church is 
richly decorated with mosaii's, and ha.s n Npleiidiilly 
gilded choir and an ndiulrable Byzintinc pulpit. Tlio 
old priest will show you a very strange piL'turo here, like 
a long panorama — a singular heterogoneoiis nii.xturu 
of devils, priests, and allegorical personages of all ages, 
and castles and groves. It relates to some story about 
Lot, the gist of which is, that having i-epcnted of the 
sin into which ho had been deluded by intoxication, 
tli(^ I'atrlarcli, on w.iking, sought at once some moans 
of expiition, by consulting a Lovite. The holy man 
ordered hi in t<> ]ilant in his garden throe branches of 
trees, nnd to nourish them with water fmm tho 
•lordaii, to be fetched by him every morning ou foot. If 
the bran s took root, he would then know that he 
was lorg, II. Next morning Lot planted tho thit-o 
cuttings, and started off to the Jordan — no short dis- 
tance — for the water; while returning ho was accosted 
by an old beggar m m, exhausted with tho heat, who 
asked for a drink of water; this Lot gave to him, know- 
ing tlifit ho should still have enough left to water the 
cuttings. A little farther on, tho same demand wiw 
made upon him by ii traveller, which request ho knew 
not how to refuse ; and so on, ho met so many people 
on his way, and was so charitable, that when ho 
got homo he had not a drop of water left for himself. 
Tireil a.s he was ho must go back to the Jordan, or sea 
the trees perish and with them his hopes of pardon. As 
ho rose up to set otf again an angel appcari>d to him in 
his extremity, and comforted him with tho assurance 
tliat his charity had caused him to find grace before tho 
Kt<u-iial, informing him that it wa.s the Devil, who, unable 
to bear tho tliouglits tlmtLot'smischancc should not place 
the Patriarch li\ his power, had assumed difl'erent forms 
on his honiowaril path, and thns drank all Ix>t'8 provision 
of water. So Lot wos jwirdoncd, and t'lo trees took 
root and flourished : in after yeors one of them 8up|)lied 
the wooil for the Holy Cross. Wo quit tho hospitable 
Ucorgians (for this is the last and only Convent of that 
church of Christians, their sole possession and evidence 
of faith, and they cluim it on given them by their 



Eniporor Tatian,) and going down by a rapid descent 
to where they say won tho throshing-floor of Obcd- 
edom, half nn hour brings us to tho " Valley of tho 
Terebinthus" orT>..-| 'ntine,adark and deep and narrow 
valley, with tho bed of a dry torrent scoring a white 
line along its bottom, which tradition declares to have 
nntrked tliu separation of the camp of Saul from that of 
tho Philistines. Hero David slow Goliath, — (others 
say this hap])euod at Sliuweikeh, tho Socoh of the 
plain of JmiUi (Josh, xv., 35), beyond Uuza, and 
near Beit Sybim). The situation is sublime, and wo 
halt at a little spring, under some olive-trees, bcforo 
descending the steep declivity into the valley by which 
wo must mount up to tho Convent of St John by stops 
hewn in the roek. There is " a mountain on the one 
side and a mountain ou the other, and a valley between 
them," just the jdaco for the fight lis descrilicil, and 
there, too, is tho brook, nnd there some snusith stonos 
that would have just answered the young slie|)lierd- 
boy's bold purpose. Up in these rocky mountains 
Kouthwaixl, is tho cavern w herein St. John dwelt in the 
Wilderness ; but we nuist first stop at the Convent, 



wliich in high-wallitl niiil Ktnuig oiitHiile. Ili-ie, liaviii;^ 
obtiiincd ndiuiitMion for otiraclvcs and honcH tlirough 
the low iron door timt adoiiU but one at a time, — a 
sure ])recautioii,— wo visit tlicir swlHoiToi.cnn diaptil, 
a cave in which St. John was Itorn; then gnju upon the 
scene fi-oni tin- insulated liill on which this strong 
convent-forti-ess Ntands, down into deep and dark 
vaUcyd, whose grey rocks, where they face iho convent, 
have been hollowed by nature into caves, such as tiie 
herniils of tlio early Church loved to dwell in. Occa- 
sionally, where xutticient soil can bo found foi roots, 
iig-trces, with vines clinging round their trunks, n>ay 
be seen scattered almut. The village under the convent- 
walls is called Ain-Karini, the fountain of the 
Virgin, for liithcr, they tay, cume the Virgin to draw 
water when on a visit to 2acliariah and Elizabeth, 
whose house, about a quarter of a mile from the con- 
vent, is covcretl with a ruined oratory and small chapel, 
called the Chaiicl of the V"!'»tion (Luko i., 39). 


It took us an hour to roach 
the Desert of St John, which 
we foun<l to be no desert at all; 
for the gi-een foliage of the vines, 
and the silver tops of the olives, 
and tho large dark-leave«l widc- 
fed tho swine and tho Prodigal 
Bon, and wliich are said to bo tho 
locust tree, on which tho Baptist 
also lived, were to be seen every- 
where. Aturn intheileepvalley 
bmiight intosiglit, on tho side uf 
a rocky jieak. the Urotto where 
St. John tho Precursor passed 
fifteen years of his youth (Luku 
i. 80). It is a natural excavation 
ubuut three yards wide by two in 
deiith. The place is lonely and a 
wilderness, but not a desert. A 
spring rises cool and pleasant 
from within, and trickles down 

THE OE«B tE«. 


tlicroek. A brief pause here, and 
then back asquickly as ourhorses 
will carry us under such a burn- 
ing sun, to the Convent of St 
John for a relay of cattle and a 
new escort, sent on before,a8WclI 
as refreshment, hosintubly fur- 
uiiihed by the good fathers. 

At first starting our road was 
badonddreary enough, rock after 
rock, like great slices of a moun- 
tain cut off with a knife, and 
stored up as gigantic paving 
stones. By this road trending 
southward, in which direction 
we have been all along proceed- 
ing, we approach the traditional 
sjiot of tho Conversion of the 
Kunuch, by Philip. How ho 
managed to rideinachariot(Acts 
viii. 28) on such a road is almost 
a miracle, and the meeting any 
one upon it^ now-a-days, would 
be another. 



A foiintniii mnrlcH tho Hpot — not a ntrcam. It woa 
onco liighly lulnriii'il, nnd tUo numerous ciirvml Ntonog 
lying about cviileiitljr formed a (Kirtiou of tlie channel 
liy which its water was convoyetl into tho Sorec. 
An.)tlier hour hruught ub to Ueit-jaln, where tho 
Ijitiu Patiiaivh has a noble foundation for tho edu- 
cation of tin- Mutivo clergy. Hence by a toilsomo road 
until wo njach the plain of Rcphaim onco more, from 
w liicli, by a gentle iiias towards the left, wo arrive at 
a HuuiU ubloiig TurkiHh niosqiie, iilightly elevated on 
the way-side, with a little white dome on the top, and 
a |iointcd arch on its sitlo at the other end. Wo now 
know "Thei-o is but a little way to Ephratuh, which 
is Ucthleliuni " for we are travelling in the foosteps 
of Jacob on his way from Beth-el to Edoin, and wo have 
reached tho plnce where he buried his beautiful and 
wellfavouruil iiachcl, who named her son Ben-oni (Son 
of Son-ow) as sho died (Oen. xx.w., 18,30). Wo ball 
hei-o for ii few minutes \indcr the influence of tender 
and respectful feelings, the syin])athy for a bereaved 
husband three tliousiind years ago ; — the homage of 
teal's paiil to a JcwihIi wife's humble tomb, which 
golden mausoleums of ;Ceuuliia nnd Cleopatra would 
I'ailtoclicit. "llacliel dicdby mo!" What power to wake 
emotion is in tlioao simplu words, while hero we stand 
upon the spot where tho piitriarch lifted up his face and 
wept, and "thero was great weeping and lamentation." 


As we go on wo seu Hethluhom. Wo aro hardly 
half an-hour from it. Tho road is nothing more than 
n mule truck, but wuU trotldeu for some thousands of 
years. The ascent is gentle ; tho narrow ridge, on 
whose side is placed tliu little city, with its flit-roofed 
houses, and its clump of convent* thick clustering round 
tho siwt of tho Nativity, is not of great height. It is 
n confused and iriogular pile of white buildings, but has 
a gay and smiling look, as if tho Star of the East still 
»lic<l»it» light and brightness over it. Over the town 
bangs a plain of green ; below it the hill is fashioned 
into terraces of olive trees, and vinos, and fig treea. 
At its feet, sloping down in the valley, are tho com 
fields— yes, the very com fields in which Ruth gleaned 
—there is tho very farm of Hoax himself. It must be so. 
A heady our artist is sketching the labourers who worked 
with Kiith (tee p. 66), and there, along tlmt path across 
the fields, going towards tho deep gateway, is Naomi 
herself, just as she looks in tho pictures painted by the 
great old paiiit<>rs, who so happily caught tho spirit 
of the Scriptures— in the long gown of dark blue, and 
her veil of white cotton cloth to shade away tlio burn- 

ing glaro of the suiu She is returning from the land 
of strangera tohor native village (Ruth, i., 7). Closo 
by the gate u the well, for the water from which David 
longed. All alHiut, we sea tho vineyards of Judah on 
every hill-side, with watch-towers and walls. Every 
place almut is glowing with wild fiowern, daisies, anil 
tho white Star of Bethlehem ; with a blaze of scarlet 
flowers, anemones, wild tulips, and the like ; the first 
pilgrims used to call them " the Saviour's blood drops." 
Bare and barren as is all around, thuuo flowers, in thi.i 
spring time, aro a brilliant coutrr t. Behind Bethle- 
hem, wo see rising a huge wall of mountains, high, 
massive, and overshadowing. Yon know the cfl'cct of 
tho distant Helvellyn over the surrounding district — 
that is the apjioarance of tho mountains of Moab over 
Bethlehem. The Deail Sea lies between, but thero 
ore the mountains, brown, huge, in]|>en(ling, never 
to be forgotten ; and this is why David, who 
as a l)oy had them always Is^fore his eyes, took care 
to secure refuge for his old father and mother in 
their heights when thei-e was no longer safety, fur them 
in Bethlehem. An o])ening in these mountains shows 
tho spot where Lot's wife was changed into a Pillar of 
Salt, and in the distaneo is tho Wilderness of Eiigcdi. 
The Church of the Nativity, is an enormous pile of 
buildings, covering a large siMice, originally built by 
tho Empress Helena, i'c])aired and cnlargccl by various 
Christian contriliutions, but still ini|>erfect and in some 
parts ruinous. This ought not to be. Tlicro are three 
convents, T^tiii, Oreck, and Christian, with the Church 
of tho Nativity common to all. Tho nave, with its 
double linos of Corinthian columns nnd roof of Lebanon 
cedar, is what itsinains to us of tho gnind Basilica. Tho 
Church of tho Nativity itself 1ms a roof cf English oak, 
tho gift of our own Edwanl IV. Here Baldwin was 
crowned King of Jerusalem. On the columns of the 
side naves may yet be traced vestiges of tho armorial 
bearings of tho Crusaders, and the walls of the central 
nave still show the remains of Byzantine mosaics. It 
now seems but as a paxsnge between the convents, nnd 
you will observe that it is also a place of meeting for the 
licasants of tho vicinity, where tliey enjoy the fhelter it 
alfords from heat or iitin, and tranquilly smoke their 
pilH's, as tiny are now doing, wliilo their children are 
receiving instruction from the pious brethren. From 
this we descend to tho subterranean vaults under the 
floor of tho Church, and going through a long narrow pas- 
sago lielonging to tho Ijitiiis — the (irceks have nnotiicr 
entrance — find ourselves in a little chaiiel, twenty- 
seven feet long nnd eleven wide, with a marble floor, 
adorned with tajicstry ami ]iicliires, and lighted dinjly 
with silver lami>s. I'liis is the (irotto of the Nativity. 
There are two sniall recesses, nearly opposite to each 
other ; a marble slab in the northernmost, which is 
semi-circular, and marks the spot of the Nativity, 
having upon it a silver stor to designate where the 
Star of tho East rested. There is also an inscription — 
" Hie natns est Jesus Christus do Viroine" (" Hero 
Jesus Christ was born of a Virgin"). On the right, or on 
the south, is a chamber, down two steps, paved and lined 
with marble, at one end of which is a block of stone hewn 
out, — tho stall, — fi-om which was taken the wooden mon- 
ger now at Rome in the Basilica of 8nnta Maria Wng- 
giore, and exhibited every Christmas in the presence of 
the Pope, Justin Martyr, who was bom at Nablus ond 
martyred at Rome in the second century, mentions this 
stone, and St Jerome, who wrote the Vulgate in a chamber 
but a few jiacos from tliis s]Hit, has vouched for itf 



identity, bjr chooting it for his reHidenco. Hero lived 
und died, that most illustriotiH of pilgrima to the II ly 
Ijind. Here ho fu«ted, jimycd, niid Htiidicd ; here lio 
gathered thoNe ImndH of ChnHtiiuiH together who Htill 
Hiirvivo, ill the nuinoroux cunventM of the Holy Lnud. 
Uvcr the altar in tiiis Chamber of the Munger, Ih n 
picture of a stable and cattle, and, behind u little railing 
of iron, five lanipo are kept constantly burning. Itiglit 
opposite to thiH in an ultor, tiiat of the Magi, or 
Three EiOHtem KingH, on the s]iot where they Hat, when 
they caine to offer pronents to the Son of (><hI. There 
Ih a picture of this over the altar, in which one of the 
kings is (lointed as a negro. 

Near the door of the chapel of the Latin Convent 
you go down two flights of Htc|M to a sniall chu|)el, dedi- 
cated to Si Joseph, where he waited during the con- 
Hnoment of the Virgin. At the end of this ]suu^ is 
8t Jerome's Chamber; and just out of the door, on 
the right hand, is his tomb. Opposite are the tombs 
of Santa Paul* and her daughter, Saint Eustochia, 
two holy ladies who accompanied St Jerome, and 
prorided him with means during his lengthened 
and pioos labours. Hero also is the grave of 
his faithful and earnest disciple, St Eusebius, of 
Cremona. Just by, in the first passage to the left, 
is a deep pit, into which, they say, the l)odic8 of 
the infants murdered by Herod's cruel mandate, 
were thrown at the time. There is an altar over it, 
but we looked down into the pit through aii iron 
grating, and saw nothing. Be all this im it may, we 
know that, anywhere here, we are within a few paces 
of the birthplace of the Saviour of mankind ; nnd 
cold indeed must be the hrait, nnd dead the very soul, 
of that man who, once on this s])ot, does not 
eaniestly and sinceraly share the enthusiasm of thoKc 
poor pilgrims whom we now sceindeepcniotion,and with 
fervent thankfulness for His grrnt mercy, prostrating 
themselves at the shrine of the Nativity. Load 
traditions abonnd. There is a grotto in the rock, jiwt 
out of the village, to the south, where the Virsin sat 
down to suckle the infant Jesus, nnd the milk over- 
flowing from the divine child's lips, has given to the 
grotto the virtue of nssisting all weak mothers who 
pray ot the altar therein erected. Turks, Greeks and 
A mieninns alike vouch for tliis, and, you see, the limestone 
is scraped away in nil directions ; in one part a chamber 
has b<'en 8crai>ed out, that women may drink water 
in which the powder ttottx it has been mixed. 
There is also another grotto in which the Virgin 
remained hidden with her child during forty days, to 
escape the wrathf\d i>erseciiticn of Hero<l, nfter the 
Magi had made known the successful results of their 
search for the Son of God nnd future King of Men. 

Passing through Bethlehem town — for wo are now 
rapidly journeying towards Hebron — it is imiiossible not 
to notice the manly and spirited t)earing of its ]ie<>ple, 
or the beautiful form and fine expression of eountcuaiioo i 
in the daughters of Buth. The men have a sturdy 
bearing and fearless look, something like the High- 
landers. David came from here, and so did Joub 
and David's other valiant captains. These men are 
naturally hardy, for they are brought up as shepherds. 
There are hirgc flocks in the plain and on the hills ; and 
see, where the rea|)eni are cutting the barley, and their 
women and children gleaning, just as Ruth did— when 
Boaz came to look afler his labourers (Ruth ii., 5-7), 
There, too, is a woman beating out the grain on a stone, 
as Ruth did (Ruth ii, 4), and they " dip their morsel in 

thi- vinegar," sad est ' parifhmj com " — that is, the 
roastetl ears, tJi' ';«■* "••* — r f/'ira«l off over a flame. Wo 
go nil t<i the "(jr. t; i -..w ?»h»'ph»'nl<," where thry lay at 
night, watchiiijf Xhtrar Awks and iimke our miMlest 
oti'cring, an jiilcruuK '4» few wax candles to tlie little 
liiiiuble Kliriiie, itii^rufl with iume |Mifir |iointings. 
Thence, a thrtie i^iurwts <>f ao hoar'x ni,ircli to tlieC'avo 
of Adullam, in Un t^'^mtaintina wililt-mess of Engedi. 
It is situatnl in a ff*aA Pjrk that hatitri "i> the edge of 
a narrow shelf (W r'«Hk4 ia a (ntrfol gi , with tower- 
ing clifli above jt, aiyJ </« gft to it you h.ive to leap int<j 
a low windoW'b<4«L WitUa, it is a very kirge grotto, 
quite dry but verr<laik, wnk nnmenas |Nisaages rami- 
fying ill all ditrvifvt; a veritable stronghold nnd 
hiding-place, Kucb at a few bofal men could hold against 
a host, armed as HiMMn wen in Saul's time. The 
ravine here is exommrtlj preci; '•"•^s. The cave has 
been made use cC emu ia bite yntrs, as a place of refuge 
for the inhabitaaM U t&ir riistrii^ in time of war. You 
read, in the t>.<yixmaU'4 the Frrnch Algerine cani|>nigii, 
of Marshal IViiaiarr atA GenerU Lamnriciere having 
HufTocated sosae kaailR^ of peasant Arabs with their 
wives and childrm, ia joM loeh a cave, by lighting fires 
nt the eutrsnop, wlkra tft^r ctjuIiI by no means drive 
them out or Teotare ia tfcs— flwa. 

A mggnl road liiagp ■• bock to the mules' path and 
up the green ralW f4 waters to the " Three Pools of 
Solomon," which lie all ia a mw, one below the other; 
each of an oUluog ftina, r4 the resiiecti- lengths of 
SCO, 123, and 582 few<t The brgest, the easternmost, 
is 300 feet wide azsl SO <iw|^ •> that when full — which 
it now in, and raooinj; »T»r to the second and the 
third — it would flust t&i^ hr^nt man of war that ever 
)il(>ughed th: fonut. H>rw bcantiful must have been 
the gardeUH, lwm>V>siiu^ ia Solnmnn's time ! the vino- 
yards and the <«Tiunk oa the neighbouring hills and 
the valley to iite •urtk-wcst. Along the mountain si<le, 
winding in a dLmiait, m ike: channel to supply 
Jerusalem, made ly ike visi> king and restored by 
Pontius I'ilate, a* v« katn frrun Jnm>phiis. It runs and 
meanderH iu vane's* louarinttii^ fiir nine miles' distance, 
jiiMt as uxed tu wiud and wanrier, thpHigh the meadows 
of Islington ajid llonturj, oar own New River, in its 
old leaden eoodtiit. A<r;<B Ware t» I/Hulon. The high 
Ht4-ep hill to tlie Irft — that enormous natural mound, 
rising 800 f«<K fnan ib^ raBey — ia the Herodium of 
JoseplniK, a gnatt fieisttaj^plaee and fortress of the olden 
time, the " Frsuk Mffmaam' of the Crusaders, who had 
their last fight iml htn, and auule here their lust 
stand afier tLty vtur ilrircit oat of Jerusalem. The 
old castle, tlte t<nr«nk aavl tke w^Jl'* connecting between 
them, still reuuiiu, l«n in rmna^ At its feet lies Tekoah, 
whence caiue ti»e rltrtr vrmian to seek for the rebel Al)- 
RHlom'H ]au^(iu fr<sa Lis Ushttr. We are nowapprouching, 
along the VaUrr <4 EMttA (ovt of which came the 
great bunch v( grapes tkst to surprised the Israelites), 
to I ■ bron, ti>e <4<i«i( city in Canaan ; one of the oldest, 
.'4*0, in the wocid ; fur it was boilt seven years before 
Memphis, and has ttsi ' iii wl it. It was the bonier city 
of the Prumiacd ItaA, ike dty of Arlia, the Prince of 
<iiauts, the city U Efiaoa the Gittite, of whom 
Abrahamboo^ Usloakfieiil, MachpcUh (Gen. xxiii., 
10), the first boBke ot the patriarefaa, as it is their hist, 
"for here," asrs Sk. Jerome, "are buried Adam, 
Abraham, Isaac and J^rnk." Caleb chose it for his 
)iortiott, for he kaii ttra 'n when oat with the spies. 
The vale that lead* tip to it i* flelieiooa, rich in orchards 
and iu vin<-.)-iirds sljos&riing in wells and fertile in soil. 


Ifni'vost gniups pass iis on tlie roiul, with rcnpiM-s niij 
gleaners, jiiflnrcs of tlic patriarclial tiuif. Tliu ni(is<|Uo 
JH tliu most prominent nlijei't in tlic laniUcnjic, Unco 
II convent built liy Helena tlio Knijiress, it ec ers tlio 
tiinil) of Abi-nliam in .Maelipelnh, and liea on n Klo|iin<; At itHlmxc, in tliu valley, is the town In three 
(liviNioi.s, eaeh on a Keparato !>niall hill. 'J'lio green vullies 
ami the eorn-fiehls, the olive f;ruveti ami the vineyaiilx, 
»treteliing\ipintoit,run ri;,'lit away to the desert, whence 
advanced the Israelites. The niunntains of Moali look 
down, Irowning, brown, and i^honiy over nil. About 
two miles bet'uro reaching; tlie town, but still within 
view, wc come upon n noble old oak, standing; alone, in 
the centre of a lioautiful green sward. It is a line 
ancient evergreen oak, twenty-six feet in girth, and 
its thick spreading branches extend over an area 
of ninety-three feet in diameter. Hee how it throws 
out its three giant arms, which again break into in- 
numerable limbs! The valley is full of tigs, carobs, 
mit and fruit trees in all variety. I'nder that oak, as 
tradition ti'Us, Abraham entertained t.c angels; but 
liere another tradition interferes, which says that tho 
oak of Abraham withered at the moment of our l.,ord's 
erueitixion. We liad intriMluctions to a \enerable Jewr 
resident in this town, where there is no Im.spitablo 
convent to receive travellers; so that after due refresh- 
ment some enlightened conversation followed on tho 
condition of the Jews in Palestine, which our host 
considered to be improving, as tho Turks were 
certainly Immbled, though no less fanatic. Wc entered 
the town through a labyrinth of streets and ruins. 
The bazaar, however, was full of iwojile, and all seemed 
brisk, active, busy, bustling, and interested. The 

inosf|ne, to wliicli access is denied, is a remarkable 
building with a strong high wall — built at the base with 
large stones, sjiid to ha\ e been brought from tho Temple 
ruin.s — and w ith two sipiarc minarets. The wallis ribbed 
with 8(|uar(' ]iila.stei-s. The Tomb of Abraham is in a 
chajiel, within the s(|uai'e of the niosipu* ; uu<h'r its 
dohu> is what is caUed the Tomb of K.sau. Un tho 
right of the niosi.iiii'door is Sarah's Tondi, and just 
beyond it that of Abndiain ; corresponding tir these 
are the Tombs of I.-aae and Itebecca, and near them is 
a recess for )irayer, with a jadpit. Thei»i' tondis i-e- 
semble small huts, with a window on each si.L- They 
open witli folding diHu-s of wcxid and iron. Witiiin 
each of these is an imitation of the Hincophagus w Inch 
lies in the cave below the mosque. On the opposite 
side of the mosipio are two largi r tombs, where are 
depositeil tho bodies of .lacob and Leah. 'J'here are 
also in thismosfjue the Sarcophagi of Jacob and Leah. 
A canopy in the centre of the nios<pie hangs over tho 
cavi! of Maehpelab, ami through a hole in the Moor a 
lamp is let down which is ke|)t ]icrpctually burning. 
No one is adnntted to the actual cave below.' 

' Tim "Torch of Honrti," nn mkrjt on the nutliciiticily of tho 
tombs of Abruhiiiii, Isuur, iiiid .lacuh, hy the Iciiriicit Ali, sou of 
■, griivily stiitin, on the ti'stiiiioiiy of Ahfl-lloriiinih, 
II lU'iu'iiilililuwitiiefiii, who Ijinnl il. : " It win laiil hy thcAi«)«tle 
of (Jod (.Miihiiinet) ' Whi'ii the AngA liiiliriel inndc iiic take thn 
iiocturaul Hight to JeriiiuiU'iii, we (Miucd over tho touib of 
Ahrahnin, iinil lie aaiil, ' Doecend, mid mnkc a prnycr with two 
ccnaflexioiw, for hero in the sepulchre nf thy fiitlicr Abniliam. 
Then we pniwsl llethlehcm, and he aiild, ' Demmd, for licio wu 
born thy brother Je«u».' Then we came to Jerusiilrni." 



Tliero is a legend tlint a descent into thin cavo would 
l>ii fatal. For a certain Scid-Oiimr Ettoher, a pio\iM 
Mussiilnmn, having liocn invited liy Altnkhani to conui 
li iwii, lost his oyti'Hight throngli liin temerity. The 
fii -t is, (hnt within these few years a ChrisJau ho 
nll.Mnpting it wiulil have lost not only Iuh eyes but 
liis iicnd. Then^ are two immcusc Pools iu the t^iwn, 
very nneicnt, but they are niri'ly full nf wattT. The 
people go (liiwn to them by stono step.^, and you w-o 
them eonsbintly coming up and going down with goat- 
skin bottles on their backs. A largo monument 
is nhown near the boamr as tin; Tomb of Abner. 
•T'lsl beyond the mosqu'?, on a rising ground, is tlio 
Fointtain of Surah, where she washed the i.'lethcs of 
\brahani and Isiuu: — a siTvicc, in those times, by no 
means unusual in the wives of great men or even 
.piecns — those gotxl old days, when cpicons and 
prinecss<!s came down to the river side to wash their 
own and their husbanils' garments. The country all 
round presents line landscapes, and the land is richly 
cultivated ; but beyoml rural life — the Moslems so 
religiinisly closing the mosipio to \is dogs of ( 'hristlans 
— there is little to be seen. So wo mount our fresh 
horses, and makeiiie best of our way l)ack to Jerusalem, 
where wo arrive at a late hour, having stopped in the 
moonlight to see the Convent nf Mar Klias, op|B).site to 
which Elijah left tin- imprint of his wi'aried IxKly on a 
rock. There is behind this a mound f^-om \viii;;li you 
enn srii the Mediterranean on the one side and the Deail 
Sea on the other. From the Coll^•(■nt of Klins a few 
pares luxiught us to the Well near to wliich the Magi 
were re|)osing when thi' Star of lli'thlelicin ap|K'areil to 
them. \\\ lurived in .JernsaU'i.i the same night, 
having aceomplished in the most siilisliietory manner ii 
journey whi.'h is very unusual lor the gcnenilly slow- 
pacing pilgrims who visit tho Holy City. 


TllK jiilgrims On- .Jordan, '„ a n htous and 
motley baml Mfmany tlionsiinds oi e'.l nations ha\ing 
started from St. Stephen's ,;\tc over the Mount of 
Olives thi-ough Bethany, ei .K* on the previous day, 
with an escort of soldiers undi r the (.oniniaiid of ihi- 
Oovenior, wo resolved — by means ■•{ relays, |nevi lusly 
iirnniged — to follow ihem this moiiiing, and, eontniry to 
thir usual coiM-se of travellei-s, to take the Convent of 
St. Sabtt on our way : a.s our purpose was not to reteni 
nguin to Jerusali'in, but to proceed o'lward from the 
Jordan to Nazareth, an<l mt hoimwirdi to the sea 
coasts So we came out of the Jiion (i-ite, and down the 
steep way to the bottom of tho hill, whence, turning to 
the rif,ht, we halted at Kn-llogel, or the Well of Job, 
at tho jnnctio)! of the Valleys of Hiunom and Jeho- 
sliaphat,the lo;'ality of jitrallition. preserved by JosepbuK. 
of a tremendous cnrihipiuke in the close of the reigi 
of Uuiah, when the lepri>sy struck him (I Kings, 
XV., !i). " Junt as Ue/.iiis was mAvi ' •» tio Temple, the 
building' suddenly started asunder Uf lif^it lla-she^l 
through, and the wime moment she wprosy rushe^l 
intf) tho king's face ; the hills around felt the sho- k, 
and a memorial of the cra»h was long prcsen-ed, in a 
largo fragment of tho rock, or landslip, which, rolling 
down from tho western hill ^<.f Eril tlounsel), blocked 
up tho royal ganlons between lh»t hill and the Mount 
of Olives, at tho junction of the two vailrvs by the 
spring of KuHogel." Wo n- make fur liie be<l of the 
Kedron — called from its drjiiess. the Wad-cn-Nar, or 

Valley of tho Stream of Fire — ft wonderful gorge, that 
leads down by a long descent through precipitous, 
overhanging rocks, to the I'lain of Jericho. Wo worked, 
over a steep and ditticult way, through tangled mvincs, 
and siielving gullie.s, and in two hours anil n half, 
Inrforo the sun was too high and scorching, reached 
tho convent of .Siinto Saba. IViidnd up high among 
the rocks — as if a )K).tion ailded to tho cKils — with 
towers, ba.stions, walls, i huith ami (li)me v., picturesipie 
array, an embattled fortr'ss guirisom-d by monks, over- 
hanging a <liok abys-s, whose sides are pierced with 
C'Vcrns and H ■ lidts" cells liewn i:i the rocSts by pious 
haml', now i>: aiiantod but by night birds or tho 
vidturi' and the eagle, — this convent is one of the most 
reinii-.k, ble localities in the Holy Land, The Wilder- 
ni'ss nun grim rocks jire.sent an extraordiiniry scene 
from the .onvent teniice under the two sipuire towers. 
The buildings rise in terraces overtopping each other, 
and, to t'le monastery above access is pennitlcd only 
through ft low iron do(U-, from which a basket is let down 
and the stranger is hauled up. To (lilgi-ims there is 
"dmission to the lower tower up a ladder and through 
a loiv door to a large room, while, for guests of disliiie- 
tion, a smaller chambiT, and sipanite, is allotted ; l,o| 
to all a kindly and never-tailing llo^pitldity is extemled. 


It is till- richest convent of the Uoly Ij»ni1, and stjinds 
in neid of the good piiirdiny wlii<'li it eiijocs. We 
saw tho Grotto of St. Siibi mid the Lion, wlieii the 
pious and hospitable saint u.s«>il to livn, and in w lich, 
retuniing late one eveniii;;, he found a lion had U ken 
up his ipiarters. Too liospitablo to drive him <iut, i'\" 
hermit gave the King of IViists a corner of his cell, 
and dwelt therealoiiL' timeaflerwnrds with his strange 
laybrother. iravinn breakfa!<t"i handsomely, we started 
ort'with fresh lioise.s!,.r Jericho, down anever-dcsceudiiig 
road, that seemed almost to rui-h down to the deep de- 
pix'ssioii of thj Dead Sea. As sooti ns we bad reached 
tho liottom of one deep valley, another still dee|«>r 
succeeded— nuked an.l •alcined io.ks--a burnt np 
soil— hII nature in desolotion! the vholo landwiipo 
bears the grim asjK'ct of an iiium iso convulni^ii ; 
and below us, in the lar horizon, -^tietohes, like a mirivr, 
ll»<? wan motionless lurl'ice of ™e Accursed Sea, buried 
amongst drear)- and silent nn^ky hills. A narrow past 
in the r-x-ki eiids in a plateau, whenee « full view of 
the Dead Seo. from end t . end, is obtttiiiiKl. The Jordan 



stroatiiK along, from tin- (listnnoo in a long, n]ii>nicnlly 
narrow, line of gri'i ii, where all nljont iHwiiidy and liiire, 
cxeejii wlii'Ti- till' liiirley harvest of the |ilain.s of .Icni 
mileni is In iiig gathered in — for we htive arrived just ;ii 
the same seiisun as the l.sraeliti's, in " barley harvcit ; 
(Josliua, iv,, 19 ,1 tlnmgli the riviT Mo loin;ir nverllows 
nil its banks, fur the leneruble trees ami thiek bushes 
in the ii|i|K'r of the three termees, throngh which it 
(lows at tliiu spot, shuw that, f>r a hmg time, tlii^ 
river has not filh-il that part of its own ihannel, as a 
current. We now .stiinil between the Mountains of 
Monb nnd the nioinitain ranges of I'ale.stine, Jnilea, 
nml Ephraini ; the " liilla idioiit .leiiisaleni," down 
which we have just eohie, rising niajestieally from 
between. Jerieho nay bo seen clearly below, on our 
left, with its wall of figgols of cactus, nnd its straggling 
white houses, in a dark green "usis, niad>- by the waters 
of the Ain llajld, (idcntilied by Kobinson with lietli 
Ifoglah), the Wadi-kelt orbrook dieritli (or the Clett) 
nnd the Aints-Snllan, or Knuntain of Klisha, where the 
prophet, out of com)>iiti.sii,n. made the bitter waters 
swet (2 Kings, ii., I'Ji. This tbuntain ris<'3 on ii tell 
or nianiohin, or mound, such as aboinid in Palestine, 
near large eltii's,!\iiil have apparently, in some euhes, been 
railed originally Inrdelen.-ive purposes, but are in others, 
lis is well known, mere heaps uf ruin. They arc not, 
liowrvcr, always artificial, but mounds of r.ick, and, as in 
til., Haiiiim, even extinct volcanoes. The wat<T is 
transp.nrent, sweet, cool anil abiiiidnnt. having in it 
hnuilliish — nvery rare thing in this count r\, i'.specially mt 
near the Dead Sea. In its neighbourhcsid grows a tree', 
Jjiaring fruit, that looks like an apricot, beautiful to the 
i-yo, but nausi'ous tothe taste, and snid to bepjisonous — 
in liict, the '■ bitter apples.' Hereabouts must have hiin 
th« old city ofjerielio: lli.' uiodero village of Jtidali, or 
Hilin. i.ibut a collection •< jjoor dwillings. Hereabouts, 
also, ruust surely liavesio-.(| the "City of I'nlni trees," — 
the ke} to Judiva ; for here, I y the uiteting wuteis of Kli- 
Bhn's Fountain and tbi other streams, nri' woody thickets 
nnd |iatehes of coin ami melons, thatsull wear the jilea- 
sant s.r.»,|,|,,ii of gnrdens from where we are ptanding; 
allh <i^U much of the slHit i ilr.rnv .shrubs, tlio 
wi.u boar haunts, nnd the Won f Judith might even now 
fill! a fi.ting lair. 'I'lierc is an ancient tower, 
till, rent of the custle is in reins ; w j hIibU bo 
ilowi iheiv' s)H'e<lily to rcfii'sh our i,> and seek 
» ni(j»rf • shelter for oursehcs. Thi Jordan rises far 
III «iiov v Heniion, Hows through the high lake 
'b • III, and iminingdown 300 feii passes, ni'.xt, right 

ibiougli ilie Sea of Tiberius, aial out of it, with iin- 
associating watci's; then, comes out to lose itself — alter 
a coinse of ixty miles — the l»lt<r part through twenty- 
seven rapids ami a fal! of I.HOO Hit — in the Dead Sea, 
which iilisoibs it fureNer into its withering bosom. That 
dreaiv lake lies lifteeii hundred feet U'low the level 
of the Medili-rraiieaii .Sea. and at the northern end in 
1300, at the southilli only thi|-t<'eii ;eet lielow tlio 
surface ; the shallow part of the Sea luing iifteen niilen 
in length, and said to cover the I'lain of SiHlcin and 
the submerged cities. At this end, the southern and 
tiirllii'it from our sight, is a ridge of iiw-k salt, but a 
p.irly of the sutisis, who cane' with us, have st«rte<l to 
nriki' photogr.iph- .if Sislom ami (ioniorrah, cit»»*s which 
it is now argued were not .subnier.;ed but de-stn>yed by 
tire. .M. lie S.iulcy says he found them; M. Van der 
Veldi! has disputed this fact ; but, neverthelest, it 
is by no nieaiis improbible, and we believe the photo- 
graphs are now in Kiigland. For oui-sclveH we euulJ 
not make the ruins, but we may lisivo Ummi too Iftirried, 
nnd not iuipos.sibly, olf tho right tnick. To return to 
Jericho. There was, years agci. one ••enerablo jialiu 
tree, lu'ir that old sijuaro tower, but like other recoifleil 



imlm treo-i of tli'i Huly IaihI, timt one Ikvs g'>ni', tlio 
last of tlijit " forest of Miliu ti-eos" for which the lo«i- 
lit.y wivt (li.ttinj^iiishoil. ^Vn mu-' not altogi'thor ilcs- 
piso thoso thorn Ijuslips — oiieof tli m js the Ziikkuiii, 
ami hears a luit, fi.mi whiih a lii|uiii balsam is 
made by the monks ami s .lliors- thi- famous 'Uiilin 
of Oilewl." The vista of twelve mile, that lies o|><-n- 
0(1 before us in the spread of tlio valley of Ji.rdan, 
.imt liere, is the loeilify of j-xlniorlioiry scenes. 
From risijili, ill the mountains, anil mor' clearly 
visible oil the other side 'but no one knowctli 
where I'isjfah is), Mo* j lookel ilowii on Promised 
L.iiid and siw this :iiii an<l ibii valley, tlu'ii 
fortilu as the valley ..f the Nib Hen-, <>ii tin- 
m>ot where the pilgrims arc alxmt to enU'r, the 
Joidau riille<l link Iweiity miles. The river hud 
dried up fr in north to south (J<»h., iii , IC), and the 
host of Israel ivtmc out of the divji ibannel, (here eight 
feet deep), anil jiitehed their U'Uts in the <li>si'rt 
plains. They had seen Jirieh-i from (Jilg-al, (where 
pilgrims still lariy their ebililreii yearly to 1m> cir- 
cu'iieised), ai)out live miles fiiiin the ea-stern bank, 


on the ^kirt of the forest, a \a>t grove of majestic 
paliiiM, about three miles broad and eight miles long. 
Alnive the trees (Olild !«• seen Jerieho, high and 
fenced up te heaven ;" behind it, the whiti' limestone 
mountain^ of Jiidea, in which the spies had taken 
refii^'e ; as the hermits did in the alter Christian 
)H"'ioil. when tliev lnwid lait cells in that hill, imw 
called the " Qiiarantania," which tlii'y reganleii as the 
sceie (if the "Korty il.iys of thcTcmptalioii." Down 
that jKiss from Jericho went Elijah i:iid Klislia to tl.o 
.loi'dan banks, and smote the wiitci-s and divided them, 
the sons of the prophets Htindiiigon the terraces to .see 
the great projihct iLscend. 'J'hose palm groves, now no 
moi-e, were given by Antony to < 'loopalra as a love- 
gift ; and llerod the Great firmed them for liei, 
and afterward.) bought them for hinifclf, an.l built 
here a sumptuo is palace, and died here, Btrickeii, 
ill his pride. t)ur Ijord through here on his 
last journey to Jerusalem, and, abnig the road by 
which grew the Sycamore Tree (Luke, .\iv.,4), wont uji 
into the wild dreary mountains, and so up the hmg 
a.sceiit towards the City, past the old klian or inn that 
now iiiiirk.4 the locality of tho Parable of the Good 





Siinmritiiu (an Riifflish tnivcUcr 'viis robbed and mur- 
duiH'd tlicri! in 1820), and so to tho friendly house of 
lAzarna at IJctliaiiy. 

Ni^lit fallM, am! wo look for and obtain a kind lodg- 
ing from the i'ii|itain of the ginird in the old tower. 
Ilrrowe .sniitrh a few bourn' ri'iiosc, which early U 
broken, in thodead w;wtcandmiddleorthiMii;;lit, ornithcr 
aliont three o'elock in the mornini,', by loud shouts from 
the neighbouring camp. Lights are tlasliing about and 
drums l>eaten, and then come, in a long line, — all carry- 
ing blazing torches of the tnrjieutine, — the |)ilgrim8 who 
now advance towards tho Jordan in Holemu silence, 
tho moon shining brightly above thi'ir Iieads. Uefore 
reaching tho sliore, wo perceive tho wliite clill's and 
grwm thickets on each bank, just where tho Greeks 
and Armenians bathe, which they do, rushing head- 
long, men, women, and diildren, in one undistinguished 
m;Lss. The banks arc pcrpeuilirular, and tlio stream 
llows strong ; aixl is ten feet ileep, and rather muddy. 
Wo are more used to rivci's, and wi-ely pi-efer a lower 
spot, which the Katiii pilgrims use, and whichour artist 
lias sketched (see page I'.i), where the beach on one 
side is low. Vou will see fathers and mothei's, de- 
lightedly, bathing their eliildri'U, that they may enjoy 
the advantages of a pilgrimage without the toil. There is 
little noise ami shouting, tliou'.;!! niuch haste and tumult- 
nousness, but at the Siuue time, no iMclecnrons eon- 
duct. The bath is di>lightf\il, an<l the iulrrmi.vture of 
the reeds, wilil vines, and elindiing plants, imparts 
much beauty of Contrast. Copts, (lieel:.s, .Xinimians, 
Catholics, I'l-otestants, from Abys-sinia, Kgypt, Asia, 
Turkey, Oreece, Malta, Italy, France, Spain, Austria, 
I'olaml, IVnsaia, llnssia, Great Uritain, America, 
and all Christian lands ; even Cossai'ks fri>m Tartary, 
and Negroes from Abyssinia, were thronging along the 
shores. 'I'he forest of thorns was all alivo with them. 
All brought back some memorial from the banks — long 
branches of the Jordan willow ; some evi'U carry away 
trunks of trees, loade<l on tlieir, hoi'ses and nudes, 
as a store from which to cut out relies for jn'olitabio sale 
jit a distance. All, on their return, wen; engaged in sing- 
ing hymns, tho confused sound of which from so great 
a multitude, when harmonised into one sonorous hum or 
trumpet murmur by the ell'ect of distance, had a surpris- 
ing etl'ect. At the camp are a large bisly of Turkish 
|iilgriius, it is the time of their Moslem pilgrimage 
to NebiMoussim, tho supposed t(mib of Moses, which 
lies in the \ icinity ; matters being so politically arranged 
that, to gtiard against tho capture of tho Holy City 
by Christian pilgrints mustcrol every year at Easter, 
a similar pilgrimagi' of Turks is convoked for the same 
time; and IS'ebi-iMoussim, or the Tomb of Moses, a 
small hillock near Jericiio, is one of their iiiii>ortant 

A short distance above the Dead Sea the Jordan is 
40 yards wide, and 12 feet deep; then .')() yards wide, 
and 11 feet deep ; then 80 yards wide, and 7 f ct ilecp; 
and, finally, lOO yards wide and only .'I feet deep at 
tho bar, by its entrance. AVe proved the b\ioyaiiey of the 
Dead Sea by attempting to sink in it, but found tho 

■ Vnn K)(nioat tpcnks of tliiii tomb at of a niotU'rii MuMulinan 
Sniut. Hut the prefix of Nebi (Proplict) to Monmi (Mosei), Ciinon 
Stiiili'y rinmrkii, is nearly roncluiive in liivour of its \n\ng 
iiitnidi'il for tlip pravc of Moso*. Sucli is tlio npiiiinii also (if 
.Ii'lul-cddin. Siliwnrti: dcicrilw* a Kelwr Meslieli, or Mosos' 
(Srnvc, limuh of Ibitns, when it ia well known, tho liabb iilils, 
thnt llio BcpuU'lirc of this holy man ii oaat of tho Jordan (-'CUt, 
iijjv., 6). 

water very buoyant, and, at tho buum) tiuje, extremely 
bitter, and far suiter than that of tho ocean. It nets liko 
alum u])ou tho tongue, smarts likocamphor when npidicd 
to the eyes, and stitfens tho hair like cerate. Here 
ari! no fish, nor did wo see any birds, and an unnatural 
gloom hangs over tho sea and over tho plain. One 
analysis of the water shows chloride of sodium, 8 ; 
of pota.ssi<un, 1 ; of calcium, .3. Another snys, chloride 
of calcium, 2^ ; of magnesium, 10^ ; of pottisaium, Iji ; 
of sodium, U,J. The specific gravity is as 1200 to 
distilled water ut 1000 ; but this varies, as ilo also the 
amount of saline substances necoixling to tho time or 
place at which tho water may l>o taken. AVc nnide the 
best of our way tip the Valley of the Jordan, but found 
tho atc<'mpt to reach Jerusidi'iu in that direction would 
Ih" fruitless ; so we at onco hastened biu,'k witli the ]iil- 
grims, now in advance — who halted, however, at tho 
castle, — in a long jiictiu-esque line lowariis Jcrusidem. 
This, by taking tip again the relay of hoi-ses wo had left 
at Mar Saba, wo were enabled to do before tho evening 

Next morning, at day-break, wo started on the tisuul 
route out of tho Damascus date to Nablus, and eioon 
••learisl the hills and rocks that skirt the city, and entered 
on the I'laiii of Jezrei I, or Ksdraelon. El ISireh, or the 
Well, the ancient Itcerotli, is tho first lialting place of 
caravans on this route. One day a band of piotis )iilgriins 
were returning to Nazareth, after oft'ering their hnmblo 
sacrifices at the Temple. On their reaching this 
fountain, when the seiitterisl caravan joinisl up to halt, 
a mother anil her hnsliand |H'rceiviHl with great terror 
that their only eliil'' was not with then;. Devouivd 
with anxiety, they remieed their steps towards Jcni- 
.<'''i.i, ini|uiring everywhere on the way for their little 
8<ui, ai ,1 tound liim in the Holy City, in the Temple, 
ill the midst of the doctors or teachers of the law. A 
little cliaiMd wits built h< re to eomnienionite the Virgin's 
anxiety. The path winds through an uneven valley, 
covered with bare sisits of rock. A little to the east 
are some blocks of stone, recording how Jacob had his 
dream on this s|Hit. This is all that remains of 
liithel, leaving it just what it was when tho wanderer 
" who went out from lieersheba " slept on the brown 
bare rocks, and the beaten thoroughfare, and elected the 
stone which bad liisn bis piUow, in memorial of his 
dream. In the valley behiw was the " Oak of Teius," 
near where Debonih, the iiiirno of Jacob, was biirieil 
(flen., XXXV., C-8). Yet here, at Luz, as it was 
then called,' was the place of council — the Wit- 
lenagemote — of the old Cunaanitcs. This place small 
as it was, hold out against Iteiijamiii, until the strong 
family of Joseph ca]iturcd it by storm, and made it their 
own (Judges, i., 22-25). The Jews then a.ssenibleil here 
in the House of Clod, lieth-el. Next, Jerolioam built a 
Temple, which Josiah destroyed ; the old Canaaliitish 
relish for iilols hovered over thes|Kit ; and Jerobouni him- 
self, while in thisTemjile, by the altar which stood before 
the (Jolden Calf, was ciaifounded by the terrible denun- 
ciation of the Man of Coil from Jiidah (1 Kings, xiii., ]). 
Thence it was called liethaneii, the House of Idols, 
which Josiah destroyed, with all its gloves, and Ahaz 
and Hiwea pronounced their einphiitic uiKin tho 
spfit. ft now bears the mark of their occompliMiimcnt. 

Tho mini' nt Bcilin and BctlicI Dcrupy the wholo siirfiioc of | 

the liil|.p<iin( mill cover n npnco of three or four ncn«. They ' 

consist of very iniiiiy fuundatiims mid half staiuling walli of ■ 

churdiM, towers, and other buildiiit(a. I 



The hillH of tho mniii rmwl from Jonuwlom are luwHeil, 
and wo deacriid into a wiilo ttrctchiii); pUiii, full 
of growing wlioat, or bai-luy lieing hiirveittcJ, with 
hem and thtn-o an oHvn grove ]>cc|iing fmni tiio niiilHt 
of tho waving niaj* Beyond uii, to tlio right, lii.-a tho 
snowy brow <if Mount llennon. The crostu of 
Mounts Ucrir.iin and El)al wani us of uiir approach 
to Xablus, tho ancient Sicliein or Shechem. Tho Hatnuri- 
tans claim tliat it was horo Mclchiaedck mot Abraliain, 
and that on Mount Qurizim, and not on Moiiih, was 
iMaoo offered in aacrifico by Abraham, Wo are in tho 
Vale of Shechem, a valley green with grass, grey with 
olives in the ((aniens sloping down on each side, with 
froib springs running in all directions. Here was tho 
first halting-place of Abraham, and heiv, at Moriiih, he 
. built tho first altar of tho Holy I^and. Hero was the 
first settlement of Jacob; the fii-Nt rapital of the con- 
quest; upon Mount Qorizim was tho blc!>8ing proDounccd, 
upon Mount Ebal tho curse (Dc\itcronomy, xl, 29-30). • 

There was a famous temple here, 241 feet from cast 
to west, and '2!>5 feet fntm north to south. The HtoneA 
are bevelled after tho ancient fiiMliiun. Tho temple wiu 
destroyed 130 years before Chriitt, but they |K,"-«^vere, 
even to this very day, in " W(irshi|)ping the Father" 
on this very s]>ot. The j)laco in a singular one ; the 
streets are dark and vaulted, and tho brookrt ru.-<h 
uncoveixMl over their pavements in wet wiriither, 
threatening to sweep away tho passei-s by. The 
houses have gardens, and the mullM'rry, onmge, |m>mii' 
granate, and fruit trees, load tho air with ilclicious 
Iterfumes. Hero aro nightingnlen and Inincln-JM of 
other birds, an! the valley— for tho i-ity lies right 
across between two prodigious nia>uu>!i of liii;h moun- 
tains — is excessively picturesque. Mount Kind i.i nn 
the north, Gerizim (ui the soutli, anil tho city 
between. This wiw the locality of Aliinielech'H murder 
of his brothcm. Sechem was tho government scat of old 
Canaan, and it was easy to get up an insuiTection 
therc^ igaiust the conquerors. Frmii Moimt (ieriziui 
Jotham addressed his fa;u<ius |uiriibli! to the |HMiple 
(Judges, ix., 7), and yim can see t'lal fnun his |MiNition 
he would have time to oscaiM) hefnre ho could bo 
reached on tho overhanging mountiiin. It wiw on 
Ebul and on Oeriiim that Moses, by the I^iprd's iniu- 
mand, placed "tho blessings and the cui^m-s" (iJeu- 
tenmomy, xxvh' , 4, 8 ; Joshua, viii., .30, 32). 

At the mouth of the valley we see, on on.' siilc, the 
white cu|(ola of i Mussuluiau Clia|)el — that is the 
" Tomb of Jo.sepii" — that is " the parcel of Kmund" 
left to him by Jacob on his (leiith-lM'd (Ueue«is xlviii., 
2'2, as corri'ul out in Joslnm, xxiv., 32). A reii!;iika(<le 
point is noticeable in this will of Jacob's, as, acconling 
to it, tho distribution of property u.sed to bo regulati'cl 
U'hat ho inherited, no man thoui^hl his own, but for 
life, and thoix-fore sufTensl it always to go in the 
fair oilier of his geiieriition, bi;i what he hiul er.riicd, 
or himself obtniiiecl or iui».ksl — " which I took nut ol 
the hand of tlie Anii>i'Ur with my sword and my 
bow" — that tho {latritw^'h cousiJere<l hiniHcIf entitle*! 

' "In tliwrhiiinl)!'' »■ , -i n... ., t'...., 'rtlioinntiiilHiii,"«iys 
Canon Stanley, till' n I i, ii.l, .m, nini'll us the ni'wt 

pictiironqiio writiM ilh i -.ulUrs m iIm Huly I.;ini1, " 'h'' 

tiainnritnnmitlll » - ili -iMt »n<l <)•• oiallput vH-t in rtii.' 

wiirUl, ilistinLiii"!! ' li'p''^>'0(r»owjr»ml»tiit<'lyi\i!p«ir- 

runi'i' f- " , llnwav of lanul. In their 

frojtr-' ■ .; ■ ir r<\i««d popy iif tin- l*enta- 

>«m V . Mi^ lUrv>w tJannM'ht>a '» llu'ir tnce* in the ilirertinii, not 
•f faim, or town, >v any objcv i within the building, but, obliquely, 

to give as a H|>eoial gift to his favonrito son ; tho rest ho 
equitably distributt^d.^ On the other Ms aro a few 
broken stones, where was tho well sunk by '• our father 
Jacob," " to give drink Ihen-df to himself, his children, 
and his cattle" (John iv. 12). •' Jacob's Well" is tho 
undisputed scene of Our Lonl's coiivei-sjitiou with tho 
Woman »f Bamaria. H • halted, as wo and all tmvelUrs 
do, at this well ; hit; disciples virwt up tho city ; nnd 
down the gorgi!, from it, came tho woman, a.i do all 
women in the Kasl, to tho well to draw water. Tho 
sanu; mountain, (ierizim, looked down U)Hm that con- 
versation, and tho same tields of waving con sur- 
rounded them OS they t.dke<l. 

8ix miles from Shechem, along tho valley, in a wide 
bnsiii, a steep hill, a p'isition uncq-.iulled fur 
strength, beauty,and firtility. This is thohillof Sunuuiii, 
looking over the I'laiu of Shan m, and tiio Mediternineaii 
S(«i to the west, and up tho grei.'ii Valley of rihcchem, 
tothi' Itwas thecapitidofthoKingsoflHrael,and 
second oidy to Jerusalem. Hero is a grand gothicruin, 
the chiircii of t';e boheu ling and grjivo of St. John tho 
Baptist, and a si-tonJ "Ilnly Sepidehre." It it now a 
iniMipie, and car 'fully guarded by thi' people of Sebasto 
(tho modern applanation of the town). There is abroki'n 
reservoir, which ihcy tell us was the pool in which the 
chariot of Aliab iv.xs waslicu, which had brought up tho 
dying king from the valley of tho JoiJnn after the fatal 
hjjht of Rnnioth-Gilcad. (Stanley's PtiVi/iof.) (1 Kings, 
xxii,, M ) The martyr has a tomb, and his memory is 
revered; but of tho proud I'erml, of his jxdaoe and hi.s 
ternices, his suinptitnus halls, and his fe.ists and dances, 
nothing rcmaiiLS, but a few broken ]iii! rs on the hill. 
All nature smiles around, as shotiicn smiled ; groves of 
trees, of corn and olives, in tho villcy, nnd up tho 
hill sides; but the jilough |iiis3es over theKiof;'s palaco 
every seaiton, and tho peasant who drives it knows not 
tho v<Ty name of Herod. 

Over the miMint.uns of Manassth and into tho 
Plain of Esdntelon, after a night's halt, wo hast- 
en, acDss Ualilee, leaving Tabor, or the Mountain 

townnh the K:>atern ouminit of Mount (loriziin ; in the fur bnok 
hintorieii ofthu in}stcriiiii« uhl time, the nctuiil proaenee of (iihI on 
M'lUiii (leri/nn it slutcil." ^n Anierii'un triivelU'r my«, "The 
brother of n)y ho«t wm particiihirly tontl or tnlkiiig iilKiut them. 
lie wiu very ohl, '\iiil Ihu uuMt delornieil innn 1 cvcriuuv, who lived 
to n ^riiit ti^'. He ReeuK'd to think there were many Snniiiritnni 
in KiiKliind and Americe.. nnd told ine to tell tliem, wherever I 
fimiid tlium, that they believp.1 in one (iod Oinni|»tcnt and 
Kternal, the Pve lK>.>k!i of Mose;*, nnd a fntnrc Messiali, and tlio 
day of tlie MoMiah'j eoining to Iw nenr nt hand; they prac- 
lined ein!Uinti»ion; went throu times nyear up to Mount (ieriziin, 
'tlie everlasting mountiiin,' to wiiiiihip mid oiler siierillcoj and 
onee ayear pitehed their teiita nnd left thiir virgiin alone on 
the Mount for seven days, ejiieitiiiR that one of them sliould 
coneeive and Iwar a son, who slionid Iw the Mesninli ; that they 
allowid two wives, and, in mm of Iwrrenness, four; tnat the 
woineii were not iieimiltedto enter I he synagogue, exrcpt oiiee a 
yiar, dining fast, hut on no aeeonnt were they snil'ered to 
toiieh the sncreil scroll; nnd that, nllliongh the Jews and 
.Sftinaritain had dealings in the imirket-place, Ac., they 11111111 cwli 
other now, as iniiih os their I'ltliers did before them. 1 asked idiont 
Jacob's Well; ho snid ho knew tho placv, and that ho knew 
Our Saviour, or Jesus Cli.-irt, as he familiarly eallrd him, very 
well J hewiu Joseph tho eatpcntiVH son, of Nimirilh; hut that 
tho story whieh the (rhrlslians had alnint the woman nt the well 
was all a flelion j that Christ did not convert her, but that, on 
tho enntrary. ''he laughed at him, nnd e»en reriiswl to gito liiin 
water to drink." 

» Tho nplotation of tha tomb of Joseph at Shoihein, tlio 
stone BJtnpby Josliim at tlio same place to iwrpclnate tho law 
of Sinai, nnd a description of tho ruins on Mount llcrizim and 
Mount Ebal, are still dcsidcnitJi. 



(if till' Tmnsfi^iirnti 111, ritch In its vory siinii.iit, nml 
fi)«'iriii;^ in tlu! ]iro.s|n'cl like a dou'C, ns if imlntod 
ill the iiiimMliiiii ruiii;i', on o'lr rii;lit. Caniicl, 
I'igliti'in mil s, is fHi onr Icfl, ctrctifiiiig towards the 
sen, all vciilant to its toj) with groves and j,dadcs, liko 
Tiihor. (iiUioaiiU luiro, end little IliTinoii, wi: liavc left 
lifliinil. Wi- niiw enter !hc Vnlliy of Naziintli from 
tlic liro.iclT Villi , of Jezri'i!, or Ksdrarlon. Xawiii'lli, 
tlio ilNvelliii^ |diicu of Oiir Lord, is liuilt on tlic stoc |i 
slope iif a liill, as will 'lOKei'ii from our illustriitiun, and 
tiftecn j,'i'ntlyroniidi'd fjnin liills l'oi;n a liariiiM- roniid 
tlie iHMMtifnl liilds aUmndinn jri luii^lit tlowers, lij,' 
trees, anil lii'il;,'ed ;;.i.'deM<, in ilie iiiiilst of wliirli sits 
Naziirelli like a rose, with tlie mnini'aiiH fi-r its leaver, 
iici'oriliiiL! to tliu |ioilie iioaye of an (jld lopoi;ia|ilier, 
Qnare^nlius. Innnineralile fdc-i of ealtle and Idaik 
poats may !"• se. ii winiliof; towanl.s it, nni! undir t 
larj,'!' |ionii'!,'r.inale tree. On tlie way to\vaiilsSa|dioiiili 
(Sejilioriiji) tlio traditional resideNce of (lie N'iifjin's 
J>arent<, miy lie m'i'Ii a parly of wmiien nr.d t;ir!s, wiili 
refill ir and di jieite feitniiw, daneinL; niider a ,i'iiiie- 
granate tree. Weare now at (lie very sonice and first 
spriii!,' of t.'liriitiaiiily. Here fur lliiriy veals n sided 
tile Savi.air of iiiaiikiinl : •' 'I'lio word was made llisli 
and dwell animifj us" At llie nortli we-t end of tlir 
town, we eiieunnied liy a well, wliieli is railed tin 
"S|irin;5of tlie Annanciation,' wlieie, nays tlie earlv 
Greek tradition, tlie An;," 1 s.dutid Mary as slie went 
to it, as we see her runnl rvwoiiieii liow eoiiiin;;,' with 
their jurs and their >kiiis, lo draw wa'er. Disniouiitinj; 
iWmi "!T hor>es, we jiroeeed to look at ''The Mount of 
rrcei. .1 .ir (F.nke, iv , 1), the hrowcfthc hill on 
the slLjie if wliieh liie town is lniill. U j'>t alio-, e 
th<' Mrtiouile Convent, at the lonthwot oimrof the 
town. The women hereareveiyi'iitty , nonliilwe iiotiee 
that I' in their looks vhiili a i< vennd 
Aineriean |int the (jiusti.'ii to hiiiiM If over again that 

riiilip once )>nt to Nnthiinlel, " Can niiygoid eeire 
out of Nazaiilh ( " 

'1 he Chiinli of the Annnneiatioii, within, is very 
liand.-ome, and wilhout is Miy stronjily unnrdeil. 
We have the Convent walls, iind hy n llif;lit «pf .ste|w 
liefceir! to an, with a ieie.«s i nl in the .■•olid rnek, 
I'Ul ea'\i ill iiiaiMe. will re the Aii;;el addre.'.sed the 
Yiri.'in ; under thai is an iiiMriiition, " Veilaiin euro hie 
fai Miinist:" "Here I lie word was made llesh." A liroken 
loliiiiin, hanj,'iii;.; from its ea|iital in the roof de-.i;.'nates 
till- jilaie wlieir ill.- A lij;el sloi d. I'clow the altar is 
the of ,)ose|ph and -Mary, — that ea\e. the kilehell, 
kei'iiin;,' lonmand lieilrooin. 'J he llonsethal miraniloii^ly 
transjioit d it.silffiom tiiis>.|iot to l.oretio, is said, here, 

to|ia\.' heell the oilier half of (he holy llwellill};. Clote 

liy, ho«iver, the "AVoik.sho|iof,loM'|iir' ishfi ns, tlion;;h- 
in a VI ry dillieent .sly'e of alehilc eliire and material ; 
there isalso. the lillli- Synayo^ine w heieChi isl, hy read- 
ing the lu'ok of Is.iiah, and ii|i|;,' the |iai-Miges to 
hilnsel!', exaspiialid liis low nsmi n lo thrust him out of 
llieir lit;. It may not ^•'■ [,'iiiii,ill\ known, |irrhii|i.s, 
that ro|«- Si.Xlns V. had aetnally nei;olialed a treaty 
with the Siililinie I'liite, to |, the Holy 
Si |inlrl,r. . and eoiiviy it l.idily to jtoiiie, with the siir- 
loiiniiin;,' shriiM s. so that Chi istendoin mii,dit po.sseMS 

llie aetnal sites o!' llic Co] |>lioii, liirth, and Diirial o( 

onr Saviour. 

We were tiliijiled lo eonlilHIe onr lour, 
and visit Caiia, Naiii. and 'I'ilierias ; lint an inlimation 
of the steaimr's departure drew ns oiiee more fi'oin the 
S.iriid I'asi Inlo the regions of I iie Imsv present ; and 
divi 'n'uiii lo the left, from Xazanlli, we .vol ked our 
way on <■< (>ailfa, and thine' to dalia, where we re- 
einliarked, thus i oiielii ling onr seven days' jouniey 
in the Holy Land, out of wlii'.h we had spriit 

Five J).vvs .\t JiM', 



The triumplml ontrHnce of Garibaldi into Naples 
having i-eloased uRfrnm the charge of attending his vic- 
torious caiwir, which wo might have accompanied from 
his lauding in Mamala and during his progress across 
Sicily to I'alormo, y/t; aro enabled to turn to thot i 
island whioli is now likrly to assume a very interesting ! 
imsition in European ullUirs, and complete our know- 
ledge of its present condition and the prosjiects of its 
|iossiblo future, by a tour comjilctely round ond across 
it. Tills is no very difficult task apparently, for tho 
whole island is only 5G0 miles in circumference, 220 
miles in length, and 150 miles in breadth j but there 
aro 500 cities, although there are only two post-roads 
and one stage-cnacli ! Palermo is reached in tho 
KteamlMtt from Naples in seven hours. This ancient 
('ity' stands on tho niurgin of its beautiful bay, in a 
wiiie rich valli?y, backed by an extensive plain, and sur- 
rounded by n gnuid amphitheatre of niountaius, verdiint 
to their summits, and of a vttric<l andiiicturcsciuo outline. 
It lo<iks down smiling ujion dark blue waves, while 
around it the jialm, the orange tree, the fig, the olive 
uiid tho vino, cheei-etl by tlio brightest sim and re- 
freshed by c<K)l breezes, shed forth their verdure, and 
fringe tho shell of gold, — the Conea d'Oro, — for so the 
|(lain is called — that contains " Palermo tho Beautiful," 
iLs if within u frame. The town has an eastern appear- 
once ; white and sipiaro with flat roofs. Wo 
could fancy tho Saracens were again in |H>.ssession of the 
place, and that the gongs sounding ho lou<lly were 
intended to call tho Moslems to tlw'ir prayera.- 

■ Ttia origin of I'liliTino is lost !a ttie nlgtit of antiquity. 
Tbiicyditlo* niys it wai oriKinally a I'licEniciiin city, whicli pasacd 
iiiidiT tlie OrevlcB. niid cvvnliuilly CartliHginians, tlie principal 
Hvnt of whom duiiiiiiioua it was. Eventually tlie Bomnns won it. 
During the decline of the empire, it wns overrun by the Ilurlmrians 
and Qotlis, until, by the valuur of Bclianriui, it was reatoi'cd 
nwl'ile to the Byzantine Einporor. Then the Saracens took it, 
then tho Nunnans, then tho French, then tho Spaniali. At one 
time there were three codes of Law ; the Normans had the Custom 
ef Normandy, the Saracens the Koran, and the Q reeks and the 
Sicilians tho Kumnn Law. Six Languages were siioken at the 
same time ; French, Genuan, Italian, Ureck, Latin, and Arabic. 
The city, like the country, hos been Phconician, Ureek, Bomun, 
Oothic, Byuintine, Norman, French, Sponisli, Sardinian, and 
Neapolitan, and preserves traces of each ono in its buildings, as 
well as tho language, manners, habits, and appcntance of its 

' But how did the Saracens comohereP Dux faminafaed. 
There was a woman at the bottom of it. Goths, Vandals and 
Byzantine* followed the Rouuins, and it happened that at one of 
the gratings, justsuch as we now see apairof bright eyes and apale 
flioo under a white muslin veil looking; down irom the balconied 

The lovely bay is eight miles broad. To the west it is 
closed by Mount Pellegrino, where once was Hyccora, 
whence Nioias, who did little else, brought away tho 
fair Lois, who fascinated all Athens, and seduced the 
great Pericles to listen and admire. The Eastern 
headland is Mount Catalfano — tho ancient Solus 
or Soluntum, and at tho foot of which is a small 
port, with a fort called Ca»telli di Solunto. Tho 
Marina, the loveliest ride, walk, or drive in Europe, 
o|)on to the sea, and guarded only by a dwarf wall, 
with flagged pavement for jicdestrians, is a broad road, 
along which, on tho other side, are the palaces of the 
nobility. Even now, thoro is a procession of caniages — 
every ono rides in Palermo — and a band, whose musio 
from above floats softened over the sea. We have very 
little trouble in landing, and as for tho Custom Hoit'ie 
that UKod to be so vexatious, "wo" and Garibaldi, 
nous ai'ons cluiruji tout tela. Farewell, for a while at 
any rate, to oflicial extortion in Sicily. We hasten to 
the Victoria Hotel, on the Upper Marina, where wo 
" greatly daring dine ;" and then, out to enjoy tho 
evening fragrance of tho orange groves and the amphi- 
theatre of lights round the bay, and tho busy, bustling 
scene of tlio Marino Promenade. The sweet silvery 
bells chime out here for vosjiers — Sicilian vespers ! 
It is only half a mile from hero to the Church of San 
Spirito, iu a field by which took place that famous 
assnssi.iation on so huge a scalo,^ that set jieoplo 

second stoty in the High Street, ho saw a pretty nun and fell in 
love with her. Love laughs at locksmiths, so the nun got out of 
her window at night, and was just stepping oQ' the rope-ludder 
into the arms of her lover, when h friar, returning late to biscouvcnt, 
discovered her. The power of the Cliurch in those ilnys (it was iu 
tho samo year that Eglicrt wiu crowned King of England,) wasnot 
to be trilled witli oven by Byzai.tinc Generals; so Kuphcinius was 
sentencetl to be Hugged through the streets, the nun being com- 
pelled to stand at her grating and witness the degradation of her 
lover. But by the aid of some of his fellow officers, he. ventured 
u)>on a uivMt hazardous escape. Tho keeper of bis prison was 
poisoned before midnight and tho keys obtained ; he tlien swam 
out into tho Ixiy , where bo remained floating, until a Gshing boat 
took him up, and for a heavy bribe put him on board a vessel 
bound for Aftnca. Once there ho instigated tho Muhanimedan* 
to an easy conquest of Sicily i and they ruled the Island with 
rigour for upwards of two hundred years, enriching its cities with 
graceful palaces. 

* It was hero, on Easter Tuesday, March 30th, 1382, about 
liulf a mile from the city at the Church of San Spirito, tliat, when 
a great concourse of the citizens had tuken place, ostensibly for 
the puqHHO of attending vespers, a party of French soldiers, 
totlie number of two hundred, under suspicion of the people wearing 
arms, began to search for them, and one insolent young officer, 
named Urouctte, stepped up to a very handsome young married 
lady who was walking surrounded by her friends, under pre- 
tence of searching for a weapon, rudely thrust his hand iuto brr 



thinkiiif; tliiit it wim not iilwayH iipcowiory to riuhiro 
(i|i|iri>Niiioii, mill that n p<-o|il(i when ifKuliito weru e<|iutl 
til any ili»i'i|iliiif(l fuit:o with n bud cnum.'.' 

InKim. Tlio liiily Aiiiilnl in licr liiulmml't urtni, who, Airioiii with 
rnKf, ulnii'k Ml Dnmi'tli', rryiiig " IKiilli to tlio {•'rcncli !" " ncntli | 
to tliu Kremli!" ri'liiNHl tha irowil, iiml iirmol wltli knivrt nnil 
I'liiU tlioy fi'll lUtiH'niliOy ii|i<iii tlii' wililicri mid killnl tliciii to n 
liiiin. Iiilhininl willi mku iiikI blnol, tlw iiiuli Hull liiirrinl to tlio 
city, wlii'iv lliov liroko Into tlic cinivi'iitu niul kill'il cri'ry Fri'ncli 
monk they poiiiil tnii'i'. A Imrrllili! biilrlii'ry fiillowoil— not rvpii 
till) ultiini ntrorilnl ri'l'iiK>i— nicii, wnuiin, niiil cliililri'ii with nliku 
■orriHi'Ml to tlip niilional linlc. 'I'lio Krrncli ncro linntiil to 
tlivir lioinM i-vrrvwln'ro, unil iiiiiriliTiHl wUlioiit iiiiriy, Kl^lit 
tliniiiuiid Trll iniM-riilily inuriU'nil in tliii iiiiix'tua of I'lirv, ' 
wliirli iuiiK ri'iirt'nii'il, now Hinlili'iily iiikI nwfullv bunt forth. : 
In tlio nnivrranl niii«<'jcri' ii liiiKlo iiuliviiluul mm aiivol, Willinin | 
of I'imi'lt'ttii, llio KO'tTiior »!' n miinll town, lie Imil ituud , 
H|o»r IVoin liic tyniniili>« niiil innok'ncc of liii (iiniitrynirn, ' 
anil Imil innilu liiiiiM'lf Ulovi'tl. 'Iliii Hitiliiiiii, wlio, tliron|;li- 
nut tlia I'ountry, Iniil rint'ii on tliu tolling of lliv vtii|irr Ixll of 
8iin S|iirllo, n i'niiiii'<l IVoin ininriiiK Ilia ulxiilc, iind lioiiuurubly 
ronduftiil liiiii on l»«ird one of lii« own vewnU to I'mveiuv, 
Hmt <iini|ii'Hinir liiiii, iia it were, to rweivo tlio jiriiv of tlio |ioi. 
•ewioni III' Irit in Siiijy, A rc'iuiirkublu iiuinplu of |io|iulHr juitira : 
mid tlie |M>wer of virtue, ! 

TliU iukurreetiun liiid liei'n ciirefully |ire|wn'<l livforeluiiid by 
Jnliuof I'nH'iili. " IIU birib hii« bumble," miyitlibliun, " but lii« < 
eiliKiition wiiH b'uriKil, nnd, in llie jxiverty ofeiile, bewail relieved I 
by till) pnii'tiei' of pliytic, wlitrh lie bnd iitndieil in the tcliixd of i 
Hiilerno, Fortune bad li-f\ litiii notbiiiff to lo«) exeept life, and to 
deapiac life ii tlie lint i|iuibtU'iition of n teliel. Tbe iaiiinil wm 
rouied to a leiiKe of freedom by bit elo<|Ueiuv, mid bo di»p1iiyed | 
to every luiron bi> privcite intereat in tlio eoiiiiiion cnuw. In tbe , 
eonfldcnee of forei^^n nid, bo aiiceeaMirely visited tbe eonrta of tlio i 
Orcek Eiii|»', iind of I'eter, KiiiK of Arrapni, «lio iKi«iicaae<l tlio j 
niarilhno eountrlea of Vulciitin and Ciitiiloniii. To tliii ninbitioiia 
I'eter n erown wiia jireaeiited wbieli ho iniKbt iiMtly elniiii by Ilia 
murrini^o witli tlio duiiKhler of tile aialer" (L'oiiatiintiu, llio 
diiiiKbter,) " of Mmifriil " (Hie biit of tlio Norinnii KinK»), " mid, I 
by the dyiiiK voieo of Connidino," (tlio youiiK |tr>>'<daon of the 
Emperor Krederiek'a aoii, nilhleaaly ■liiiii uy Chiiriea of Aiijou), 
" wiio, fVoin tlio aenllold, bud nmt u riii); to bia heir niid avciii^T. 
PulcolnKiu wiia iiuily |K'r«iLided to divert liia enemy from u foreign 
war by n reUllinn at home; nnd n (Irook aubaidy of 25,(K)0 ouiicea 
of Kold will ii.'Mt prolltubly cinployed to uriii a Catalan llei>t, , 
wliieli aiiiled under a holy bimner to the a|iceioua uttoek of the 
Siinuvna of Afriea. In tlio di«Kiiit« of a monk or a boKKar, the { 
iiidefliti|{able miaaionaiy uf revolt How from Conatnntinoplo to 
Koine, and from Sieily to t'Hnigoiua ; Hie treaty waa aiuiieu n itii 
the u'a\ of I*o|h- Niilioliia, liimiielf llio enemy of Cliarlea ; and Ilia , 
iUhhI of ^itt tnuiafeiTed tl<c tiefii of St. I'eter from tlio bouao of 
Aiijon to that of Arra^on. So widely dilfuaeil, and ao freely rir- 
culuted, the neeret win preaerved for ul»vo two yciin with iin- 
penelriiblc discretion ; and eneli of tlic conapiniton imblbcil the 
iniiiiin of I'eter " (of Ani);oii), " wlio deel.ire<l tliiit he would eut 
oir Ilia left blind if it were einiaciou^ of the intention of bia ri);ht. 
The mine waa jtreiNircil with deep mid (hingeroua artiHcc ; but it 
hiuy 1)0 i]ueatione(l whether the iiiatmit of exploaion nt i'ulermo 
were an effort of oeeident or design." Tlio French were lotif^ taught 
to remember tliia blimdy leaaon. " If I am provoked," aaid Henry 
tbe Fourth, " I will bri-ttkfiiat at Milan nnd dine nt Nuplea." 
" Your Mujesty," replied the Spnniah Anibiuaudor, " may, pcrhapa, 
arrive in Sieily for vet|ien." i'bnrlea threatened drendful revenge, 
but the Measineae, who were the first attacked, defeated bia 
army moat inglorionaly, mid in the menntimo I'eter of Arrugon 
had been sent for i nd arrived. Since tbnt diiy, until tbo coining 
of a new John of I'rocidn in (biribnldi, the S|inniali family buvo 
reigned in Sicily, (loraonally or by viceroy. Tlio island having, 
ill 1713, only for a brief jieriod passed to Hie House of Snvoy, 
una by them exelinnged with Curios, son of I'hilip tbo Fiflli of 
Simin, fur the Island of Sardinia. In this mnniicr the Spnnisb 
I]ourb<m dynasty entered into Sicily. 

' Hut how did the French come into Sicily ? A woman did 
this nlao. At n festive entertainment, held in the Frcuuh Court, 
llcatrice. Countess of Snvoy, married to Charles of Anjou, brother 
to Louis IX, of France, was removed from the superior range of 
■onts occuplid by her two younger eiaters, the (juceii (Eleanor) 
of England nnd the Queen of Fnince. Mortified by this humili- 
ation, she returned to her apartment, excited by ill humour, and 
diisolved in tears. On learning the cause of her chagrin and on 

Tlicro nro tlio NtrniiKo Hii-iliuii imliility in tlii-ir car- 
i'iii({i')t, with I'Vi'i-y tnicc of Simiii^h hhioij, — proinl, liizy, 
mill |H>lito. Mmiy s uno ni'lhiiii ImllHUirvi'x hiuiM-ll', 
mill livi'M ill II hiinililo liHl)(iii;{ iili a ilirty Imik Nlrn'l, 
fur till' Hiiki- III' riiliiiiK ithniK in tliat ('lf);mit oi|iil|inp' 
nil tlio Marina I'vci-y cvciiiii);, Tim Siaiiiiiili veil ii 
nut vi't iiiiciiiiiiiiini with tlio wniiii'ii ; but tlm bpHt 
ili'rs.ti'11 liiilicH wear I'm'ix iKiniirts ami cloakH. All 
till' nii'ii all' i«iiKikiiiK, anil thr uny nnit'nniix ami 
till- bi'i|;lit cyi'S ami tlio ni|iiil animati'il cniivi'i'- 
Katinii, tlio Nti'an^o lihu'k'hiukiti){ ]ii'ii'KtM, iinil tin- 
jmlofiici'il iiiiim |H'L'|iiiiji( I'i'oni their gratcil windnwH 
III tlio ufipor Htury, conibinn to I'unii an I'xtni- 
■ ii'iliimry m.'1'ne, Tliero ni-n 200,li(M) inliubilaiilx in 
I'alcnno, nml it in a tulomlily Imiiy town, 'I'lioy mo 
nUmt to liuvo a I'urliaiuoiit in it, ami yuii will bear of 
soiiio Htrnii){o goiiigi* on bufuro all ia ovor, for tin. 
Sicilianx air fninoini in liiatory for winiiiiif; their liberty, 
mill not knowing bow to uw it or to keep it. They 
hnvo <lono tliiH mivoiiiI tinioM lieforu ; tbe laitt tiinu wan 
in \X\'2, when King FenlinanJ, then a rcfugeo from 
NuplcH, convoked Win baroim in a I'mliauient, nnd iiii- 
priiiuned them fur protCKtiiig agaiiiNt an nrbitrnry tax. 
Tlieii Lord William llvntinvk landed tiiHijiR, mid 
tlireatciied tu do|iom' tbo king, nnd drew from liim a 
coniititution. Itiit the Sieilimm c|uari-elled uiuoiigNt 
tbemsolveH, tluw oil' into particH, mid the king triiked 
tlieni out of tbo coiiHtitiition, a» a toy too ciim- 
beixomo nnd truublctionio for tlieiii to )iliiy 
with. In 1847 they earried miotber levoluliiiii, 
and they U'at tbo Noldierx in ralernio, and they 
eaptiirnl the eitJldel, nnd the CiipiiebiiiH diHtribnted 
anus, and h'd them on, an they did this year. In 
1818 they defied the king, nnd bu'd Miiito inteifered 
in their lii'lialf, (nil tboy unwisely sent an cx|iedition to 
Cidabi'ia, whieli failed ; mid then the king threw tbeiii 
all over, nnd liomlmriled tbe town nnd gained the 
day, and, as they tell iih, impiisuned, Ihigged, 
toiturcil, shot, nnd bung tlieiii, up to the enniiiig ol 
(iaribiddi. Whether they will inamige letter nowa- 
thiys in tbo (picstion. However, nil are enjoying tin- 
pre.sent. (tallaut eavalicrx daitli |iast, iMKlostrimiA jircsri 
ailing from their evening walk in erowds. It is the Imur 
of enjoyment. The children of tbe rich, dreiwdl liki! 
dolls — of tbo poor, dmk-cyed, tine, nnd iH'autifully 
graceful, are all :it play on this cool evening ; tbe 
artisan sits at bis disir ; tbe cofreehouso loungers 
occupy the pavement with their (hail's; ices and 
refresbineiits are linndod about — tlio bay is silvered 
over with tho nioou ; I'ellegrino stands out like a giant 
in the shade ; the sea breeze blows in fresh ; and tho 
song of tbo homeward lishcrnien comes over tbo 
gleaming waters. It was aljout niidnigbt before wu 
could tear otirselves from tho scene. 

Palermo is a pleasont and easy |ilaeo for travellei-s. 
No street directory is required; there are only two 
streets besides tbe Marina, and these crossing nt right 
angles, divide it necessarily into four parts. Out of these 

her saying she would give her life to be nblo to oonfino her tresaeii 
for one hour benenth n dindcm, Charles embraced her nfl'ectionutely, 
and added, " Set your heart nt rest. Countess, for bcforu long I 
will make you a greater queen tlinii either of your sistcn." Su 
ho promised to her. He defeated Manfred, who died bravely 
fighting, and enused Connuliiio to bo executed, bo 'limself nnd 
Beatrice witnessing the bloody spctnclc. A similnr promise is 
snid to hnro been made by the late Emperor of Kussin to his 
Empress, when they wore stopping together in the vicinity of 
Mount Ktna, who promised bis Empress Sicily for n snuimcr 
residence, after ho bad taken Constantinople,— which he did not. 



great HtreotM sliolvo and hIo))* narrow alleyn and lanes, 
j ill wliifli clotlicH, Imng out to dry, arc ludicroiinly eon- 
fepiciioufi. There in a fine 8t. Oilen' iilcracnt about tlio 
|irufi|icct, in gpito of the arches and archwayn, and tlu; 
deep liluo sky, and tlio liriglit blue sea, and the oceaMJoiiiil 
palm tree. The firat great utrcet is ooUod the Cassaro, 
and was the Al Kattr or Stiuet of I'lilaccH, also called 
Via do Toledo, of the Saract^ns— it is a mile long. 
The houses on either Ride are tall and staU'ly, with 
ImiKI cornices and projet^ting balconies ; the flowera 
.md stri|>ed blinds of the windows give colour and 
rlfect ; the grouiid-ll(H)rs are all shops, of a second- 
rate, coiintry-town-Kliop-liko description. The front 
of each is an arch ; tho projirietors live alxjve ; hence 
the liKlgcrs liavo almost all tho house. A circus 
adorns tho intersection of the streets ; this is orna- 
nicntetl with statues of the Seasons, of sovereigns, and 
of saints. Tho gates of the city are very hundsonic, 
with fountains and marble columns. The second street 
is the Macqueda, which at tho opens out into 
the mountains, which seem as if they were exactly at 
the end, though in reality at least three miles distant 
Both streets are lined with churches and convents 
innumerable, a small piazza, part of tho Ca.ssaro, 
contains a very claliorato fountain, extremely hand- 
some, but too complicated in its machinery ever to 
Ihrow up water. It is circular, and of white marble, 
and gleams with statues of exquisite workmanship. 
It has no business to be in a public street. It was 
designed and executed for a private garden, but was be- 
queathed to the Senate, who caiuiod it to be erecteil here. 

We now hire mtiJ-t asA nan oS — thrpe boyshavc tinnl 
nsout with l^^kiIi^•itl»«^>M^. Onr object in to reach 
Monte I'<'llfgrii><> aivl tke Grotto of Santa Rosalia.* 

1 'l'\m ^l'»rrfnu tir^m, «k44 ttu^ I •j>irui, wtwliurn tit Pulvrino, in 
1130,of ii<ibW]ir(i;;eiuu>%i&*F-&*!44*wnii)wUof Cbarlemogtie. Ktlu- 
ciit4.-d with tli€ utmofft rdttHtvifiic nt zha p^rioil, the tleil, at tho nge 
of twi'lve, frum her iulhiv't iuvw* to tht* ntM(^hboa-ing mountaini, 
wliere the ]uv«ud Imv «iK&r tnae in arts of ctcrotton nml peiinncc. 
At k'n^h Bb« niir«<4 i» s tamn on Monte I'ellegrino, where 
»he di(ti. wiUiont her fihtfir <^ r»?fii^ havinc^ l)ei*n discovered. 
Duriiij,' lliat t^Trililf ]ilar'>>f ''f Itol, when all cITorts to stay its 
ravages proved iueflpftiuiX al^ i^imt appejretl in a drcnm to n 
cortuii) iiiliabttsot v( PiJcrar\ .vui dim:liM«fl to him the ypot where 
her inortiil r€-3ice it-t reuuuwil tniwrieti, whicli were reverently 
gatVered up aud dt-jKiBrvtJ l?_ siiift i-mtt^ty of the Archhishop. Still 
the (M'slilence nfubed trt lear* Pjlennrt, ontil one ilay a certain 
Vineenzio lionellU s iitMq>-mtiiuv,w:uider\u^ ftbontthe mountain to 
deplore the hies of his Usil^r &ikIi^ «ai4 encountered by a beautiful 
damsel, who said to kiia, " GimK hicher with me, Vineenzio, and 
1 will show von mv pr'-«lr>_"' B-inelTi, all in a tremble, detnande<l 
her name. " 1 itui Bo*iil^" npCeiS the virj<in. " Then why," 
asked ilie soap-mak^T, f^^oHlin)^ ap ennrasre to address her, ** do 
you abandon yoar ootarlr|r •!.> » ■any afflictions ? " " Such has 
been the will (rf Hesvwi," mttmfttfi the saint, " bnt I am now 
sent to anu ounce U* yc>&, tbtf sn. sntm m my body shall 1>e carried in 
procession tbroujrh ti« «Jt, !h« |p«til<n<-e shall cease." She then 
showed lionelli her }iliy« rf ntreat, advised him to confide all 
that he had Men xui ftwairl to hi^ confessor, and, mnreovor, 
pretlicted that in fimr itjt tut sbna!d be with her in Paradise, 
lionelli, of course, fiii£3«l itu mamna, and died himself four days 
aftcnvards in corrtAwrsJiai «/ it. Hsr bnnes were carried through 
the City, uid tlie phijiw wm ftMjtit In honour of this, a yearly 
fcsti.'al takes plaoe is Ptktmn, a magnificent car is conducted 
about, 20,000 wax-Iiglilf a* ^i^ixai in the Coasaro, and a splendid 
exhibition of firewnlLf mlux fbtyt. 








1^12^ |2.5 

■50 *^^ M^^B 

It lAO 



IL25 i_L4 ill 1.6 








W»STER,N.Y. U580 











Monte Pellcgi'ino liiis been compared to the Rock of 
Gibraltiu', and is about the same height — 1,963 feet 
above the level of the sea. It was an impregnable 
stronghold in the Carthaginian period.' The grotto of 
the celebrated cavern of !Ro.salia is extremely ourions. 
Tlie chai)el is hewn in the rock, and contains a white 
marble stiitue of the fair young sainii of sixteen, 
arrayed in gold and siver, jewels, flowers, and lamps, 
tliat hang aroimd all night and day (see p, 69 )• The 
annual festival is very gay. St. Bosalia parades in an ' 
iunnense car, as high as the highest palaces of the 
Toledo or Cassaro. ft is splendidly fitted up with gold ^ 
and silver embroidery and painting, the body being 
formed of a huge mount of orange-trees, coiuls, vases 
of flowei-s, and on the top of all is St. Rosalia herself 
— a silver statue. There is a gi'and show of fireworks 
to close the scene. 

Roturaing into Palermo, we observed the fruit ex- ' 
posed for sale in the market. Pine cones, which are 
eaten roasted, the produce of a flat-topped pine ; red- j 
cheeked apples ; figs of the cactus, cf which the seller I 
strips the skin oft' and hands them to you to swallow, and 
delicious they are when you are once used to them; 
chesnuts — the chesnuts of the sunny south, fine and ', 
mealy; dried figs; tender green lemons — the most 
charming of fruit; ripe oranges, nuts, and melons. 
We saw, too, whatwill soon be the last lottery (for one of 
Garibaldi's first steps was to abolish this cheating 
method of taxation), where, in a red balcony, in a great 
house in the Piazza, standing where the Inquisition 
used to be, a little child in white, with due ceremonies, 
— such as we ourselves used to have in Guildhall about 
thirty yeai-s ago, — drew the lucky ticket from the wheel, 
and made one man happy with a few pounds extra, 
while he disp;i>ioiuted a thousand othei-s. What im- 
iwrt? the Government raised X200,000 a year by it. 
There was now no end of sight-seeing, all within 
distance. The Convent of St. Maria di Gcsu, at the foot 
of a mountain, buried in cypresses, round-tojiped pines, 
olives,' oleanders, the vine, the date-bearing palm, and 
aloes innumerable ; the aloe here being thick and 
strong — a hard trunk of fibres a foot round, and strong 
eno-igh for a beam. The pathway behind this convent 
goes up to an ivy-clad hermitage, with a wide-spreading 
yew tree of giant size. The view hence over the plain ^ 
of Palermo, the sea, the bay, and the City, to Mount i 
Pellegrino, which heaves up as the back ground to the 
picture, is something never to be forgotten for beauty ; 
and brilliancy. 

Coming back, we pass the Church of San Spirito, 
surrounded by a cluster of cypresses, the scene of the 
Sicilian Vespers. There is the large Campo, or burying- 
ground of the City, and a convent, which enj lys a 
vaulted burial ground, where the occupants are dried 
into mummies; and there they are, in coffins with 

< Of conm tlic Curthagininns nnil tlie Romans had a battle 
liere. It came oiT on the banks nf tbe river Oroti, now n mere 
monntaln stream. Uaadriibnl came (torn the eaatern plain with an 
immense nrmy of elepliantii, trained for war, on whoso lerriKo 
nsjKct he relied to scare the Roman troops at the first onset. 
But MarcelluB opposed craft by courage, and told his soldiers to 
affect fear at the slow, desperate march of the beasts, and fall 
bock. As soon as a number of the elephants had crossed the river, 
and while others were crowding in and to the ford, a volley of 
darts, discharged upon them by the Romans, threw them into 
confusion, and they turned upon their leaders, and, trampling 
down the Cartlinginian ranks, threw their army into such confu- 
sion tliat the Carthaginians lost 20,000 men. 

' The olive trees tnko long to grow, Tlie Saracens eicropted 
from taxation, during thirty years, those who made aplantation oi 

glass cases, in the very clothes they used to wear in lif« 
— a well dressed skeleton in white kid gloves ; a soldier 
in regimentals ; a child preserved with glass eyes ! 

But we have had our seven penny-worth of carriage 
out (it costs you two tari, of about three pence half-penny 
each, fifty-seven — there ought to be sixty — to a pound), 
the fare in Palermo, for n carriage, — and it is time 
we started to survey the curiosities of the town. One 
of the greatest of these would be, if we could collect 
them together, its four thousand lawyera, or at the rate 
cfone attorney to every five hundred inhabitants, which, 
ollovHng the usual set-ofi" of wives, women, and 
children, would be about one per cent, for every 
able-bodied man in the town ; deduct from this 
a liberal per centage of noblemen, all the membem 
of whom are forbidden, by their rank, to trade, de<luct 
also the clergy and the monks, aud how few will be 
left to earn a living for themselves and the rest i Yet 
all day long there are proce.ssion,s, and incense, and 
praysrs; every other day, almost, is a holiday, and 
every third evening a " festa," with fireworks. Wo once 
heard tell of a Staffortlshire working week as follows • 
"Monday a holiday ; Tuesday we go on an excursion ; 
Wetlnesday we talk about it ; Thursday we go 
to work ; Friday wo got our wages ; Saturday 
we all drink ; aud Sunday we go to sleep." A 
Sicilian week would Ije nearly the same, but that 
the Saturday and Sunday would be better sjient ; the 
evening of both, however, being enlivened with a 
dance, — one night to celebrate the close of labour, and 
the other, after prayera. Milking the cows, pnuiing the 
vines, or crusl ug thegiiipes and tending the silkworms,' 
or basking in the sunshine, constitute the most of a 
Sicilian peasant's laboui's, unless in the sulphur district, 
where he really works hard. 

There are three hundred clnn-ches in Palermo, and 
therefore we cannot see them all. Let us begin with 
the Cathednil on the right hand of the large open 
square at the head of the city. Severe and simple in 
the exterior, with its stone burnt to a yellow by the 
sun's heat, it is impossible to say whether it be Sicilian, 
Norman, Gothic, or Saracen in its construction, but it 
has all the characteristics of a noble Spanish Cathedral. 
There is a gmnd Saracenic old door for front entrance, 
and its inte>rior contains numerous side-chapels, each 
enclosed by marble balustrades and dedicated to sjiecial 
sin. Its altar of lapis lazuli is magnificent, and Gngini, 
the Sicilian Michael Angclo, has adorned it with 

olivo trees. The olives fall in August, but then are green and 
small; they swell and grow greener, until quite black and lipo 
In October. Then the olive plantations are crowded with men, 
women, and boys harvesting the crop; the women and chil- 
dren pick up the fallen fruit ; the men climb up ladders, sit oil 
the trees, and shako down the nlivt-s into the sheets spread out 
below. The olives are crushed in a rude mill— very rude indeed, 
and her* there ii much room for improvement and capital. 

» In the month of May tli. nomen toko tlie eggs, wrap tin ni 
in n fine linen cloth, and place it in their beds when they get >ip 
in the morning. The chilling influence of the air is sedulously 
avoided. When hatched the young worms are placed in a basket 
with the tcnderrst mulberry leaves. These are given fiwh every 
night, being merely laid or the worms' hacks. When nill-siicd 
the worms are fed no more, llie women take it out nf the basket 
and drawing it back see the silk protruding from its mouth; they 
then place it on a dry tray, where they weave their cocoons. Tliey 
are taken hence and baked In an oven or ronstc<l in the hot noon- 
day sun. Then, in the month of August, when the two crops of 
silk are in— the second Ixgins In June— the cocoons are thrown 
into a cauldron of boiling water, which loosens the silk, the loose 
threads are dexterously caught and tlunwn on a reel, and the 
silk is wound off. 



ft fine picture of the Redeomor ; mosaics of i)oq)l)yry 
and vci'de antique brighten its pavement, and among the 
five grand Sarcophagi is one containing the body of 
Fnxlerick Barbaroasa, opened in 1781 by barbarous 
liand.s, when the Emperor's drcas, of a gorgeous triple 
robe embroidered with goUl ond jewels, was found to be 
still in excellent preservation. Hero lies Roger thu 
first King, ' there too, lie the two Constantia's, Queen 
and Empress, and the Norman King Henry VI. 

' Our own Willinm the Conqueror wns not tlio only knight 
ndvcnturcr of the Konnun rnc« nhout the snmo period ns he in- 
vaded Enghind. It von in the ycnr 1003 thiit Brop^o, a Nonnnn 
chief, from n pilgriinnge to Jerusalem, landed witli about forty 
companions at Salerno. The Saracens attacked the town whilst 
the Konnans were there. Drogo, with his companions, put him- 
self at the head of the people, and repulsed the invaders. The 
Duke of Snicrno having witnessed the prowess of the strangers, 
pressed them to remain. The pilgrims excused themselves at' the 
time, but engaged to return. In the following spring, Drogo, 
with a band, augmented by no small number of bold adventurers, 
fulfilled his promise, returned to Italy, and entered into the 
service of the Duke of Salerno. Profiting by the dissensions 
of the Pope, the Lombards, the Byzantines, and the Saracens, 
they sent over in 1022 for a reintbrcement of their country- 
men to reap the gohlen harvest; whereupon William, Drogo, 
Tristan, and Raynalfus, four of tlie twe'.ve sons of Tancred, a 
Norman gentleman of small fortune, came out with a party of 
martial adventurers to Italy. Xhc three entered into the service 
of the Greek Emperor, on condition of half-shares in the spoil ; 
and the eldest, William, the very model of a knight of romance, 
signalised himself by transfixing on the point of his lance the 
Saracen Qovamor of Syracuse, and his brethren largely aided in 
the release of Sicily ftom their new invaders. But the Greek 
general tried to cheat them of their rewartl, and made the worst 
of the bargain ; for the Normans elected Iron-Arm (the name 
given to William) as their chief, and crossed to Calabria, 
where they seized several cities. William was made Count 
of Apulia i and on his death, two more of his brothers, Robert 
Ciifterwards surnamed " the Devil") and Hubert, cair ■ out 
in the disguise of pilgrims. A Sicilian party assassinated Drogo, 
ami attempted to shake off the invaders, but in vain. Even tiic 
Pope himself, when he attacked them, at the head of his own 
army in person, was taken prisoner. The Normans now gave 
a proof that tlicy possessed as much wisdom as courage. Aware 
of the spiritual influence of IComo on the minds of men, they 
knew that any injurious treatment olTered to the head of the 
Church would infallibly bring down upon thorn a deluge of 
indignation. Instead, therefore, of treating the Pope as a captive, 
the Normans fell at liis feet and implored his pardon and his 
bletsinK. They welcomed and conducted him as it were in 
triumph to Henevento. I^eo IX. was so touched bv a conduct the 
very opposite of what he expected, that he confirmed to the 
Normans all they had conriuered, or might conquer, in Apulia 
or Cuhibria, and made an alliance with the very men whom 
he came to expel. Humphry was now Count of Apulia, 
and Robert made himself Duke "of Calabria, by movements which 
obtained for him the appellation of Ouiscird, or '' the wijy." 
On one occasion, when, from the natural strength of its situation, 
he despaired of taking the citadel of Mnlvito, he sent word to 
the monks of a convent within its walls, that one of his officers 
was dead, and besought them to give him burial in their church. 
The bier was carried and nccompunied by unarmed men. In the 
middle of the funeral service, the corpse started up in complete 
steel, ami put swords into the hands of the escort. The gar- 
rison, taken by surpriso, laid down their arms, and the gates 
of the fortress were opened to Robert by his own soldiers. 
Finally, in 1059, Roger the youngest son of Tancred, came 
over, the last and most fortunate of tlio adventurous band. 
History here repeated itself. A fugitive Greek general 
had brought over the Saracens; a Siiracon chief, llcnet- 
Themmah, dispossessed of the government of Catania, revenged 
himself by persuading Count Roger, whom he found at Milcto, 
in 1061, to invade Sicily. * Roger, nothing loth, crossed the 
Straits of Messina, defeated the Mulmmmedans, and finally won 
the island. His son luccceding him, reduced into order what his 
father litd conquered, and his fellow-adventurers saluted him 
king ; and thus it came to pass that the son of the youngest of 
the twelve sons of a poor Norman gentleman, who had left his 
country with no posession but his sword, was crowned at Paler- 
mo, the flnt monarch who had ever ruled over the whole of Sicily, 

The Sarcoi)hagits of Roger is supported by kneeliny 
Saracens. There are four large K)irco))liagi on a pedes- 
tal, tinder a marble can(>i)y, supported by four pillars. 
The interior of the Cathedral no longer produces tho 
same hannony of effect as of old, for some Sicilian 
chtirciiwarden has whitewashed it. All tho fine orna- 
ments produced by the tiwte of the founder, Archbishop 
Walter, the English prime minister of the Gootl Knig 
of Sicily — whose plans are sjiid, liowever, to have been 
maiidy chosen from those bequeathed by King William 
the Bad — have been defaced by the rude banc', of over- 
carefid cleanliness.^ 

Proceed we next to tlie Palazzo Reale, — royal palace 
no more ; for jHwr old Prince Castelcicida, long its 
lieutemint-governor, has vanished out of the way. The 
world got too fast for him, and luis pushed the old dijdo- 
matist aside. While he cut and shuffled, the game 
was lost. We have jiLst passed Cicero's house in the 
Cathedral square, and the Romans have gone ; we 
have seen where Hnsdrubal fought, and tho Cartha- 
guiians are gone ; wo liavo seen Barbarossa's tomb, 
and the Suabians are gone ; and the great Count 
Roger's, but where are the Normans ? The bells of 
St. Spirito liavo told us how the French went. 
Here is the King's Palace, and the Bourbons liavo 
gone. What next, and i..'xi 1 Beautiful stair-«, furniture delicately classical, roofs fretted and 
arched, floors of marble, and prospects the most 
charming ; but there stands a fellow in a red 
shirt, with an English rifle on his shoulder, and 
he is explaining to anotlier fellow without a shirt, 
and with his mouth full of figs, how to give his 
vote; while yonder beggar, reclining against a wall on 
the shady side of the way, just raises his hat, and 
taking his cigar (about a foot long) cut of his mouth 
as we i)ass, asks us " Charity for tho love of God," 
We walk on ; another beggar meets us without a 
cigar. Ho follows and begs — " what, not a farthing !" 
We have no change — " he will give it to us." We don't 
wish to trouble him. " Then will the signor give him 
the cigar he is smoking, ' in charity for,' " &c. Aroused 
and angry, we rebuflf him, but not comprehending why 

' Walter OP Ofamilio — whom Willimn II. the eon of William 
tho Bad selected for his prime minister when ho came of age— was 
an Englishman of humble birth — the son of a miller, it Is snid. 
He hod been recommended to the Court of Sicily by our Henry 
the II., who wished to bring about an alliance between his daugh- 
ter Joan and the young King, Walter was n man of great ability, 
and faithtul to his English as well as his Sicilian master. 
William the Bad, the successor of the first king Roger, wns a 
weak and indolent prince, addicted t" luxury and governed by 
unworthy favourites. lie shuthimself up in his palace and neiilected 
the affairs of his kingdom. Whilst indulging witli the ministcrsof 
his pleasures, a formidable insurrection nromed him, the conspira- 
tors seized uiwn his youthful son, tho Duke of Apulia, and threat- 
ened to depose William, who ot length owoke, and with a vigour 
becoming his bold ancestors suppressed the dangerous commotion. 
But a melanclioly domestic tragedy darkened his triumph. Tho 
young duke, us soon as the tumult was over, ran opcn-nrmeil to his 
father, when William, irritated by the supposwl complicity of his 
own child with tho conspirators against his throne and life, 
da8he<l him off" with such great force, that the poor boy fell back, 
expiring, into his mother's arms. . 

Nothing could nssnngo the grief of the wretched kmg, who 
throwing aside his royal mantle, cast himself on the ground in an 
agony of deep remorse. Recovering at length from his dqcctioii, 
he shut himself up in his p.»lacp, and desiring his servants hence- 
forth to exclude anything that could occasion him tho least 
anxiety, gave Idmsclf up to his favourite pursuit of architecture, 
until suddenly cut off In tho very prime of an inglorious and 
unliappy existence. 



we are angry, ho finally beats ns by " At least the 
signer will give him half the cigar, ' in charity for,' " 
<S:c., and so wc give it to him. 

Up a broad staircase, by open colonnades and Moorish 
frescoes, to a chajxil, which, though mysteriously 
sombre, yet glitters with a thousand goms. It occupies 
the whole of one side of the Palace, and is the most 
remarkable featui'e in Palermo, combining the per- 
fection of Byzantine and Saracenic art, as it was 
built by Roger, the first Norman king. It is 
in the form of a Latin cross (a Greek cupola 
rising from the intersection), with a long nave, 
supported by exquisite Corinthian columns, from 
which spring pointed Arabesque arches. The whole 
entrance of the church is ornamented elaborately with 
rich mosaics on a gold gi-ound, and the effect produced 
is wonderfully rich, softened as it is by the mysterious 
shade jnirposely brought about by the narrowness of 
the lancet windows. Everywhere you may see frescoes, 
antique jjaintings, mosaics, and rare and costly objects; 
the high altar is crowded with some exquisite antique 
objects, and the floor is laid with choice porphyry, 
ja.sjMjr, and pietra-dura. The roof is richly fretted, and 
resembles that of the Hall of Justice in the Alhambra, 
so familiar to all of us from Owen Jones's miniature of it 
in the Crystal Palace. Continue this room by exi^nding 
it to one hundred fet"^^ by fifty, and place composite 
pilltti'S on each side — giU'.w,T.lls .and roof, and then i)anel 
them with exquisite stones, and slices of gems — on each 
side aggregated into pictures of :icenes in the Lives of 
the Apostles — place a vast, gigantic picture of the 
Almighty — a half length — at the bottom, just behind 
the high altar, before which blaze seven colossal 
candles — and you will then have but a feeble idea of the 
Capella Reale of Palermo, because you will want the 
side-chapeh and the apses, and that exquisite facade 
of which nj words can convey an idea. We must 
return to the Palace, and enter the Royal apartments 
through the hall of the Viceroys, hung with the illus- 
trious personages of Sicilian History; and long f^r time 
to examine some fine portraits by Velasquez in another 
hall. The audience room is hung with Spanish tapestry, 
which tells the exploits of Don Quixote. The armoury 
is now stripped of all but one of the rams of Archimedes, 
the last of four that used to stand at the port of the 
ancient Syracuse, and were so contrived as that the 
wind rushed through certain holes punctured artfully 
in their mouths, in such a manner as to proclaim 
by loud roars from what quarter ships might be 

In a hollowed vault below this chapel, four noble 
Sicilian matrons expired, afler enduring the slow test 
of lingering starvation rather than betray the retreat 
of their husbands and their forces during one of the 
desperate stniggles of the island with its oppressoi-s. 
"Worthy sisters," says the "Unprotected Female," 
" to those whose lovely hair strung the bows to dart 
arrows from the walls through the bosoms of their 
invaders! Yet we Northerns say the Sicilians fail in 
constancy." The fair writer pronounces the Sicilians 
to be "more sincere than the French, more courteous 
than the English, more refined than the Germans." 
This is not saying much, and so far, at any rate, we 
can adduce evidence to her exjierience. 

We must give up the rest of the ehurehes, but at 
St. Caterina you may look for a real Vandyke of the 
Virgin ; and everywhere see strange mixtures of the 
devout and the saintly ludicrous, startling to our 

colder northern notions ; but to warm southern 
feelings, suggestive and edifying. Here the infant 
Saviour and the meek-eyed Virgin — there silver crowns 
and wax legs and arms, and models of distorted 
limbs, restored by prayer-won intercession. Pass on, 
nor scoff; the method is rude; but the humble 
acknowledgment of God's great mercies has made 
itself a testimony, let us ies))ect the feeling. 

Away, then, cocJiifre, and outstripping the pursuing 
beggars, whom even war has not cleared away, carry 
us to the Ziza, the last of the last Saracen 
in Palermo. Tlieso walls we pass are not of Moorish 
gardens, such as Cervantes ojicns to us in his exquisite 
tale of the Captive ; no, they are walls of the gardens 
of the Nunneries, and there floats a veil, as the pale- 
faced dark-eyed girl disappear from her post of 
vantage, at the sound of our approaching coach- 
wheels. How exquisite this monastic retreat ! How 
luxurious this hall ! Thanks to some kind influence, 
some sjiirit of a Lalla Ruokh that has preserved it 
so far unharmed ; for hardly a corner of the 
house is as it should be, that is, as it was. Some one 
has made it "comfortable," and placed high-backed 
chairs and a toilet-table and piano. Tliei-e are the three 
recesses where the ladies sat; and there, before the 
centre recess, is the cool fountjun, flowing down to a 
marble channel in the marble floor. As for the lovely 
garden that used to be (so late as 1520) where the rond 
now i.s, which had a fountain in a fish-pond fed from 
that fountain, and where, in the upper floor, the ladies 
used to sit and watch tlie fish play, while all around 
was a " beautiful garden, filled principally with oranges, 
lemons, and other shrubs," and "an inclosure, with 
wild animals," tliey are all of the past. Ihere is, 
however, just such a fountain in the garden on the 
other side of the road, and Garibaldi has brought with 
him wild animals enough, Heaven knows! 

Tliei-e are Palaces in j)ienty to be seen. The Favor- 
ita, half-an-hour's di'ive from the town, with its splen- 
did avenues, four miles long! round the side of Mount 
Pellegrino, and skirting the fea. It was a royal resi- 
dence, but " something ails it now." Then there is the 
Butera Palace, ^\•ith itsball-roomoniamentedwith coral. 
There is here a little chapel with kneeling wax 
figures in Trappist garb. The gi-oup commemorates 
the sacrifice which a young Sicilian maiden made to 
atone for having driven a devoted lover to a cell and 
despair. Repenting too late, she, however, assumed 
the habits of that rigid order, and passed her soituw- 
ful existence by his side, undiscovered till her dying 
day. And the gay, light, elegant Forcelli Palace — so 
exquisitely furnished — where the late Eniperoi of 
Russia used to live, ard whence every night he used 
to come forth to walk about on fhe Marine Parade, 
with his daughter hanging on his arm. No, we must 
pass the Palaces, although all their ownei-s have not 
gone, and many will fight, ns the Sicilian Barons of 
old did for their country. There is some prospect now 
of ttd vantage for education, refinement, and intelligence. 
There was none before.' 

' Kvery spark of intelllgoaco was but viowcil with tho ufmoft 
luspicion ami droad by the Government of the Two Sicilies. 
Every attempt to move forwnril wns met by disgrace nnd im- 
prisonment. Hard and decisive steps were taken to repress tho 
desire for advancement of every kind ; nny man a shade above his 
fellow in intellect and activity, any man etyoying public confi- 
dence, and considered by public opinion as worthy of esteem and 


























1 a 












































So off for Monreale, an old mountiiiu town founded 
by William the Good, and channingly situated — through 
the great sea-gate, Porta Felice, — the Happy Gate, — 
by a gentle ascent into the interior of th>j island, out of 
the side of Palermo farthest from the sea, and opposite. 
We are on a good broad eairiage-road, and we climb 
along across through what wa.s once a wild countiy. 
The legend runs that the spot was formerly covered 
with a wild forest, whither William II. repaired 
from Palermo to indulge in his favourite amuse- 
ment of hunting. When overtaken by slumber after his 
fatigues, the "Virgin Mary . apjieared to him in a 
vision, and desired liim to erect a church in her 
honour on the very spot. The pious monarch 
determined to outdo all his former efforts, and the 
result is seen before us, standing out beautifully, midway, 
on the mountain side, as \ve drive up the valley 
between hedges bordered with cacti, gorgeous in spring 
with red flowers, and rich with the delicious fig. The 
church is a mar\el, with its bronze gate and two hundred 
pillars. The bi-onze gate is richly ornamented with 
small figures in compartments, and a grand arabesque 
pattern. It is the work of Bonani of Pisa, the joint 
architect (with William the Tuscan) of the celebrated 
Leaning Tower, and is a work of curiosity, because, 
until this one, bronze gates — a much coveted church 
ornament — hotl been brought solely from Constanti- 
nople. Gregory VII. (or Hildebrand) brought those of 

respect, any one connectcd,'eIther by tlc« of natnro or the bonds 
of fHendihIp, with men of learning and practical progrem, was 
marlted out for judicial persecution, though humble and silent 
under the tyrant's sceptre. 

St. Paul's at Konie from Constantinople, when sent on 
an embassy to the Greek Emperor. The interior is 
j,;orious in historic pictures ; the walls being covered 
with representations of the whole Bible History, and 
all of them are as fresh and untarnished as on the day 
when they were first set up. The capitals of the 
pillars consists of volutes, with foliage and figures 
intermixed ; on one of these capitals the pious King who 
founded it, is seen introducing to the Virgin, who 
enjoined the building of bo sublime an edifice, 
the architect who designed it. In the centre apse 
is a colossal half-length of the Almighty, envi- 
roned by the Vision of the Apocalypse and all the 
Apostles. Here are thi-ones for the arch-bishop, and for 
the King, over which is a mosaic of the Bedeenicr 
blessing the good monarch. The effect of this picture 
is not so intense as that of the gi-cat one over the altar, 
which, wherever you go, seems to follow you with 
earnest piercing look, and being of vast size, has a 
strange and by no means pleasant, though a very striking 
effect. William the Good is buried here in a porplijT'- 
sarcophagus ; and in the Benedictine monastery „ , 
tached is the famous picture, by Novell!, of Saint 
Benedict blessing that good Monarch. All the 
ornamentation of the Cathedral is wrought upon a 
gold ground, as in the Capella Rcaln ; from which the 
splendour of the whole can bo imagined. Luckily, we 
had no ladies in our party, and were at liberty to go 
where ladies are not admitted, — to the top of a steep 
winding path from Monreale,— on mule back, (never 
walk in these sunny climes if you can avoid it), up to 
the Benedictine Convent of Saint Martin. 



Wc p isa, by the way aide, an old castle, once a fortress, 
then a monastery, but now deserted. Monrenlo and 
Sarnt Martin have squabbled about it. The quarrel 
i.s settled now, for in the large oblong pile, with thick 
walla, wo saw the red shirt and tin gleaming of a 
bayonet that told us of an outlying piquet, and, per 
JIacco ! as good luck would have it, they were a party 
of our own countrymen ! 

Oh, the pleasure of tbit ten minutes on that moun- 
tain, looking over that valley, over that City, to that 
Bay ! Never before was luncheon enjoyed in such a 
prospect, and many were the kind interchanges of 
thought, and memories of home and of the past. We 
had enjoyed some slight .skirmishing together, and had 
known what it was to dance to the music of a whistling 
b\illet, on Milazzo heights, as well before .and after as without dinner, and with more showers 
than great coats ; so we hob-anobbed and i)as.sed on ; 
they to embark for Capua and glory, Foi-ward ! and we, 
to top the ridge, Excelsior! for the no loss picturesque 
than celebrated convent of Saint Martin. It was just 
here that we came upon a vehicle of a strange con- 
stniction, a lettica, or sleeping carriage, they call it, 
— a kind of slice of a double carriage without wheels — 
an exaggerated sedan chair — on poles, with mules 
in place of chairmen, one before, and the other 
behind. We took a sketch of it, and you will sec. it in the 
mountain background (just as we saw it oui-selves) of 
the tableau of Sicilian costumes, (see p. 86). You can- 
not always get carriages in the coiuitry, and, when you 
do, you would be puzzled to find a road for them to 
travel upon. So, as it is, you will have to go dingle- 
dangling between two donkeys, through the country 
if you must travel in such out-of-the-way places. 
But we are at this f imous convent, and as carefully 
shut out of the world as if in a wilderness. Take a 
bowl and pla.ster its sides with rock shain; excrescences, 
stick a house at the bottom, and palm trees all round. 
Let there be a beautiful green lawn and a garden, 
and apples and oranges and lemons and almonds 
down at the bottom, and rough and dark broken 
rans-ses of foliage all round up the sides, and that 
will be, San Martino and its site. See how charmingly 
the purple convolvulus trails its luxuriant wreaths, 
and see the good father is inviting us in to luncheon 
and repose. There is a capital library, but is not 
the wine good? and how much more interesting that 
bunch of grapes than the manuscripts! 

The road home, downwaitls to Palermo, presented 
everywhere a view, like a forest of gardens, rich and di- 
voi-sifled. It is easy to comprehend how Sicily could 
have been the granary of Rom9, and how the "herds of 
the Sun" might well have been said, in ancient times, 
to have pastured in these plains, or rather those of 
Etna, whoso distant cone is just perceptible, from the 
topmost point over towards our right, as we go towards 
the sea. 

The flowers that led Proserpine's feet wandering 
in the Valley of Enna, are still smiling all about. 
Every mountain dale is bright with anemones of many 
colours ; the orchis plants are singidarly beautiful. 
The daughter of Ceres lus bequeathed her floral 
tastes to high and low throughout the land. Every- 
where the streets are full of nosegays, and women of 
every rank festoon their evening dresses with flowers, 
looping them up tastefully, and trimming them with 
bouqviets and real flowers. As for the men, they all wear 
a short cloak or cape, something after the old Spanish 

fashion, nnd they trim theirclothes withpistolsand knives. 
Every one is arnxed, and everywhere that a tree can be 
found with a bird singing on it, bang! goes a gun; for 
there are no game laws hore, and every one shoots every- 
thing. We don't think they have much stomach for 
real lighting, these Sii.lians; ])erhaps good drilling 
may make them sol,' 'or-, andoflicors they can tnistmay 
bring them up to tigat ; but they have the Spanish 
partiality for long shots, and the Italian aversion to 
close quarters. 

Our next excursion was to Bc.^ria (Bagheria, 
commonly called Baaria,) or Mount Catulfano; on 
the opposite horn, headland, or cape of the Bay, to 
Mount Pellegrino. It is nearly seven miles distant, 
along a pretty road by the sea-siilc, and being the 
Bichmond of Palermo, and the suburban i)leasu."0 
residence of the nobility, there are four or five 
onniibuses, of most uneasy sjmngs, running up and 
down to the decent little white-painted villa . 3 through 
the day. The grand curiosity of the place is the 
Palargonia Villa, once so celebrated for its monkey 
monsti-ositics, and that of the Prince Serro di Falco, 
whose gardens, with their long alleys of oleander and 
gi'oves of lemon and orange trees, their labyrinths of 
jessamine and aloe, and all the rich foliage of the 
beautiful Sicilian climate, are now noticed for a little 
trick of a hermit's cell,- into which you are gradually 
led on by a rustic path, and opening the door, you see 
a monk, who jumps up at your entrance, and gestioi- 
lates violently and angrily. The figure is an automa- 
ton, and you tread upon the spring as you enter. Of 
courac you are startled, and get very hot ; but you are 
soon cooled by another hermit a short distance off, on 
approaching whom, unless you have been liberal before- 
hand to the guide, a copious discharge from innumerable 
water-spouts awaits you. The guide can put you just 
upon one righteous spot, which the water does not 
touch, but he is not polite enough to do this in all 
cases, and the butt of the party is generally made 
the water-butt for the occasion. In our rides back- 
wards an<l foi-wards wo observed groups of fishermen 
engaged in the tunny fishery, a large and important 
industry throughout the Mediterranean, — in fact, the 
cod-fishery of the South. The fish are driven in shoals 
within large nets, and gradually compressed into a 
smaller space, or room, as it is called ; then large flat- 
bottomed boats close round thia chamlier of death, the 
net is weighed, and the fish are dextrously struck on 
the head with a club, armed with a small spike. The 
score is one of violent excitement, the activity of the 
men and the struggles of the giving great animation 
to the whole, especially as the fish are bo large that you 
will see steaks of them from four to eight feet in length 
hanging up for sale at the comer of every street. The 
sun along the road is intensely scorching, imder the 
shadow of a cactus — grown into a large tree, by the ' 
road side — a horse and cart are sheltered ; there, at 
the spring side, is a group of peasant women, the centre 
one with a terra cotta jar on her head, just as we have 
sketched her in our illustration (see p. 86J ; the 
young man on her right is a mideteer; the dark looking 
Irish kind of "jontleman" on her left is a shepherd, an 
ordinary peasant ; the jolly fellow with the cowl a friar 
— they get the best of everything in tithes and the best 
of gooid wine ; we say good, for your Sicilian wine is of 
charming quality when well tended; asa white wine, that 
of Syracuse esiwcially — it is something between sherry 
and Madeira, the cleamoss of one and the richness of the 



other — and two-peiico a quart. The red wines are rather 
earthy in flavour — like those of the Cape — " South 
African the wise it call" — but thin from want of care. 
Barrels and bottles would turn out a wine just between 
Port and Burginidy, that would exactly tit the English 
palate; and then — hurrah for Mr. Gluil.stone! and lare- 
wcU to beera of all kinds, black, sweet and bitter, so far 
as enjoyment is concerned; for it is quite pos.siblo to 
have it over in England, and sold by retail at a shilling 
tlie quart. 

Bagaria is a thriving little town, with a busy impu- 
tation of 6,000 souls, whose principal occupation is a 
good fishery ; they appear to be an orderly and quiet 
class of people, and the place has always a holiday 
look, especially on those evenings when its litde bay is 
full (if pleasure-sailing craft, and its road crowded 
with carnages of Palermitau gentry, who come to enjoy 
the drive there, its fresh and bracing air, and its 
enchanting ncenery. We leave with regret its gardens 
and palaces for the sultry seaside road, — its coast, 
indented with recesses, upon which the bright sea 
dashes, sparkles, and foams; its hamlets, hills, and vales, 
backed with ranges of far-rising mountains, overtopping 
each other, and Mount Etna rising over all ; the tall, 
waving palms, that rise across its blue sky, the dark 
cyjwess alleys, the magnolias, the brilliant verdure of 
the lemon and the yucca (Adam's needle), eastern and 
tropical, all growing free without hot-houses; the 
founttiins and the flowers; the s)mrkling anemones and 
rare scarlet flowers, and shrubs with bells of blue or 
darkest purple, with velvet variegated leaves, and the 1 
wide sea, sweeping aroimd all, below; then, too, the 
women, with their dark petticoats and bright short- I 
skirted pelisses and jackets. The pm'plo mountains j 
were almost veiled v, ith mists of heat, and the country 
lay rich and luxuriant to the inountuin's feet, beyond 1 
which a thin white sheet, like smoke, marked the | 
cone of Etna, lost in the grcyness of the distant sky. 
We passed through a little village, the maccaroni 
and onions hanging in streaks across the grated win- 
dows, orchards of fruit trees skirtpd the winding road, 
above hedges of tall, slender laurels, and quaint, grim- 
fingered, cactuses, with aloes twenty feet high, and 
geraniums and fuchsias enlivening the dense dark 
green background. Observe, as we roll along, those 
white-hooded peasant girls, those fishermen and mule- 
teers, and a carriage and six, a regular di-ag, with post 
horses, belonging to some rich Count ; mides laden 
with sulphur, mules laden with tobacco, a butcher 
killing an ox by the road-side, and peasants squeezing 
oil from olives in a nish basket, squadrons of ruml 
cavalry, the mounted National Guard, in French kepis 
and red shirts, with long boots, volunteere, cacciatori 
(felt-hatted riflemen of Lombardy), squadri (Sicilian 
militia), volunteers and pressed men ; the box, the 
priest, and the cross by the way-side, to ramind 
us to say our prayers and leave a few tari; but a 
taro, which is just less than a fourjienny-piece, goes 
as far as a franc (which is tenpence) in France, or 
eighteen-pence in England. The friars of various 
orders are the best men in Sicily, and showed them- 
selves so in the late conflict, It is only a pity that, like 
the nobility, they are too well off' to have to work for 
their living. A country without trade and commerce, 
with no education, and no industry, requires something 
even more than religious feeling to regenerate it. 

Ha I the Sirocco ! The air is hot and dry; then up 
gets the wind until it blows a hurricane, and then, for 

two or three days, a gale! The mention of a wind 
makes you think of coolness and refreshing ; but this 
sirocco is a hot blast — it dries you, suffocates you, and 
presses down your spirits with a weight like lead. 
No! let them their sunshine and their blue sky — 
wo will give them their moonlight, their flowers, and 
their m\isic ; better a Lambeth fog any evening than a 
Sicilian sirocco. We hasten home, and shut oui'selves 
up, to make preparations for our tour round the i.sland, 
and to reatl and write letters. Lettera ! A Sicilian 
letter is indeed a curiosity. It is just like what tiiey 
bring in to the clown, in a pantomime, for a letter — a 
large square thing, with an inmiense seal, and a paper 
of the roughest and least white. It can't be that they 
have no rags to make it of ; for next to Ireland, Sicily 
carries the palm in rags ; and as for fibrous material, 
they have aloes enough — all fibre — to furnish paper-stuff 
for all the possible jjaper in Europe — no bad addition, 
on some future day, to their general exports of sulphur, 
wine, oil, marble, amber, coral, alum, antimony, salt, 
hemp, sumach, vanilLi, fish, figs, honey, oranges, lemons, 
and a few minor articles. 

It is one o'clock, and the shops even in the main 
street are, almost all of them, half-closed. The shop- 
keepers are asleep, or enjoying a bath. Every one takes 
it easy — though, save the sirocco, there is nothing very 
enervating or relaxing alxjut the climate ; the tem- 
perature in summer being about 80°, and seldom 
without a cooling breeze from the sea, and in winter 
about 45", but then the breeze is warm But they are 
a plea.sure-seeking people, and the climate tempts them 
to lato hours — for with the hour of sunset a new life 
seems to begin. Then, along the Marine Parade, is 
heard the music of the regimental bands, while the whole 
merry-hearted populace tiu'ii out, to ride or drive, or walk 
or gamble, — prince, count, shopkccpei", and beggar, — 
to quaff lemonade, drink ices, smoke, and play cards until 
twelve. Cards, too.are an amusement all day ; thopoorest 
and the lowest may be seen " making their game" in 
the streets, in the doonvays, even in the church porches. 
The Sicilian ladies of the higher order are of the 
Spanish breed, short and slim, with fine lustrous dark 
eyes, but their mouths are large and their faces too 
thin. The children are lovely. The gentlemen are 
liner looking than the ladies, with pale clear skins, 
fine dark eyes, and an intellectual expression, tall and 
well-made, and fa.stidious in dress in public. They all 
follow French fashions, but their favourite colours are 
claret ar.d brown. Of the clergy the Jesuits are the 
most aristocratic-looking, and are a talented class of 
men, but they avoid foreignera and take no jiart in 
politics, content with that primary power which their 
having the main control of education of the male and 
female population gives them. The Capuchins, on the 
contrary, are more of and with the people, as they 
showed themselves in the late fight at Palermo. Their 
care of the sick and dying endears them to all, and 
they go about in all weathers, barefooted and bare- 
headed,in theircommon woollen frocks, aiding, strength- 
ening, and supporting, while they themselves live on 
charity, for they have no more lands but those gardens 
round the convents. The bravo benevolence of the 
brethren of this order during the raging of the cholera 
will never be forgotten by the grateful Sicilians. Out 
of doors, amusement is the fashion ; they only eat, drink, 
(very moderately), and sleep at home, and get up in the 
morning to do — what do you think) — to fl;- kites! 
The Kensington Gardens of Palermo are at ti. west 



011(1. They arc cnllod tlio English (Janlena, because of the 
long avenue of trees that lends up to them and their 
general style. This is the place where fashionables 
walk. Trees, intertwining roses and honeysuckles, and 
green slo])ing banks, and every variety of shade, and 
shrubberies of myrtle, and little lakes, and marble 
seuts, about which hover the gay throng ; are 
their delights. Up and down the long shady avenue 
go the carriages of all sorts, from a tnndeiu to a drag, 
crowded with ladies in blue and green, and mauve, 
festooned, .ind bonneted, and flounced, and crinolined 
to the last Paris fashion ; bi *■ all of a gaudy Jiue. Tlie 
very ninid in attendance on the over-dressed children 
(in pink satin or blue silk, — close resemblance of their 
mammas) are gay with yellow shawls over their 
heads. On Sundays, both these, and tlie Flora or 
Botanical Gardens, with the orange walks, and vast 
bird cages, and fountains, are crowded with the middle 
class, and even the poorest. Not but that Sunday in 
Palermo is very much like Sunday in London. All 
the shops are shut (after ten o'clock) and all the streets 
are quiet ; the peojile only being seen on their way to 
or from their churches at all hours in the day, espe- 
cially in the early morning. 


OuK bargain for travelling was of a satisfactory 
nature. For six piastres (somewhere in the whole 
about iivo and twenty shillings) a day, we contracted 
with a muleteer, one Luigi, or Louis, for four mules, 
two for our own riding, one for our baggage (j)rinci- j 
pally consisting of wine and victual, and cloaks), and ! 
one for the muleteer himself : besides this, we were 
to be provided with beds at the best inns, and liave ' 
breakfast and dinner found u.s. So tliut travelling in 
Sicily is by no means dear, as you can see; indeed, ; 
when we tell you that good wine is twopence a quart, ; 
that a fowl costs not quite fourpence, and that the 
finest wheaten bread never exceeds a penny a {X)und, 
and is generally less, that salad vegetables arc thrown 
in, and apples, peaches, and oranges given in any 
quantity for a halfpenny, you may judge that our 
muleteer was not the loser even by such an apparently 
bad bargain. We start with the dawn, in the Eastern 
fashion, carrying with us knives, cups and plates, with 
a due provision of cold ()ork and baked cream, \'-.iver- 
sally used throughout Sicily in place of butter. 

Our fii-st start into the country was through high 
walls, just like those about Richmond and Brent- 
ford — only of stone — and belonging to the villa 
gardens, sadly knocked about in the last fight here. 
Then camo the sea shore, and the murmur of the 
breaking waves, and the tinkling bells of the goats 
browsing on the mountain sides rising to the clouds ; 
olives waving in tlio fresh morning breeze, and the 
pink flowers of the t"U oleander glittering in the early 
sunlight. The bees were up and out, and humming 
amongst the meadow anemones and daffodils. A string 
of mules, bearing grain, meets us. Then a herd of 
cows, with bolls, going to be milked, into the villages, in 
which not one chimney rises up, :ind most of the inhabi- 
tants are stirring, ind, already, coming outside their doors 
to transact all their business, according to the Sicilian 
custom. All along we could see the fishing boats 
going_ out, and coming in with the spaUtla, a huge 
fish like a small shark, that cuts up into something 

like hard beef-steaks, and has a wooden taste, with a 
coarse pork flavour; horses and mules, very lean, but 
dressed out very fine, drawing pointed little two-wheel 
carts, set far back in the shafts, and driven, a lit coster- 
monger, at a rattling pace, by picturesque blackguards in 
white jackets, bell buttons, and black velvet b;eeches or 
leather gaiters. The horses have no collars but the broad 
leather strap across their chests, like our funeral-coach 
lioi-ses. We had an early cup of coffee with milk — 
tliey always sci-ve it so in Sicily, and the jKosants 
habitually come to the village inn for it in the earliest 
morning — the charge for it to us, with bread and 
butter, was threepence half-penny. We breakfasted 
and dined at village inns on the way, and just before 
sunset came to the Fiume Grande, a great river, one 
of the largest streams in Sicily, which obstructed the 
road and must be crossed before we entered Tennini. 
This is one of the interesting events of Sicilian 
travelling, for you can't always get across ; the river 
won't lot you. The stream runs shallow, it may be, 
but is furious as a torrent ; the bottom is sandy and 
the banks steep, and travellers in carriages are sorely 
pested ; all tiie luggage has to be taken out, and 
the unhappy pair — for it sometimes happens to honey- 
moon traveller.^ as it did to Sir Robert and Lady 
T'eel — are comjielled to sleep in a little riverside 
inn, where waitera spend most of their time in the 
iiietamori)hosis of fleas. We contrived to get over 
with our mules and reach Termini at sunset. 
Cicero tells u.s of the citizens of Himera, a town 
higher up, — wlicro there are some fine remains of 
an amphitheatre and an aqueduct four miles long to 
be seen, — coming down to this spot, where were their 
baths (Therroie Hiiiicrcu,se8), and building a small 
town, wlien their own had been destroyed by a siege 
during the Carthaginian andRomanquaiTel,of which the 
poor Sicilians paid all the expenses. Termini is said to 
mark the s]K)t where Hercules rested from his Mediler- 
rane..n laboui-s. We foundthe little place — it has 12,000 
inhabitants, (22,040 according to A. J. Du Pays' 
Itin. lie L' Italic ef tie La Sidle,) — all agog with music 
and singing and dancing. It stands on a green hill, 
by the sea-side, and has some handsome churches. 
They tell us it is a thriving town, and drives a pros- 
]icrous trade in anchovies, oil, and wine. Anywhere 
else it would be run after for its beauty, for the 
numerous antiquities in the neighbourhood and in its 
museums, for its churches and convents paved with 
mosaics and adorned with antique columns, its thermal 
springs, and its romantic castle on the top of the hill : 
but here such beauties are common. Our twenty-four 
miles' ride, or rather crawl, on mule-back, gave us a good 
apiwtite for sleep. So we left our muleteer dancing the 
tarantella, and after a saunter through the street and 
up the valley to the castle on the rock behind the 
town, retired to rest, not conscious that we constituted 
a raree show for all the beggars and the idlers, 
and that the chinks in the wall and the key-hole had 
each their curioiui occuiiant. 

Early in the morning, as we had a tbree-and- 
twenty miles stage before us to Cefali), we took 
our coffee and mounted our mules. Our ride was 
such as poets love to sing about — through myrtle 
gi"oves and orange bowers, and almond trees. Indeed, 
it was like a scene, with goats and (ows and 
sheep in the sloping meadows. You never see a 
cottage or a farm house alone— they are always 
collected, like stone blocks, in some snug cranny on the 






























































mountain slope. The hills on the other nido of the 
bay, at the extreme front of which stands Cufald, a».-l 
its ancient cathedral, founded by the great Count 
Eoger, in gratitude Ibr his cscaiio fi-om a storm off the 
coast, are clothed with olives, and as wo look back we can 
Koo capes and promontories jutting out into the bright 
sea from beyond Palermo. Every one was at work in 
the streets, outside the shop doors, as we crept on — for 
your mules ut a journey's end make no such clattering 
and noise as a French courier <m entering a country 
town. There are 20,000 inhabitants, and the town, 
which was built in the middle ages, and abounds in 
gothic -painted windows, stands on a ledge of nick just 
above the sea ; the harbr)ur is full of xebecs, feluccas, 
and siieroneras — their sails furled, and the boats run 
up on shore. The Cathedral is a fine one, and the outside, 
at the east end, is richly ornamented. The building is 
Koman Gothic, and the decorations Byzantine. But 
the most interesting feature of Cefalii is a Cyclopean 
wall of enormous unhewn stones, a relic of the old 
groat city of Ceplialedium.' We had nothing to com- 
plain of in lodging, food, or beds, and rose refreshed. 
Everywhere at the inns we ol>served the frugal, tem- 
perate living of the (leople — fruit, fish, and maccaroni, 
and no strong drink. Their highest luxury is a water- 
ier and a melon ; and with a |ienny a day you can send 
home a beggar happy. The rest of the day seems to us to 
be taken out in singing, oiid dancing, and sunshine; not 
but that Cefalu has its mouniful reminiscences, for 
here, many a Sicilian i)atriot broke his heart in 
pris(m. The fresh morning air made us look out 
our caputoa, or brown cloaks with jwinted hoods 
— the general wear throughout the island for 
all who don't wear shaggy sheep skins, which 
the peasant labourers do, — for there is a cold 
wind in the morning and evening. We pushed on 
for Tusa, where there was nothing to see ; and then on 
for St. Stefano, a stage of twenty-four miles, ]mssing 
through which we entered Caronia (anc. '^olacte), a small 
town on a rugged hill, with the sea in front, and a forest 
on its skirts. It was on this beach that Verres the Pro- 
consul (whom Cicero so abused, for private reasons, as 
he took his place afterwards), halted and robbed the 
people of Aluntium of their valuable bronzes, just as 
coolly as the great Siianiord Balboa, and the rest, did 
the chiefs of New Granada of their golden ornaments. 
The forest is noticeable for its extent of twenty miles, 
and its containing oak (old and well grown), elm (a 
sure sign of a good soil), ash and pine. We halted 
here for the night, and next day we came to a village 
on a little plain, called St. Agatha ; the fair Good- 
ness (such is the meaning of her name,) has not availed 
to preserve the village from malaria, a dismal 
complaint, that leaves you half insane when quite 
cur^, and poisons all your blootl ; so we pricked our 
mules with the spur, and jogged apace through the 
fever district, until we reached San Mareo, where we 
managed to get some tea out of our own stores, and 
were served with the milk from an Etruscan-shaped 
vase, and the tea from a Wedgewood black tea-pot. 
We had an excellent dinner of veal and maccaroni, 

* Cupholediuin derivoa its name from ita aitiuition on a lofty 
precipitoiu lock pHgecting into the wa. Soger I. transferred it 
<h>in ita ainioit impregnabl» poaition to one at tlie foot of tlie 
rock. Tbo Cyclopean relic, tlio only one of the kind in Sicily, ia 
in edifice oonaiating of Tsrioaa apartment!. Rode mouldinga, 
approximating to those of the Doric order, are hewn on the fiuse 
of the maaaire Uocka. 

flavoured with " a suspicion of garlic," as Tide used to 
call that artistic tonic, and then pushed on to Naso, 
the ancient Agathyrna,^ where the ancients bored 
Artesian hot s(iringH for rheumatism and nervous 
complaints. One of the springs is well imjjregnated 
with iron, for if you put into it a white cloth, it comes 
out a black one. The knowledge of a sjiring of this 
character may bo usuful to our travelling countrymen. 
A mixture of iron and sulphur in a hot spring is rare, 
and for some disorders liltely to be exceedingly cfflea- 
cious. Wo slept on mattresses, with clean sheets, laid 
on boards, as in convents or barracks. Borro, twelve 
miles distant, with castle on a sea-beaten rock, 
was our next halting-placo; thence to I'atti, where 
the coast is raouutuinous, and the rugged t^lopes 
aro covered with olives. The town stands high on a 
pyramidal hill of its own, backed by lofty mountains. 
The streets are narrow, winding, and ill-paved, and there 
is a little cathedral of romantic associations; fortherenrc 
the bones of Q<ieen Adelaisia, the widow of the great 
Count Roger, whose hand was sought in nnirringc by 
Baldwin, King of Jerusalem. The monarch wanted 
the lady's wealth, and she, dazzled by ambition, ac- 
cepted the offer ; but discoveiing after two yeara that 
King Baldwin liad another wile alive, she returned 
home in disgust, and buried herself in a convent on 
this spot, where she lived in grief and despair for a 
short period, and then died of a broken heart. Her 
pious son, then King of Sicily, rai.sed this cathedi-al 
over her remains. The old tomb has fallen to pieces, 
but a modern one, with a recumbent figure of the 
injured wife, has been raised by the piety of her 
descendants. They make tasteful earthenware at Tatti ; 
which is celebrated throughout Italy for elegance of its 
design. There is a fine view from the height, of which 
the cathedral tower forms the apex, over grounds that 
seem to heave and rise tumultuously, and vineyards and 
olive groves. On one side you see Gioiosa, a litt'e 
village in ruins, that we jKissed on the road, perched 
on a hill-top, and deserted, because too much ex]>osed 
and often stnick by lightning ; and on the other, 
rises Tyndaris — to which wo are making, on a height 
seven miles distant Wo mount up to it through a 
beautiful pass, with a fine view, on our left, of the 
Lipari Isles, Vulcano, Stroniboli and the rest The 
ancient port off which Octavius, with Cwsar, defeated 
the fleet of Sextus Pompeius, and won the em])ire of 
Home, is now choked up with sand. Tyndaris,^ so named 
from the father of Castor and Pollux, and where 
Dionysius of Syracuse placed the colonists of Lacedae- 
monia, banished from their owncountiy, is now but a 
wretched village, with little to profit its inhabitants 
but the tunny fishery.* There is a glorious view from 

* Tlie aite of Agnthyrna or Agnthymum, so called from a son 
of ^olua, may posaibly Iw at Niiao, but this lina liecn much dia. 
puted, on account of the great discrepancy between the nuthorttiaa 
na to ita distance from Tyndaris and Cnlacte. 

' There is a legend that tlie eartliqunke at Our Lord's crucifixion 
shook down all the temples at Tyudiiris; some sny tlmt tlie whole 
town waa destroyed, nothing being left but one cmg nnd some 
idols, which the, waves refused to retain, and threw them upon 
the shore. 

* The chief monuments of whicli the ruins are still extant oi 
this city— one of the latest of nil the cities in Sicily that could 
claim a purely Greek origin— are the theatre, of which the remains 
aro in imperfect condition, n largo edifice with two handsome 
stone arches, commonly called a Gymnasium, the remains of the 
pkice wliere the cliff has fallen in, in the manner recorded by Flioy 
two gates, and some Roman tombs. 



I tho convent ol' tli" Sfiulonna, over the sen nucl along 
the const of liill villages and conv(M:t Iom.T'* on projnct- 
ing pointi*. We proceeded along the baj towardn 
princely Milazzo, funiouR for tho recent battle. Its 
cn.stlo, standing on a liigk granite promontory, wotild 
seem iinj)regnablo but to those who saw it, ns we 
did, so gallantly captured by Oarlbaldi and his littlo 
army ; tlie town, which is dividtvj into nppta' and lower, 
about a mile iu length, U surrotuidcd by a fortified 
wall. It rises on a ))euinsnla, throe miles iu 
length, with a lighthouse on the |ioint, and has 
always Iweii rcgardol as u strong position iu Hicilian 
warfare. Her)- Hannibal and Dru^iilhis fought a hard 
battle in the first Punic War ; here Ciesar and Sextus 
Pompey fought for the empire; here the Saracens 
had a long sea-light with the j;m])eror liasilius ; and 
here, finally, was the crowning and liljerating victory 
won by (iaribaldi. There is a large tunny fishing 
here of tv.'O seiLsons, from April to June, and from 
Aiigust to September; and hither come tho great 
jieople of Messina to spend tlieir winter months. It is 
liere that the fabled oxen of the Sun were pastured, tho 
slaughter of which by the companions of (Jlysses led 
to tlie fatal prohmgation of liis voyage, consecpient on 
the just anger c'. the ofleuded deities. You must read 
the story iu the "Odyssey," and carry Homer with you 
(we advise Lempriere also, if yon have still got your 
school books), for we m-e in tlio very centre of mytho- 
logical localities, and scxrciHy a town but has a cliwaiciil 
allusion in its name. ]}y tlie bye, tho Ulysses of 
motlern history, Louis Philip|X!. found refuge in the 
Milazzo duri ig liLs first long exile from France. 


On the beach at Milazzo n speronara was lying, tho 
wind was iiiir for tho iEolian Islands' that lay out 
in the 8|iarkling sea, and we resolved ujion a sail there 
and back. Now a spsronara is a large open boat thai 
CMi either sail or be rowed, and as we had six stout 
fei.ows with us to pull tis back again, wo stowed a 
biusket of provisions and wines, and made up our minds, 
if needful, to sleep under the sail thtown over the boom. 
We had just twenty miles run out to the open 
with a spanking breeze that sent us spiiming before it, 
until we reached Vulcano, the nearest of the eight 
.^olinn I.slands, consisting, with it, of Lipari, Salina, 
Fiilicudi, Alicudi, Panaria, Stromboli, and Baziluzzo.^ 

■ Tlieie wild, funtutic lookini^ rocka, starting from tlic tea, 
were supposed by tho ancients to be the chnnncys of a vast sub* 
tcrranena cavity, inhabited by Mcropes, lirontes and Arge, and tlio 
cavern in which JKolus imprisoned the winds (that he let out to 
worry jllneas and tlie Trojans) were also In this archipelago of 
fires. Here iilso Diana was placed by Latona In her infancy. 
Ilere Vulcan forged the bolts of Jove, and here the sooty Brontes 
cmbruced a rainbow instead of tho Queen of Chastity. yKolus, a 
clever navigator and weather-wise, here lived with his wife, the 
daughter of Liparus, the son of Auson, who passed over from Italy 
and built a city. 

• The ^lolian Islands were also called Vulcnniie or Hepbcestice, 
from their volcanic character. They were— 1. Lipara, still called 
Lipari. 2. Hiera, sacred to Vulcan, from whence its modem 
appellation of Vulcano. 3. Strongyle, now Stromboli, so called 
from the roundness of its form. Sir Charles Lyell says, the 
volcano of Stromboli serves as a barometer to the Lipareans, being 
jiuiescont in flue weather and disturbed previous to the coming of 
had. 4. Didymc, now called Salina or laola del'.e Saline. It was 
called Didyino from its two high conical mountains, which rise to 
a height of 3,500 feet. B. PIi<Enicai«, ao called from the palms in 
which it abounded, now Felicnli. a Eticnn, tnm the abund- 

Vulcnno, which in onid to have been thrown tip out 
of the Bca five hundred years before tho Christian era, 
was consecrated, by tho Greeks to Vtdcnn. It is 
eight miles round, and has a silent crater three miles 
broad and half a mile deep. It is a "lonesome place," 
and inhabited only by a few goatherds, whose flocks 
may bo seen browsing happily, and skipping merrily 
under very difficult circumstances of locality. Tho 
bottom of tho crater has an awful look of stillness, 
and all around are shining pieces of black and green 
gloss (obsidian), and above, pumice and sulphur. 
There ought to bo something well worth looking 
after iu such a Plutonic formation; but somehow 
or other no one likes to interfere with the place. 
Tho hares, ndjbits, and wild fowls, of many kinds, have 
a pleasure-place of their own, and seem to have multi- 
]ilied accordingly. A dashing runof fi\ e miles brought us 
over to Lipari, which is (juite a large place, coinjiamtively, 
fifteen miles round, and with twenty thousand inha- 
bitants. Tho soil, being broken lava and pumice-stone, 
yields excellent crops, and tho monr.tain sides smile 
with cornfields, orange groves, and vines. Tho town 
of Lipari, as you enter, looks like a beautiful scene in 
a ]ilay. A castlo and ramiiarts standing out npcn n 
rock, and an ancient tower and cathedral right oppo- 
site to you, with a mountain rising high behmd. 
Those who like sulphur baths ought to come hetu It 
is hardly pleasant to think, as we stand away for tho 
next volcano — Stromboli — a real one, that has never 
ceased smoking, burning, blowing and belching out lava 
for a thousand years — that hero we are sailing over what 
miLst once have been one united ci'ater, which the sea 
has detached and broken through into separate Islands. 
Fortunately, Stromboli catches what it throws up in 
its own mouth, or else the sand, black ashes, i nd red- 
hot stones which it sometimes ejects to such u height, 
might render its aspect even more awfully grand. Even 
at the present moment, when a long banner of smoke 
ascends from its top (which is like a pyramid with 
the cone cut off) it would render the approach and tho 
ascent, which we are meditating, not very desirable.^ 

There are about thirty houses on the island, for tho 
most part built of lava, and the whole island is only one 
mountain, which is more than a mile high, green almost 
to the top, but most unjileasant to ascend, us emitting 
sulphurous vapour in the higher regions. Up through 
a path of shifting sands, among vines and thistles and 
prickly cactuses, but not without trusty guides and 
stout staffs, we a.sceud to tho point where vegetation 

ance of heath, now Alicudi. 7. Euonymus, or " that which lies 
on the left hand," now Panaria. Several small inlets ailjacent to 
Panaria arc now called the Dattole, the largest of which, Baziliizzo, 
the Hicesia of Ptolemy, may be considered an ' eighth itlaud, 
Vulcano and Stromboli are the only two active volcanoes. 

3 "Superstition" saysSinythe, " is not idle with respect to (his 
wonderful abyss, and even Pope Gregory I. seemingly believed 
it to be the abode of the diimned. Here Theodorie, tlie great 
Ostrogoth, despite of his virtues, was plunged by the ministers of 
divine vengance on earth ; while William the Uad of Sicily, and 
poor Henry the VIII. of England, have both been detected en- 
deavouring to make their escape from lliis fiery cauldron. An 
eminent contractor of biscuit for tho supply of the liritisli Navy is 
■uppoced, among English siiilors, to be in durance there ; and by 
a remarkable trial at Doctor's Commons about seventy or eighty 
years ago, the judge in his decision seemed to acquiesce in the 
opinion of tho 'bakeiV behig confined to its domains for ever. 
The culprit was a Mr. B— , I have forgotten the name, but I 
can never lose tho remembrance of the efiect that reading this trial 
from the Naval ChronicU hod on a naval audience whUe posshig 
the Island." 



(liNAppf AFR, III three hours wo ronch tho top of tho 
old cone, COO t'lwt al)ovo thn iiroHoiit crater, anil on our 
arrival iiro Halutcd by tlio demon of old Stromltoli 
with an eruption. The abywi kindles below nn, nnil a 
jet of iiro ruMlics up with the roar of a cannon. This 
i» no doH|iicublo cniter, for it onclost's nix iiioiitliH ; two 
are ejecting Hnioko with tho agroculilu accompaniments 
of hydrochloric and hydro-sulphuric acid gas, — tho 
third is vomiting tiury stones, that, in their uninter- 
mitted rise and lull, have the sound of a luuivy surf 
breaking on n beach. This gives fewer eruptions 
than the rest, but emits the highest jets of hin'ning 
rocks and cindei's, and nuikes the sharpest and 
loudest noise. The other three mouths are intermit- 
tent in their fiery vomitings, two of them kindling 
and gouig out at the same time. Such a sight 
was worth waiting for until evening, when in tho dark- 
ness the i-ed brightness of tho lava shone torritically, and 
the three mouths playing together in a mnguificeut 
eruption, lighted up the triple enclosure of the crater. 
We mode our way down, not without difficulty and 
perhaps danger, and lay otf the island during the night, 
under the sail, the dim mys of a suspended lanthorn 
alone interfering with the gi'and light of tho stars, tho 
moon, and the volcano. The sea too atldcd i ts sil ver tiro 
to the illumination in the phosphorescent luminosity of 
those glow-worms of the deep, the free ocalepjion!, and 
meduao} with which this sea abounds. We took out a 
bucket of the sea-water, and as we poured it back again 
it looked like molten lead ; while the waves breaking 
against the shore encircled it with a shining border, 
and every cliff had its wreath of fire. So wo lay, lulled 
upon tho gently heaving waves, until volcano and 
heaven and sea went softening into one dreamy light ; 
and wo slept, on tho bosom of the friendly sea, soothed 
by the suppressed murmur of the distant waves as they 
broke on Scylla. In the morning, with tho first frash 
breeze, our bark bore back to Milazzo, where we landed 
as men do who have returned from faiiy land. 

OuL' route hence to Me.ssina was through deliciously 
romantic scenery over the mountains, and i>ast 
several small towns, that looked lilce illustrations of 
(he romances of our boyish days ; Romolletta, especially, 
on the top of a high, straight, uprising rock, with old 
Moorish castleR and toweiu We look down n])ou 
Messina ; what a glorious panorama ! We could see 
the sickle shape of tho port, — the Greeks called it 
Zancle, or the sickle, and say that here Ceres, in her 
sorrow for her daughter Pi-oserpino's loss, when Pluto 
earned her off from the fertile plains of Euua, dropped 
the sickle from her hand, and so gave to its shores 
their lovely curve.* And there stands the bright city 
in a semicircle of hills, having the Faro Straits in front, 
with their rushing, free, flowing waters, and the high 
Calabrian coasts on tho opi>osite side to bind in their 
wandering waves, which, psvssing the white palaces 
of Messina, go <>miling by the proud statue of Don 
Jo? in, that confi-onts them at the pier head; post 
the forts on the heights, the convents on tho greenest of 
slopes, tho woods, the mountains, the whirling Charybdis, 
and tho treacherous Scylla— round to the poetic shores 
under Moimt Etna, and the beautiful bay of ancient 

' The word Zancle Iins been supposed to bo of Sicilian origin, 
and hence it 1ms been argued that there was a Sidlian aettlement 
at the Meisana or Metsene of the Oreeks before it was occupied 
by the latter ; but no mention of thii is found in history, and all 
ancient writen describe Zancle is a Chnlcidic colony. 


We found Messina, whiuh, fi-om the port of Capo Faro 
that forms its bay, is but three and a half miles from 
the ('alabrian couHt, all in an agony of excitement and 
imjmtience for news of further progress in Italy.' But 
for all that, I'unch was screecliiug funnily to a laughing 
crowd on its beautiful marine promenade (««« p. 81), and 
in s]iite of politics and war, the convent bells were 
ringing, and they were celebrating a /eila, or holiday, 
in tlie name of some pleasure-giving saint Bombarded 
so frccpiently by its later sovereigns, and won-ied with 
earthquakes by tho vicine Etna,^ it is a mimclo that 
Messiim cUnd^ Sright, shining, and beautiful aa it now 
docs, tluugh the ])alaco along its Marina, and tho 
half-disni:::itled fort and broken-down custle, still bear 
evidences of lx)th. Tho environs are lovely, and 
tho view, from wherever taken, over towaixls the 
higher rising mountains of Calabria, — the back-bone 
between the Adriatic and tho Mediterranean, — is 
magnificent : not even the views on the Bos- 
]>horus can HurjtaHS that of the Stmits of Messina. 
The Marina Drive, or Corso (its will bo seen from 
our illustration), is along the sea shore, at the foot of 
the hills that rise ui gentle slopes, covered with fniit- 
bi'iiriiig trees in their gardens, budged with the aloe 
an<l the jirickly ^lear, and blooming with vines, figs, 
and olives. You are never further tlian five minutes 
from a grove in any jMrt of the town ; Messina being 
as celebrated fir its walks, as Fnlermo is for its drives. 
Thci'o is another parallel street with tho Alarina, which 
used to be called the Ferdiimmhi, but has change<l that 
now odious name for ouo more jmpular. We took up 
our abode at tho Victoria Hotel on the Murina, and 
enjoyed the sight of the gay cqui|)ages, and bright 
coloured dresses of the promenaders — ladies and child- 
ren — as we sat at our dinner. On the one side of tho 
town (tho right of our illustration), if the tcn'oce wheru 
Goethe wrote tho famous lines, — 

" Knowest tliou tho land where cftrona scent the gale t" 

andon tho other side is thefortbiiilt by our King Richard 
Cceur de Lion,* and beyond, over the deep blue sea, rise 

' Tho distance from the castle on the promontory of Scylln to 
the Torre del Faro, is stated by Admiral Sinytli at 6,047 yards, or 
rather leu than 3i English miles, but the strait afterwards con- 
tracts considerably, so that its width between tlie Puiitn del 
Pczzo (Cionys I'roui.) and tlio nearest point of Sicily does not 
exceed 8071 yards, or little more tluin two Knglish miles. 

' A terrible eartliiiuake, in 1783, threw down all the splendid 
buildings of the city, with the exception of tho catliedrnl andu 
few other edifices of uncommon strength and solidity. The first 
shock drove all the inhabitimts to the sea-shore, where they 
awaite<l in dismay two days and nights. Tlie greatest shock 
came at eight o'clock on the s<'cond night, Tlic sea swelled 
suddenly, and precipitated its towering waves on the beach, cn- 
gulphing upwards of 2,000 souls. Tho same tremendous swell 
sank ten vessels in the port and destroyed the quay. Tlie dogs in 
Calabria seemed to onticipato this .iwf\jl convulsion of nature, by 
howling piteously; the sea-fowl flew wildly into the mountains j 
and a noise like carriiige-whcels running round with great velocity 
over stone pavements preceded the shock ; while a dense vapour 
extended over Calabria and Messina, accompanied with a strong 
sulphurous odour. In 1852 there were thirty shoclis felt at 
-Messina in one nif^ht. In 17't3 the plague curried off thousands 
of its inhabitants. In 185-1 the cholera raged fearfully, twenty 
thousand persons died, and the Government was obliged to release 
the galley-slaves of Palermo, on condition of their coming to 
Hcssina to bury the dead. They did so, auU not one of them 

* Philip Augustus of France' and Richard oi England, having 
agreed to meet in Sicily, on their way to the Holy Li(iid, arrived at 
Measino. Tancrcd hostoocd from rulermo to show every mark 



tlio mngnificcnt licights of the Italian Appenines; tlio 
town Bi'di undor them is Reggio. There are some fine 
churches, but the most conspicuous is the ohl Norman 
cathci'.ral, founded by the firat king, Roger, tlio navo of 
which was Imrut in 1254, on the occasion of tiio 
funeral of (Jonnul, son of the Emperor Frederick II. ■ 

of coui'tcsiy to his illustrious guests, nail contributed to tlie eipe- I 
ilition an iirmaincnt of one Imiidred sail, to fullil completely nn 
cngiigement of his jireileeossor in tlio sovereignty, llut the king 
of England dcinuuded, in ndtlition, the cession of the County of | 
St. Angelo in Apulia, with several towns and castles, by way of 
dowry, for his sister, the wife of the lato Iting. Tancrcd, astonished 
at a demand so unexpected, interposed delays. The impetuous 
Ilichard, whose forces were encamped without the walls of the 
city, attaclied and took possession of the fortress near the J'aro, 
na tlic shortcut way of bringing matters to a conclusion. 'I'liis 
aggression led to a skirmisli between the Mcssineso and the 
Knglisli ; upon which Richard put himself at the head of his men, 
stormed one of the gates, entered tbc city sword in hand, slew 
many Sicilians, and planted his leopard standard on the walU of 
Messina. Hat this act of violence led to a further imbroglio ; for 
Philip Augustus, the French King, considered it to be so dis- 
respectful to himself, as well as unjust to Tancred, that he offered 
tlie King of Sicily the use of his whole army to revenge the insult. 
The prudent Tancred, however, aware bow inexpedient it was to add 
the wrath of Richard to all his other crabarnissments, preferred 
moderation, and made the King of Kngland so handsome a pro- 
position, in satisfaction of bis demands, tliat the misunderstanding 
was terminated, and the Kings of France and England remained 
six months at Messina, in tbc course of which Richard learnt to 
admire the fnuik and gallant character of Tancred. On the 
retnrn of spring the two royal viBitors set sail for Palestine, to the 
no small relief of their host. 

The catafalque, or funeral trophy, was so lofty, 
that the lights on its summit caught the rafters of 
the nave "iid the roof; and it and the l)ody of the 
Prince w ; nil consumed together. The Madonna is, 
herself, •, lu ])atron saint of the city ; indeed there is a 
letter in Latin, said to have been written with her own 
hand, (preserved in the Cathedral, and exhibited once 
a year,) in which she specially ndojits this city and its 
inhabitant'*, who, from this cause, have almost uU of 
them " Letterio," or " Letteria," in the feminine, as one 
of their Christian names.' There is a tolerable theatre, 
the Santa Elizabetta, and an excellent '• Flora," or 
13otanical Garden. The port is generally full of foreign 
vessels, and the brisk trade lias brought to the place 
a large mercantile po]iulation, very greatly to the 
improvement of its society. The number of inhabi- 
tants is somewhere about 100,000, and Messina vies 
with Palermo for the honour of being the capital of 

Messina is not famous for the fine arts ; but in the 
Church of " The Cross-bearing Fathers" you may 
sec a large picture of the Raising of Lazarus by Cara- 
vaggio, and in St. Andrew's Church is an Ecco Homo, 
by Michael Angelo. The Convent of St. Qregorio 
stands high on the hill, on the site of Jupiter's Temple, 

■ Tbc discovery of this letter has been attributed to Coustantine 
Lascaris. The Jesuit Mclchior Inchofor wrote a volume in folio 
(1629) to prove its autbsaticity. 


Williji :1 

VOL, I. 



but we oould not obtain admittance, the Lady Abbess 
being absent, so we missed seeing its fine marbles 
and relics. 

We walked down to the quay, where stands a broken 
statue of Don John of Austria, who sailed hence on 
his expedition against the Turks, and joined a party 
on a cruise over to Scylla, on the opposite coast. The 
Channel widens as we leave Messina, where it is three- 
and-a-half miles across, but below the Faro point, it di- 
minishes to little more than two miles in width. Just 
beyond this, we enter upon the circling eddies of 
Charybdis, a whirlpool formed by the meeting of 
the currents from the straits and the liarbour. In a 
northerly wind, the vessel clearing Charybdis on the 
left is not unlikely to be carried full on to the crags of 
Scylla on the right, a jagged rook, rising just above 
the surface, as will be seen in our illustration (p. 78) 
under a high rock, where are caverns, into which the 
waves rush, murmuring and roaring, when there is any 
wind. Homer and Virgil describe the sea monsterScylla 
^Bs fastened down in these vast caverns, and tormented 
by wolves and mastifis. There are shells, stones, and 
strange sea animals in the museum of the little city 
below, which are said to have been found in these 
rocks, which rise boldly and abruptly 200 feet out of 
the sea.^ On the other side are the fruitful hills of 
Sicily, and at the extreme point of the island is Cape 


Wherevib yon go on tliis side of Sicily, you have 
Mount Etna rising, as a great fbct, before you, and 
compelling your attention. Not that it appears so very 
high ; for its hugeness and vast upheaving circumfeienco 
of a hundred miles partially detract from its height, 
but it seems omnipresent, and weighing upon yotu- 
mind until you have ascended it, which you know to be 
your fate, a consciousness that imi)els you to the per- 
formance of the task. To get a good idea of Etna, it 

' Anaxillu, the despot of Bhe«ani, being struck with the 
natural strength of the poeition of the promontory of Scyllffiuro, 
fortified the rock, and established a naval station there for the 
purposa of checking the incursions of the Tyrrhenian pirates. 
This was the origin of the "Oppldnm Scyllffium," and of the 
existing fort and small town which stretches down the slopes 
towanU the two bays. 

' Hannibal is said to have put his pilot to death, off here, on 
suspicion of treaohenr, from finding that he was about to take his 
sliip through the Faro Straits, and afterwards, on discovering 
his error, orected a temple on the spot, to bis memory. A modem 
naval authority remarks, that as the Athenians and Syracusans, 
as well M Locrians and Bhegians, did not heritate to fight in the 
Faro Strti-ia, they oonld not have been considered so fearfully 
horrible 'uy ancient sailors as they wera by ancient poets. 
Charybdin, however, is known to be firom seventy to eighty 
fathoms deep, and its eddies are strong enough to whirl round a 
seventy-feur gun ship, when the current and the wind are con- 
trary to canh other, and both in sreat violence. Bspecially when the 
sirocco blows^ the swelling and dashing of the waves in Charybdis 
is more iropetnous and extensive j it then circles in eddies, and if, 
at this time, vessels are driven into it, they rock and slightly whiri 
round, but are never drawn into the vortex ; they only sink by the 
waves beatinsover them, and this would be ftwiuently the case 
witi. the uiideoked vessels of the ancients. When larger vessels 
are forced into it, whatever wind they have, they cannot extricate 
themselves without the aid of pilots, who know how to bring them 
out of the course of the current. These are always ready along 
the sborei, and msh out, like our Deal boatmen, to vessels in 
distress. Admiral Smyth says he has seen several men-of-war, 
•nd even • sartnty-four gun nhtp, whirled round on its sorfluie. 

is necessary to know that it is 100 miles round, thoogh 
its immediate base is only from thirty to forty miles 
in circumference, and that it rises in a pyramidal 
shape to 10,874 or 10,882 feet, according to the 
best authoritiea It is twenty-five miles to the 
top, by an easy and gracefully winding-road. The 
Zones of Etna t^re celebrated. Around its lower slopes 
cluster villages, farms, and villas, with gardens and 
fruitful fields. Next comes the temperate zone — of 
woods and waterfalls, and herds and shepherds, and 
balmy air. Above this is the cold region — where 
are the pine forests. Next is the frozen zone — 
where ice and snow make the traveller shiver. Then 
comes the region of fire and ashe.<<, and smoke and 
desolation. The first day took us up to Bronte, 
where Nelson's vineyards grow right up to the snows, 
and a short distance from which there is an old con- 
vent, which the fanner of the estate has made into a 
snug dwelling. The only agrarian disturbance in 
the last revolution took place here, from a mistaken 
notion of the peasantry tha^ the Nelson estates were 
about to be divided amongst the cultivators ; but 
the error was explained away by the presence of a 
few of Garibaldi's riflemen, one or two of whom,'being 
Englishmen, found means to announce emphatically 
that no robbery of Horatio Lord Nelson was intended 
by the liberating army. They call Bronte a smalltown 
in their books, but it contains 14,000 inhabitants, and 
makes no slight figure on the slope of Etna, which has 
been good enough to spare it by dividing every stream 
of lava just at its extremities, leaving it complete in 
the middle, with all its glowing vineyards. There is a 
valley juf^c beneath, with a river flowing in its bottom, 
and both sides green with olives. All the land round is 
arable, and the distant heights are covered with 
woods. We saw the point at the green vineyard 
whore the lava had stopped, after creeping for 
miles up to it, slowly and silently. There was 
the streak of the lava from the volcano, darkening 
wood and vineyard, above and on either side, but 
just here was the line — the point of separation, and 
Bronte— as an oasis blooming in the midst of a burning 
desert. There are churches, and convents, and 
Norman walls and ruins, and it is pleasant to stop the 
night here, and get up in the morning and stroll 
over the lava, through the wild looking country, seeing 
Etna's top covered with snow, on our right : centred in 
gro^'l's of oak and chesnut, till we reach the old walls, the 
old houses, the winding streets, and fine churches of the 
old Lombardian Randazzo. There are some houses here 
of a very moderate size, richly decorated, and ofiering 
very desirable models for domestic architecture for 
our young students, — examples to be met with no- 
where else. Thence, by a picturesqtio country, abound- 
ing in oaks and chesnut trees, past Malvagna to Luigna, 
or Lingua Qrossa, where there is a poor inn, at which 
we advise you not to attempt sleeping, but keep on 
descending through the rich country over lava streams 
until you reach Qiardini on the sea beach, and finish 
the evening, as we did, at that lovely village, amidst 
orange trees ind rocks, diverging only to Naxos, the 
first settlement of the Greeks in Sicily. 

To Tauromininm early in the morning is a two-mile 
walk over the beds of torrent Btrcams,/'um<ir«, rushing 
doMm to the sea, past hills topped with castles or white 
villages, shining in the sunlight, and at every opening 
vista the deep blue sea. Taoimlnio, the ancient 
Tauromininm, which contains five thousand inhabitants. 



is still famous for its salubrious air and glorious 
view of Etna {me p. 66). The houses are built in the 
Moorish stylo, and adorned outside with arabesque 
patterns, in black and white ; a striking and novel effect. 
On the ridge of a hcig^'-. outside the town, fronting 
the mountain and looking down upon the sea, stands 
the ruins of the old Greek Theatre, whose walls once 
were lined with marble and adorned with statues and 
Corintliiiin columns. The Greeks built it, and the 
Konianscompletcd. It held 40,000 spectators, anduau- 
macliia, or naval battles, — in which real ships fought in 
real water, and real sailors (prisoners) were killed, — 
used to take place here. There was a corridor all round 
for protection to the spectatora from stones, and, vast 
as its structure, a whisjior or a sigh could bo heard 
in its remotestexttcmity. The Mediterranean, seenfrom 
this spot at sunrise, is, of itself, a sight of surpassing 
liivcliness ; but add to this the magnificent sweep of 
one side of Etna — the fortress — the old tower — the 
peaks — the heights, and, on thu other side, Messina, 
and the whole coast ui) to it, dotted with towns, 
trees and bushes, and you can imagine, even did 
our illustration not sufldcc, how exquisitely beautiful 
is Taurominiuni. Next came liiposto, whence Poly- 
phennis tiirew the rock that disturbed the loves of 
Acis and Galatea at Aci Eealc, a town on the moun- 
tain, standing " on seven beds of lava," e.icli with 
a stratum of earth over it, every one of which they 
say takes 400 years to form. Diodorus Siculus 
mentions one stream of lava coming down hero which 
stopped a body of troops marching to aid the Syra- 
oisans, who were besieged by the Romans in the second 
Punic War. At La Trezza, but a short distance away, 
is the Bay of Ulysses, where are the Lava Islands, said 
to have been thrown at his ship by the Cyclops. This 
port rounded, we como upon the white and bright- 
looking city of Catania; but just before reaching it we 
made an excursion to Gian-a, and six miles l)eyond it 
up the mountain,s, to sec the famous chesnut tree called 
Cento Cavalli, said to be a hundred and ninety feet in 
girth, and to have covered a handled horses (cento 
cavcdli) with its shade, iuo old stock is in the earth, 
but young trees have spnuig from it; just such a 
growth may be seen in Kew Gardens. 

Cataida is a modern town, standing on four beds of 
lavo. Its very harbour has been filled up by an eruption 
in 109!), which sent down a stream of lava that rose 
sixty feet in height, over-topped the walls, and 
poured upon the devoted city. You go down seventy 
feet into what looks like a well, but it is the old city 
wall ; and over it hangs what looks like a rock, but is 
actually lava. There is a Benedictine Monastery hard 
by, which the lava spared by dividing and running on 
each side of it, as at Bronte. The fiery flood came 
within ten yards on one side, and five on the other. 
We had no time to stop for other curiosities, for 
nimours of a lost battle here re.ached us, and our 
duties superseded further excursion. So wo passed 
through Catania (observiug how its houses were built 
of lava, and its streets paved with it — how the liquid 
fire had filled up its harbour, consumed its gardens, 
and overturned its walls), ond pushed on, over lava 
pavement first, and block sand afterwards, through 
cactus hedges with scarlet flowers, for Mount Etna. 
Fourteen miles, after passing two obelisks that mark 
the Etna road, brought us at n creeping juvco 
to Nicolosi, whei'o wo got some wine and cold 
meat, as if going over llelvellyn or up Bnowdon, 

They tell us here, as everywhere on the mountain, 
that the village has been, some time or other, a victim 
to its treacherous parent, fire, and they speak of 
earthquakes as we do at home of great storms. Behind 
the houses of Nicolosi wo see rising the double stimmit 
of Monti Rossi, or the Red Hills, so called fi-om the 
dark red colour tf its scoriie. This was the crater that 
threw up the lava by which Catania was nearly buried. 
It consists of two cones, close to each other, and nearly 
1,000 feet high. We hero received the kind hospitality 
of Dr. Gcmellai-o, to whom, and his two brothers, tra- 
vellers on Etna have been so much indebted. In 
1 804, thoy built and fiirnishcd a cottage for travellem 
at an elevation of 9,587 ft. above the level of the sea. 
Two years afterwards it was destroyed, but soon re- 
placed. Then, the English troops being here, Loril 
Forbes and his officera subscribed and built a more 
solid shelter — now called the Casa Inglese — or 
English Cottage. The herdsmen of Moimt Etna 
stole tho furnitiu-o, ond when it had been replaced, 
the Austrian officer.?, quartered at Catania, broke ojion 
tho door (this was in 1820), and burnt the furniture as 
firewood. After passing through forests, broken down 
in many places by lava torrents, in which wo roused 
herds of affrighted cattle, we saw above us the enor- 
mous lava bods of the Boccarelle del Fuoco — the "Little 
Mouths of Smoke" which, not quite a century ago 
(ICCG), destroyed a million of oaks in the forest ! At 
a hut in the wood, a mere shed, we rested, and then 
entered the desert region. At the foot of Monte 2^Iinar- 
do, one of the largest secondary cones, are seen the glaciers 
of Catania. Bitter, indeed, was the cold, and great 
were our sufferings from difficulty of respiration ; but 
we pushed our way, with the undaunted "pluck" 
of English travellers, and at lost, just liefore dawn, 
looked down from the edge of the crator into the 
very bowels of Etna. Beneath us yawned the great 
ci-ater, a deep and irregular valley, bristling with 
blocks of blue, green, and white lava, and variegated 
with lines of curling vapour issuing from a hundred 
rents, and almost suffocating us with their shar]), acid 
emanations. The sun, rising from an eastward sea, 
now gave us a most astonishing prospect The whole 
of Sicily lay liefore us westward. The hundred smaller 
cones and hills immediately around, rose up as from a 
flat surface of overspreading mist, and beyond was a tea 
of mountains rising like waves, over which, like the 
shade of some vast cloud, was thrown, as the sun i-oso, 
the gigantic shadow of the mountain itself, — a puqtlc 
darkness, reaehing across tho entire island to the re- 
motest horizon, and gradually shortening as the sun rose 
obove the Ionian Sea. Now the mists rose from below, 
and standing, as wo were, two miles above it, all Sicily 
lay at our feet. We saw the whole triangle of the 
island, its three i)romontorics, and all its fabk-d and 
storied localities, — the Boot of Italy, Calabria, the 
Adriatic, Lipari Islands, and the Mediterranean. The 
shade of Et' la was clearly defined, a cone slightly cun-ed 
on one sidu, — tho last earthquake of 12th December, 
1867, lu, .1 tojipled down a large portion of it — and we 
could see clearly the whole circumference of the water, 
about three miles, and its depth, about 700 feet. Down 
below us were the plains of Enno, where I'roseqrine 
went a-maying, and found herself entnipi)ed by Pluto. 
After a parting look at tho crater, tho guides lead us to 
tho brink of another crater, which, in 1842, threw its 
lava into tho Val di Bove (Valley of tho Ox), so called 
from its resembluucu to a jwir of hornsi The scene 







is strange and terrific. Eddies of fiery smoke issuing 
from a largo vent, with deafening and whistling noises 
following, and thousands of crossing and re-crossiug 
streams of smoke, whose sulphurous vajwurs speedily 
forced us to retreat. From the Caso di Bosco we de- 
scended to the Torre del Filosofor, or house of £mpedocle.s, 
the vain philosopher, who wished to be thought to have 
been carried up to the skies, but whose brazen slipper, 
thrown up by the crater, betrayed the method of lus self- 
sought death. From hence we saw the Val di Bovo, six 
miles long, and three broad, enclosed by perpendicular 
walls of lava, older than vhe human race, and rbing 
in places to more than a thousand feet from the base. 
From here we soon found our way back to the road 
and into Catania, where, after inspecting the silk 
manufactory, which is its chief industry, and is made 
two yards in width, we left our neat hotel, with its 
cool red-tiled flosr, and hastened on to Syracuse ; 
passing La Braca, famous for oysters; Agosta, with 
12,000 inhabitants, who export wine, oil, and honey, 
and where there is still a plantation of sugar canes, the 
last remnant of the Moors : across Erineus, where 
Demosthenes (not the orator,) fought a battle with 
the Syracusans, which he lost ; and thence to old 
Syracuse (see p. 88), where we heard the Sicilian 
sailors chanting the evening hymn, in the ancient 
harbour. The city is intereuting from its classical 
association, and its olive groves are said to be the 
oldest in • the world, those about Jerusalem alone 
excepted. The Syracusans have all Greek features ; and 
there is a population of about 26,000, as against a 
million in ancient days, with an army, besides, of 100,000 
infantry, and a navy of 500 armed ships. The fountain 
of Arethusa, the patron goddess of Syracuse, once so 
famous, is now a washing-tank, the common rendezvous,' 
not of nymphs, but of washerwomen; and the site of 
the Temple of Minerva is occupied by the Cathedral, 
although some of the ancient columns are still standing, 
Santa Lucien occupying the place of the Goddess of 
Wisdom. AGrecianbasin forms the baptismal font. The 
Church of St. John here is said to be theoldest Christian 
church in the world, and they say that St. P.<tul 
preached there. There are miles of catacombs under 
the city, marked with Christian symbols, when the 
early Christians sought refuge there from persecution. 
The amphitheatre, that once held G0,000 spectators, is 
a mass of ruins ; but the semicircle of seat« is still 
defined, and there ai'e yet remains of the Nymphgeum, 
or music-hall, that h' ' 1 the tripod of Apollo. The castle 
seen in onr illustration («« p, 88), was bu ilt by Maniaces, 
the Byzantine general. In this castle died the Dutch 
Admiral De Ruyter, and in this harbour Lord Nelson 
stopped to water his fleet before sailing to Aboukir 
Bay, for the victory of the Nile. Down in the Latomias, 
or excavations which abound at Syracuse, and at the 
one called Latomia del Faradiso, is the famous Ear 
of Dionysius. It is an excavation sixty-feet in height, 
which gradually tepers to a point, whence a narrow 
channel conveys sound to a chamber in the rook; the 
crumpling of a piece of paper below can be heard above, 
but there is at present no way of access to the chamber, 
except by being let down to it by a rope. The reputed 
tomb of Arch'medes'lies near this; and at the gate of 
Agrigentum we hired a boat and crossed the harbour 

* The art of linding the ipeoifio gravitica of bodioa is generally 
nndentood to have been invented by Archimedes, the cele- 
brated meohaniit and mathematisian of Byraonie.who flourished 

to the mouth of the Auapus, which we found rather a 
ditch than a river, passing through plantations of flax, 
its flat muddy banks on either side being rank with 
vegetation. We had to pole and pusli our way up, 
but at last succeeded in discovering the papyrus — the 
plant (whose stem, split into thin slices, sufiiced the 
ancients for paper,) gi-owing on its banks. This is a 
curiosity, for the plant grows nowhere else in Europe. 
It is a tall rush of very great height, with a naked 
stem terminating in brown tufts. Satisfied with our 
voyage, we returned to our wine, and fortified oui-solvcs 
against the malaria with pleasant draughts of the 
Syraousan Muscat wine, whoso quality is such that 
should recommend it to English consumers, and its 
price something between foiurpcnce and sixpence a 
bottle; Wo crossan angle of the island to Terranova, the 
ancient Gela, where ^schylus is said to have been killed 
while walking on the beach, by an eagle dropping a tor- 
toise on his bald head, which the bird mistook fora stone. 
Hence, through wild heaths and lovely mule tracks, to 
Girgenti, the site of the ancient Agrigentum, a Greek 
colony, the site of which is now covered with luxuriant 
groves of fig, orange and olive. It was here that Pha- 

about 200 years before Cbriat. The story foes, that a goldsmith 
having been employed by Hiero, king ot Syracuse, to make a 
crown, a mass of gold was given nim for that iiarposo. But it 
was suspected that the workman had kept back part of the 
gold for his own use, and made up the weight by alloying the 
crown with copper. Uiero, not knowing how to ascertain the 
truth in relation to this circumstance, referred the matter to 
Archimedes. The philosopher, after having long studied the 
subject in vain, at lost accidentally hit upon a method of verify- 
ing the king's suspicion. Going one day into a bath, be observed 
that the water rose higher in the tub or bath than it was before, 
and immediately began to retlect that any body of an equal 
butic with himself would have raised the water just to the same 
height, though a body of equal weight, but not of equal bulk 
would not raise it so much. This idea suggested to him the mode 
of linding out what he so much desired to ascertain; and, in the 
transports of his joy on making such a discovery, he rushed out 
of the bath, and ran naked through the streets of Syracuse, ex- 
claiming in the Greek language, "Eureka I Eureka I" "Ihave 
found it I I have found it I " Kow, since gold was the heaviest 
of all metals known to Archimedes, it appeared evident that it 
must be of less bulk, according to its weight, than any other 
metal. He procured a mass of pure gold equally heavy with 
the crown when weighed in air, and desired that it should be 
wi'ighed against the crown in water, and if the crown was not 
alloyed, it would counterbalance the mass of gold when they 
were both immersed in water, as well as it did when they were 
immersed in air. But, on making the trial, he found that the 
mass of gold weighed much heavier in water than did tlie 
crown : not only so, but when the mass and crown were im- 
mersed separately in one vessel of water, the crown raised the 
water much higher than the mass of gold did ; which proved 
that it was alloyed with some lighter metal which increased its 
bulk. By making, in this manner, trials of different metals, 
eciually heavv as the crown, be found out the quantity of alloy 
which had been introduced into it.. A body immersed in a 
fluid will sink to the Iwttom of it if it be heavier than its bulk 
of the fluid : and if it be suspended in it, it will lose as much of 
what it weighed in lir as its bulk of the fluid weighs. Hence 
all bodies of equal bulks, which would sink in fluids, lose equal 
weights when suspei ,lcd in them ; and unequal bodies lose in 

Sroportion to their bulks. This is the foundation of the whole 
octrine of spccilio gravities.— The specilic gravities of all bodies 
that sink in water may be found first by weighing tho body in 
air and then in water, and dividing the weight in air by the loss 
of weight in water. For example a guinea weighs one hundred 
and twenty-nine grains in air, ami when weighed in water it 
loses seven and one quarter grains, which shows that a quan- 
tity of water of equal bulk with the guinea weighs seven and 
one quarter grains. Divide one hundred and twenty-nine by 
seven and one quarter, the quotient will bu 17.7!)3, or a little 
more than seventeen and three quarters, which proves the 
guinea to be seventeen and three quarter tini'S heavier than 
Its bulk of water. The instrument used to tinil tho specilio 

gravities of bodies is called the Itudrostalic lialunce, which 
ifien but little from>a common balance, only it has a hook 
at the bottom of one of the scales on which different substances 
that are to be examined may be hung by horse hairs, or sillc 
threads, so as to be immersed in a vessel of yrater without 
wetting the loale. 



laris had bis brazen bull, and mado Pcrillus, the inventor, 
the first victim, byenclosingliimin itwhenheatedredhot. 
It was this lovely city that a population of 200,000 
Sybaritic citizens quitted in one night rather than endure 
the shortness of a few days' provision when besieged by 
the Curthaginians, Our sketch shows on the right the ruins 
of tlie Temple of Concord, and, on the left, that of Juno 
Lucina. The former stands, grand and simple, on a 
lonely crag looking over the sea. The view, from a 
distance, of the high plateau, on which the town stands, 
is delicious. The population is 25,000, and it is an 
emporium for the sulphur which comes here from the 
neighbourhood of Siculiana. Zeuxis selected five women 
of Agrigcntum, and painted, from their combined 
beauties, his celebrated picture of Juno — using them ns 

models of gi-aco, expression, symmetry, elegance, and 
modesty. The town of SicuUana contains 5,016 
inhabitants, who are engaged in working the mines of 
sulphur which, being mixed with lime, is easily burnt 
and nm out, piu'o, into moulds and boxes. The occu- 
pation is very profitable, and numerous moderate 
fortunes and incomes are realised in this trade. 

We now crossed over to Palermo, leaving Segestum with 
its Temi)le, and Mount Eryx — where was the celebmted 
Temple of Venus Erycina, the most voluptuous and 
vicious, in her rites, of all the Venuses — to our left. 
At Palermo we took the steam boat, and i-eached 
Naples in time to welcome the installation of the new 






The seuding an army and a fleet to the mouth of 
the Peiho River, with the intention of advancing by a 
nhort cut across the country direct to Pckin itself, 
entailed an amount of commissariat preparation which 
necessitated our reaching China for some months in 
advance of the Expedition, as well for the making onr- 
selves acquainted not only with the means of obtaining 
ready supplies for the present, na for acquiring such a 
knowledge of the habits and manners and language of 
the people, as well as the resources of the several parts 
of the country as would render us masters of every 
means, and prepared for every contingency, in case of 
a longer continuation of the campaign. 

As we near Hong Kong, it reminds us, as it has 

done others, of the Western Highlands. The monn- 
tains rise apparently barren and uncultivated, but on 
passing Green Island an agreeable surprise awaits ui. 
The town of Victoria spreads out in a semicircle at 
the water's edge, stretching three or four miles on each 
side of the Bay, and going back from the water's edge, 
one building above another, right to the mountain's 
side. The Bay is full of shipping, but as seen from 
the town appears land-locked ; so that in going out and 
coming in, the city springs up before you directly 
behind the island which you pass. Hong Kong is 26 
miles in circumference, 9 miles long, and 8 br«»d. 
These seas, on every side, are full of such islands; but 
we got this one as a bonus for 23,393 chests of opitun de- 
stroyed by Lin, and paid for by the Ch-nese, and once 
getting a foothold, in spite of all obstacios of position 



and climate, we Iiave changed the Lilliputiau fishing- 
town to another Singapore. The 1,600 poverty-atricken 
Chi'aese of 1810 have increased to nearly a quarter of 
a million. Hong Kong is to China what Gibraltar 
ia to Spain— or rather it is the Liverpool of 
China. It ia afflicted with a Governor, a Council 
of Five, a Chief Justice, and an Attorney-General, 
who quarrel with each other, stand upon dignity, 
and make diatinotion in rank between gentry and 
morohants, wholesale and retail dealers, and aiich kind 
of " genteel " nonsense. Of course there is a race-courso, 
and there are two roads, and the watering-place once 
used to be called Chuckeo, but it is now known as 
Stanley, — the place where the Chinese, who did not 
know what they were going to do, tried to steal Mr. 
Chisholm Anstey. There are barracks, where the 
soldiers cannot live ; and a prison, which is so overrun 
with rats, that the poorer Chinese consider it a favour 
to be sent there. The olub-house is most creditable to 
the place, and the stranger, not caring for the hotel, is 
very comfortably off if introduced by one ot his friends 
who may be a member. A good library, and all the 
English periodicals are on the table and in the k^ook- 
case; while good chow-chow, — which means food and 
all a man can want, — good attendance, and good beds, 
can be had foraboutfiAeeu shillings a-day ; but, in China, 
most gentlemen are immediately taken possession of 
by those who may be known to them, and then their house 
is your home, according to the established usage of the 
land. The first thing that strikes the stranger is the 
busy, untiring industry of the Chinese in their little 
shops. Women and men, and sometimes even little 
children^, are hard at work, making combs, trunks, or 
shoes, some chopping up meat, others arranging their 
vegetables for sale.' Here a party of masons erecting 
a bamboo stage, and there a chain gang of convicts, 
ascending the hill under a soldier's bayonet ; coolies 
carrying water, an enormous load ; sedan chairs 
borne by two or four ; boys hawking about candies 
and sweetmeats ; boatmen and house servants, coming 
and going, all dressed in that peculiar national 
blue, wide trowsers and butcher jackets, and their 
long tails either wound about their head or trailing 

> In Oliina, the children begin () worit very early— almoit too 
yoong I they get Krioua nnd aedBtc, arc wonderfully old fiuhianed, 
and think for themselves very soon. Though there is great respect 
shown to old age, juveniles are not snubbra for being precocious, 
on the contrBTy, the little fellows nuy often be noticed giving 
their opinions ft«ely before their elders. 

The first thing a child longs for is a sapeck (a coin of about the 
10th of a farthing) ; the first use it makes of its speech and intel- 
ligence is to learn to articulate the names of coins. When his 
little fingers are big enough to hold the pencil, it is with making 
figures that he amuses himself, and as soon as the tiny ci«aturo 
can see and walk, he is capable of buying and selling. In China 
you need never fear sending a child to make a purchase j yon may 
rely upon it he will not allow himself to be clieated. Even the 
games, at wliich the little Chinese play, are always impregnated 
with this mercantile spirit; they amuse themselves with keeping 
ahopa, and opening little pawnbroker's establishments, and fami- 
liarise thcmielves thus with the jargon, the tricks, and the frauds 
of tradesmen, 

* The Chinese grow a cabbngo expressly for its oil and seed. 
The Sraitiea tinenni is its botanical name. It ought to bo 
bred in the open air by English farmers. It produces flower 
stems, three or four itet high (Just as our cabbage,) with yellow 
flowers and long (xxls. In April, when the fieUls are in bloom, 
the whole country seems tinged with gold, and after a sliower of 
rain, the fhisrance emitted is delicious; The seeds are ripe in 
Hay, when they are cleaned and pressed. There is a great demand 
for the oil, the refhse is used as oil>cake,or broken up u a manure, 
which is highly advantageous to the land. 

down behind'. The streets of Hong Kong offer a 
thousand reflections to those who have never been 
brought in contact with the Celestial race. 

There are drawbacks : the Chinese are not of the 
most respectable classes ; the summers nre hot ; the 
town of Victoria is not the most healthy in the world ; 
but there never was a colony establuhed without some 
sacrifices. Perseverance is an especial British character- 
istic, and manifold precautions and sanitary measures 
are being taken to diminish the amount of sickness. 

There are grievances of a more amusing character, 
and which take strangers aback on arrival. The first 
is the system of transport, which is by palanquin. 
Chinese porters, especially in Hong-Kong, are by no 
means so tractable as Hindoos ; and it has hapiiened 
that a gentleman invited to dine at Government House, 
has, through their pig-tail obstinacy, been too late for 
the repast. Again, it is customary in Hong-Kong that 
guests should take their " boy " with them, and certain 
members of the French embassy declare that, not being 
provided with a young Chinese fresh from the barbers, 
with his tail gracefully twisted and a long white robe, 
they ran great risk of perishing from hunger and thirst 
at a table spread with every imaginary delicacy. 

The bazaars, the ciuriosity shops, and the studios of 
the native artists are among the lions of Hong-Kong ; 
but the sing-songs, which might be mistaken for an 
Englishism, or theatrical representations, which are given 
by wealthy Chinese merchants, carry the day. The stage 
is a great platform of bamboos, and the crowd is inces- 
santly an the move, going and coming, for the repre- 
sentation begins at eight in the morning and lasts till 
eight at night, without a place remaining in want 
of a spectator. Heroes of all descriptions, genii, 
demons, and gods, have their turn on the stage, and 
engage in fabulous combats. Nothing can surpass 
the pantomime of the Chinese actors, or the luxury of 
their costumes. They are glittering with silk and 
gold. Women never appear on the stage in the 
Middle Empire ; their parts are taken by young 
Chinese. But the voices of the performers are so like 
shrieking, and the music is so noisy, that after a short 
time European spectators generally have quite enough 
of it, and get away as soon as manners will permit. 

Then there is the Happy Valley, where the turf is 
rolled every day, equestrians take their exercise, and 
the races ^re held. The name of the place is said, 
comically enough by a traveller totally ignorant of the 
Chinese language, to have been given to it from its 
being situated amidst burial groimds, and a Parsee 
cemetery or charnel house, where bodies are burned. 
The Chinese cemetery^is decorated with upright stones, 

* Tlie toil of a Chinaman ia not a little tuft on the crown of tho 
head, but is formed by hair sufibred to grow luxuriantly in a mass 
at least four inches iu diameter. Tho hair is smoothed down, and 
the tail, plaited bom it, begins at the nape of the neck, and hangi 
below the waist, oft«n to the ankles, and labouring men while at 
work generally have it wrapped round the head. 

' The more wealthy individuals often convoy their dead a con- 
siderable distance, and employ a kind of fortune-teller, whose duty 
it is to find out the most apprtipriate resting phice. This man 
goes with the corpse to the place appointed, and, of conrse, pre- 
tends to be very wise in the selection of the spot, ai well as in 
the choice of the soil with which the ashes of the dead are to 
mingle in after years ; and, upon trial, should the earth appear 
unsuitable, he immediately orders the procession off to another 
place in the neighbourhood, where he expects to be more success- 
<hl. "I believe," says Mr. Fortune, "many of the Chinese have 
this point settled before they die ; for one day when one of our 
priniiipal merchants went to call on old Howquo, the late Hong 



planted amid rooks and pines, with a bench for the 
ghobt of the departed to rest upon occasionally, and 
silver and tissue paper scattered about to deceive 
malignant Hpirits. These, tempted by the glitter, and 
thinking they are money, stop to pick them up, and 
thus give time to the ghosts that are out for an airing, 
to get back into their graves. The Chinese, who ore 
such adepts in cheating liluropeans, fancy that they can 
even deceive the bad spirits. 

The Chinese have, it is well known, a national 
idiosyncracy for getting rid of a redundant population. 
The Sisters of St. Puul have, much to their credit, 
founded an establishment at Hong-Kong for succour- 
ing children unnaturally abandoned by their parents, 
and they bring them up to useful occupations. 

If the future traveller wishes to dine, as we did, in 
Chinese style, there are no want of restaurants. He 
may there, by the aid of chop-sticks, make a very 
satisfactory repast off eggs a year old, preserved in clay, 
sharks' fins and radishes, parad and boiled into a thick 
soup, btche de mer, or sea slugs, shrimps made tip into 
a paste with sea-chesnuts, bamboo roots, and garlic, 
rendered piquant by the addition of soy and sundnr 
other pickles and condiments, and washed down with 
warm samshu in minute cups. Dishes and plates are 
all on the smallest possible scale, and pieces of square 
brown paper (made of silk, an article not used for that 
purpose in England) serve the purpose of napkins.' 

A walk in Hong Kong soon shows you why China 
is called the Central Flowery Land. The red, white, 

merchant at Canton, a tmy wns bronght into the room with 
several kinds of cntli npon it, which tlio old man examined with 
great care, and then fixed on the one in which he wished to be 

' It Is certain, however, that a real Chinese dinner wonld bo 
very odd in tlie eyes of a stranger, especially if hs was one of those 
who think, na some people do, tliat there is only one way of living. 
To begin dinner with the dessert and end it with tlie soup ; to 
drink the wine smoking hot out of the Uttle china cups; and to^ 
have your food brought to you ready cut up into small pieces, and 
presented witli a couple of sticks instead of a knife and fork to 
eat it with ; to have, instead of napkins, a provision of little bits 
of coloured silk paper by the side of your pbte, which, as you use, 
the attendants carry off; to leave your places between the courses 
to smoke or amuse yourself; and to raise your chop-sticks horizon- 
tally upon your cup to signify tliat you have finished your dinner. 
All these things would, doubtless, seem very odd, and create the 
curiosity of Europeans. Ilio Chinew, on the other hand, can 
never get over their surprise at our way of dining. They ask 
how one can like to drink cold fiuids, and what can have put it 
into our heads to use n trident to carry food to our mouths at the 
risk of pricking our lips or putting our eyes out. They think it very 
droll to sec nuts put on the table in their shells, and ask why our 
servants cnnnot take the trouble to peel the fVuit, and take the 
bones out of the meat. They are themselves certainly not very 
difficult in the nature of their food, and like such things as fVied 
silk-worms and preserved larvo), but they cannot understand the 
predilection of our epicures tor high game, or for cheese that 
seems to belong to the class of animated beings. 

One day ut Macao, wo had the honour to be seated at the dinner 
tableof a representative of n European power, when a magnificent 
disliofsnipes was brought in. But what a disappointment ! The 
Chinese Vntel had taken out the entrails of this incomparable 
bird. He knew not what a perftaine and savoury treasure 
the snipe holds in the stomach. The cook was forced to appear 
befbre the arbiters of tosto, who received him with wrathfhl looks, 
and the delinquent was stmok with constomation, on hearing 
that he had committed a culinary crime, too heavy to be n second 
time pardoned. Hoping to make amends, the nnfortnnato cook, 
a few days afterwards, took care to serve up, in all their Integrity, 
some birds that were not snipes, and thereupen ■ new storm of 
wrath fell on the devoted hsad of the poor Chinew, and was 
followed by his dismissal, in a slate of utter detpoir, that he 
should never be able to exercise his art in a manner conformable 
to the astoundingly capricious tastes of Europeans. 

and purjile flowers of the Lagerttrasmia are as common 
in the low grounds as hawthorns are with us. The 
scarlet heads of bloom of the beautiful Ixora eoceinea 
are flowering in profusion in the clefts of the njcks. 
The ravines are full of ferns, and the elegant lilac bell 
flowers of the Chirota simnm peep out under the next 
rocka Up in the mountains, high up iu the hill, 
valleys — fifteen hundred feet above the sea — you all 
know the azalea and its gorgeous striking beauty, 
here they spring wild m masses of dazzling bright- 
ness, with myrtles, dahlias, wild roses, honeysuckles, and 
the Glycine nnenaia hanging its flowering branches iu 
graceful fashion along the mountain path. 

Everything here comes from the mainland, and the 
Chinese Mandarins thereby hold a kind of power over 
their own people ; but ono of them in the late war having 
mis-used it they resisted and drove him off to the other 
shore. Now that they understand themselves to bo 
subjects of Queen Victoria, they go on very dif- 
ferently; indeed, your Chinaman is never so great 
oa when following an example.' Give him the best 
model and he will imitate itexoctly ; show him roguery 
and cunning and he will beat you at the game. 
Industrial arts and mechanical science are what aro 
wanted in China. The men who liave heretofore visit- 
ed them have not been of a character to teach any people 
much that is good. They have bought, and sold, and 
smuggled, arid they have cheated, and lied and bullied, 
mutually. It is time that both parties came to a better 


We leave Hong-Kong as quickly as any man 
should do, who has no business to keep him 
there, and taking the steamer a pleasant voyage of 
thirty miles, the lost four of which is through shallow 
water, arrive at the Fraya Grande, the celebrated prome- 
nade and landing place («eep. 97),to the quaint old settle- 
niKUt of the early Portuguese kings, Mucao. This voy- 
age, short as it is, and through a narrow sea, as crowded 
as the Thames, was not until the present year secure 
from disorderly, roving bands of Chinese seamen and 
boatmen, who organise themselves into fleets as pirates, 
and way-lay vessels, not even excepting the passage 
steam-boats, one of which,"The Queen,"it will be remem- 
bered that they captured, and murdered all the foreign 

' There arc few things your Clihiaman cannot do as well ns an 
Englishmen or a Yankee. For severol years many Chinese have 
been employed in steam boats as deputy engineers and stokers, 
their skill, sobriety and carefhlncsa are exemplary. In men-of-war 
steamers the employment of them as firemen and supernumerary 
stokers, while coming within the Tropics, or on the east side of the 
Capeof Good Hope, wouldbe desirabk;. They aregood sailors always, 
and in the last war, "The Bamboo Rifle" or "Coolie Transport 
Service," deserved mention from Lord Elgin. As ship carpenters, 
it would be difficult to find better workmen, and lately some who 
have been employed in setting up iron steamers, speedily learnt to 
perfection the art of rivotting, under the guidance of a clover 
engineer, sent out by Messrs. R. Stephenson & Co. ^ 

» We were not lucky enough to have a brush with the pirates 
ourselves ; but Mr. Fortune has given ns a good occonnt of what 
befel hir.self on his way in a Chinese junk from the Fow-choo-foo, 
by the mouth of the Min river to Chnson. " About four o'clock 
in the aftenicon, and when we were some fifty or sixty miles from 
the Min, the captain and pilot came hurriedly down to my cabin 
and informed me that they saw a number otJan-do«» right ahead, 
lying In wait for us. I ridiculed the Idea, and told them they 




The first thing an European landing at Macao in 
olden times did, vraa to go and sec the Chinese Pagoda 
at the Rocks. {See page 96.) He could wend his vray 

imagined ereryjunk tlicy mw to be a pirate; but tbey atill moin- 
tiiiiied that tliey were to, and I therefore considered it prudent to 
Ixt prepared for the worst. I got out of bed, ill and feverish as I 
was, and carefully examined my fire-arms, clearing the nipples of 
my gun and pistols, acd putting on fresh caps I also rammed 
down a ball upon the top of each charge of shot in my gun, and 
put a pistol in side pocket, and patiently waited for the result. 
By the aid of a small pocket telescope, I could see, as the nearest 
junk approached, that her deck was crowded with men. I then 
had no longer any doubts regarding their intentions. The pilot, 
an intelligent old man, now came up to me, and said that ho 
thought resistance was of no ose ; I might manage to beat olT one 
junk, or even two, but that I had no chance with five of them. 
Being at that time in no mood to take advice, or to be dictated to 
by any one, I ordered him off to look after bis own duty. I 
knew perfectly well that if we were taken by the pirates I had 
not the slightest chance of escape, for the first thing they would 


there and back in a tanka, or native boat, or ho could 
stroll there by the sca-sido. Now we can visit pagodas 
of far more imposing a8i)ect and dimensions ; nay, we 

do would be to knock mo on tho head and throw me overboard, as 
they would deem it dangerous to themselves were I to get away. 
At the same time I must confess I had little hope of being able to 
bent off such a number, and devoutly wished myself anywhere 
rather than where I was. 

" The scene around mo was a strange one. Tho captain, pilot, 
and one or two native p.ia8cngcrs were taking up the boards of 
the cabin-floor and putting their money and other valuables out 
of sight amongst the balhist. The common sailors, too, had their 
copper cash or ttien to hide; and the whole place was in a 
state of bustle and confusion. When all their more valuabh) 
property was hidden, they began to make some preparations 
for defence. Baskets of small stones were brought up ftom 
the hold, and emptied out on the most convenient ports of 
the deck, and were intended to be used instead of fin-arms when 
the pirate came to close quarters. This is a common mode of 
defence in various parts of China, and is efiectual enough when the 



even meet one that fur suqjnMes it on Ills way — 
tlio great Pagoda of Singapore. But if the tciuplo of 
Macao is poor and badly kept, its position is highly 

enemy lint only ■linilur wcnpnns to brinp; oguinat tlicni ; but on 
the cwMt of liU'liion, wlioro wo wcni now, ull tlio niratn juukii 
carried guns,, cunsc(|Uontly, n wliolo deck-land of atones 
could be of very little use iifpiinst them. 

" During the gencnd bustle 1 missed my own servant for a short 
time. When )iu returned to me, ho hitd mndu such n change In 
Ilia appoaranoe tliat I did not recognise him. Ho wiu literally 
clothed ill rnga, which he hud borrowed from the sailors, all or 
whom had also put on their worst clothes. When I asked him 
the reason of this eliango in the outward man, ho told mo the 

fiiratea only made those prisoncra who Imd money, and were 
ikoly to pay handsomely for their rnnaoin, and that they would 
not think it worth their while to lay hold of n man in rngs. 

" I waa BUirounded by several of the crew, who might well be 
called ' .lob's comforters,* somo suggesting one tiling and some 
another, and many proposed that we should bring the jnnk 
round and run back to the Min. The nearest pirate wna now 
vntliin 200 or SOU yards of us, and, putting her helm down, gave 
us ■ broadside from her guns. All was now dismay and con- 
(temation on b)nrd our junk, as every man ran beloiv cicept 
two, who were at the helm. I expected every moment that these 
also would leave their post ; and then wo should havo been an 
easy prey to tho pirates. 

'" Hy gun is nearer you than those of theyait-doui,' said I to 
the two men i ' and if you move from tho helm, depend upon it I 
will shoot you.' Tho poor fellows looked very uncomfortable, 
but I suppose thought they had better stand the Are of the pirates 
than mine, and kept at their post t largo boards, heaps of old 
dotbea, masts, and things of that sort which were at hand, were 
thrown up to protect us from tho shot j and as we had every 
■titch of sail set, and a fair wind, wo were going through the 

picturesque. Tho inner harbour, with its legion of 
junks and taukas, lies nt its feet ; above it aro huge 
blocks of granite, and secular trees, whose vigorous 

water at tho rate of seven or eight miles nn hour. The shot from 
the pirates fell consiilerably short of us, and I was therefore 
enabled to form an opinion of tho range and power of their guns, 
which was of somo use to me. 

" Assistance from our cowardly crew was quite out of the 
question ; for there was not a man amongst them bravo enough 
to use tho stones wliich had been brought on deck, and which, 
perhaps, might have been of some little use when tho pirates 
came nenrer. The fair wind, and all the press of sail we had 
crowded on the junk, proved of no use ; for nur pursuers, who had 
much faster sniling vesat^ls, were gainiHg rapidly upon us. Again 
the nearest pirate fired upon us. The shot, this time, fell just 
under cur atom. I still remained quiet, as I had detenmncd 
not to fire a single shot until I was quite certain my gun would 
take effect. The third shot which followed this came whizzing 
over our heads and through the aaila, without, however, wounding 
either the men nt the wheel, or myself. 

" Tho pirates now seemed quite sure of their prize, and came 
down upon ns, hooting and yelling like demons, at the same time 
loading their guns, and evidently determined not to spare their 
shot. This was a moment of intense anxiety. The plan which I 
had farmed from the first was now abont o bo put to the proof j 
and if tho pirates were not the cowards which I believed them to 
be, nothing could save us from fulling into their hands. Their 
fearful yells seem to bo ringing in my cars even now, after this 
lapse of time, and when I am on the other sid>' of the globe. 

"The nearest junk waa now within thi ■ .irdaofoura) their 
gnns were now loaded and I knew that t nxt discharge would 
completely rake our decks. ' Now,' said 1 to our hehnsman, 
' Keep your eye fixed on me, and the moment you see me.fall flat 
00 the deck yon must do the same, or you will be abot, ' I know 



rooU frwton in tlio crovicen ; whiln cIom) by aro kioxIcB 
and littlp oratorios in honour of inferior tlivinitius. 
On the portico is a gi'oat junk pointi-d in roil, nnil 
there i» nn inscription in Cluneie on tho neighbouring 

Tho air of respoctablo antiquity presented by the old 
Tortugucgo Rcttlomont of Macao in refroMliiiig uftiT tlio 
parvmu character with which its ostcntotious miigniti- 
cence invests Hong-Kong. The narrow Htreets and 
grass-grown plazas, tho handsome fa9atlo of tlio fine old 
cathedral cnimbling to decay, tho (dindy walks and cool 
grottoes, once tho haunts of the Portuguese poet, his 
tomb, and the view from it, all combine to produce a 
Koothing and tranquiliBing effect. 

Hong-Kong represents tho commercial and political 
movement of tho present ; Macao is tho city of calm 
and of tho past. The time is gone by when the intre- 
pid Portuguese navigators dominated in these seas. 
Their degenerate descendants are now reduced, in order 
to obtain a livelihood, to seek for employment in the 
great English or American hoiiseo. The bright day for 
Portugal is gone by, and fickle fortune rallies under 
other standards. If the colony passes by chance into 
the hands of a man of genius like Amaral, ho is assassi- 
nated by the emissaries of tho mandarins ; and if tho 
Court of LiHbon, bent upon avenging tho outrage, de- 
spatches its best frigate to tho Chinese seas, it is blown 
\\\) in the very harbour of Macao by o reprobate who 
gluts his vengeful fury for a slight punishment by the 
destruction of 300 of his countrymen ! 

Amnxul, a captain in the Portuguese navy, had dis- 

tliat the pirate, who wna now on our ticrn, could not bring hU 
Runa to bcnr upon ua without putting liia hnim down iind bring- 
ing Ilia gangway at right angles with our atcrn, m hia guns were 
fired from tho gnngwny. I tliereforo kept a aharp eye upon hia 
hclmaman, and the moment I aaw him putting the helm down I 
ordered our atwramcn to fall flat upon their facea behind some 
wood, and at the eame moment did ao myaclf. Wo had acarcely 
done ao when bang, bang, went their guna, and the ahot came 
whizzing cloao over ua, aplintering tlio wood about na in all 

directions. Fortunately none of us were atruclc. 'Now, M 

now they arc quite cloao enough,' cricil out my companions, who 
did not wish to have anothor hroadaido liko the laat. I being of 
the aame opinion, rniaed myaelf above the liigh atem of our junk, 
and while the piratea were not more than twenty yards from ua, 
hooting and yclUiig, I riikcd tliuir decka, foro and aft, with ahot 
and ball from my doublc-barcllcd gun. 

" Hud a thunderbolt fallen amongat them they could not L -o 
been much more surprised j doubtlew many were wounded, d 
probably some killed. 

"At uU events, the whole of the crow, not fewer than for, ^ • 
fifty men, who a moment before crowded tho deck, disappenn 
a nuirvcUous manner. Anotlicr was now bearing down upo. 
OS boldly as hi* companion hod done, and commenced firing in , 
same manner. Having been so succcaaful with the first, I deti 
mined to fellow the aaine plan with this one, and to pay no attc 
tion to hia firing until he should come to close quartera. Tho pi 
now bcgnu to thicken) for tho first junk had gathered way ngai 
and was fallowing in our wake, although keeping at n respect' 
distance, and three others, although still further distant, w ti 
making for the scene of action as fast as they could. In tho 
meantime, the aecond was almost alongside, and continued raking 
onr decks in a steady manner with their guna. Watching their 
holm as before, we aheltored ourselves ns well as we could ; at the 
same time, my two fcUosrs, who were steering, kept begging and 
praying that I would fire into our pursuers as soon as possible, 
or we ahould bo all killed. As aoon a* they came within twenty 
or thirty yards of ns, I gave them the contenta of both barrels, 
raking their decka aa before. G^bia time the helmamon fell, and 
doubtless several others were wounded. In a minute or two, I 
could tee nothing but boards and shields which were held up by 
tlio pirates to protect themselves firom my firing ; their junk went 
up into tho wind for want of a helmsman, and was soon left some 
distance liehind us," 

played so much energy and ability as Oovomor of Maoao 
aa to liavo drawn upon himself the most malevolent 
feelings of a reprobate race of people and mandarins. 
He had defeated organized bands of robbers on several 
oceasions, and visited piracy with condign punishment, 
A price had in conse(|ucuco been sot upon his head ; but 
tho brove old captain, M'ho had lost one arm in the ser- 
vice of his country, disdained to take any ]irecautions. 
Every evuning he used to ride out, accomjianied only by 
his aido-de-canii), and with only a brace of pistols in his 
holsters. On tlio 22nd of August, 1840, ho was return- 
ing from liis usual rido nt simset, when a number of 
Chinese suddenly prcspntcd themselves to obstruct his 
progress. A child, who carried a bamboo, to tho ex- 
tremity of which it apjiearcd as if a bouquet had been 
attached, moved out from tho crowd towards tlie Gover- 
nor. Amaral, thinking that ho came to present a 
]>otition, was about lo itoup> when he felt himself struck 
violently on the face, " Manto," rascal ! he exclaimed, 
and pushed his horso on os if to punish his assailant. 
But at tho same moment six men rushed upon him, 
whilst two others attacked Iiis aide-do-camp. The 
assassins drew from beneath their garments their long, 
straight, and not very sharp swords^ generally used by 
tho Chinese, and repeatedly struck the governor with 
thcso upon his only arm. Taking the bridle in liis tcetli, 
Amaral made vain efforts to get at his pistols. Attacked 
on all sides and covered with wounds, he was soon 
struck down fi-om his horse, when his mui-derers, throw- 
ing themselves upon him, tore off his head rather than 
cut it off, and added to their homd trophy tho only 
hand that remained. Tliis accomplished, they fled into 
the interior; the Chinese soldiers, who were on duty at 
the town gates close by, witnessing tho tragedy, with- 
out condescending to interfere. In the meantime the 
terriBed horse had galloped into tho town without a 
master ; the first who saw it felt that an accident had 
ha]i])ened and hastened towards tho gate, but on their 
way they were met by the aide-de-camp, who had only 
received some slight wounds, and whose torn habiliments 
and expression of horror told too plainly of the sad 
event, which wos soon confirmed by the discovery of 
tho unfortunate old Qovernor's mutilated remains. 

The neighbourhoo<l of Hong-Kong takes from Macao 
almost all its advantages as a free port ; add to which, 
tho sea is daily in\ ding its harbour, as it does the 
whole of the right shore of the Canton river. Vessels 
of considerable tonnage are obliged to anchor a mile 
or two from the harbour, and only small gunboats can 
lay off the quay of Praya-Grande. 

Nevertheless, Macao, notwithstanding its decline, is 
not wanting in claims to interest — the claims of memory 
more especially. This town wo.s, for a long period of 
time, the solo centre of the relations of Europeans 
with tho Chinese. Camoens, Saint Francois Xavier, 
and other great men, have lived thero. Its chui-ehes, 
its convents, its public monuments, dark with age, 
attest of splendour long gone by. 

The garden of Camoens is in tho pi«sent day private 
property ; it belongs to a Portuguese gentleman of the 
name of Marques, who allows strangers to saunter be- 
neath shady recesses so rare in China, 'Within this 
garden is the celebrated grotto where the poet is said 
to have in main part composed his " Lusiad," Quota- 
tions from that immortal epic aro now cut into the 
marble, and what is more delightful to French visitors, 
some Gallic verses in honour of the poet and tho 
locality. The inner port can be contemplated from a 


terrace in thu garden as from the Pagoda of Rocks, but 
with a less oppressive noise, the shouts of the tankaderes, 
or boatmen and boatwomen, and terrible gongs, heard bo 
assiduously beaten to drive away the evil spirits from 
a junk about to proceed on its journey, come here 
softened by distance. 

The Parsees have a cemetery that rises in successive 
steps or terraces above the sea; and this, with the little 
Portuguese forts, built like eagles' nests, the so-called 
Green Island, the narrow strip that encircles Macao to 
the main island, and the wide extent of the Celestial 
Empire beyond, fill up a picture that is not easily 
forgotten by those who have once seen it. 

\Ve wandered about this splendid relic of gaiety and 
wealth, now a disjointed collection of deserted palaces, 
haggard boat women, ugly dames of Portuguese descent, 
with handkerchiefs pinned over their faces, long narrow 
alleys, decaying churches, walks, parades, gardens, forts, 
all corroded by tima From the top of a great stone 
arbour, in the old palace gai-den, we had a fine view of 
the old town and both harbours, tho inner and the 
outer. We came back through the Cliinese town, 
where, with restless activity, mechanics were working 
at their respective trades. Shopmen were doing a 
thriving business, while barbers never were busier — 
and your barber is an impoi'tant personage here, as 
elsewhere, as such % man needs must be where eveiy 
man has his head shaved twice a week. No Chinaman 
uses anything but hot water; his razor isonly two inches 
long, by an inch wide, which is sold for twopence, and 
the strop, a piece of stout calico, may bo had for a 
penny. See here the sallow Chinaman, stretchetl at 
lull length in an easy chair, is enjoying his shampooing 
and ]x>mmellings. Shaving the head costs half a 
farthing, yet there are seven thousand barbers in the 
city of Catiton only. To which city we will now go, 
steaming on «s fast as the crowd of boats will let us. 


The tankaa (lei p. 89), or whin-ies of the Canton 
river, constitute one of the essential features of its 
waters. It is well known what a variety, what a 
number, and what gorgeousness of display every great 
Chinese river, canal, or port, exhibits in its junks and 
boats of various descriptions. Yet do none of these 
strike the stranger more forcibly than do at first the 
humble tanka, and its still more humble and indus- 
trious yet lively occupants — the "joyeusea batdiires," 
or "happy boatwomen," as a Frenchman calls them. 
The tanka is a small boat, almost as wide as long, and 
differing therein much from the sharp and narrow 
canoes of the Malays. The crew generally consists of 
an elderly woman, who sit-s or stands at the stern, 
rotating with a vigorous and experienced arm the long 
oar which is the great propeller of all boats in the 
Celestial Empire. There is also a younger woman, 
who, seated at the bows, sweeps the waters far more 
lightly, and with less effect, with the flat of her oar. 

, Not unfrequently one or two urchins, as represented 
in our illustration {lee p. 89), help to give animation 

I to this boat-scene. But where, wo might ask, are the 
father and grandfather, for the urchins are manifestly 
the children of the junior tankodero — probably engaged 
on board some larger junk, whilst the women ply the 
more humble wherry. Some, however, hiut that the 
tankaderes arc a kind of gyiisies, and do not trouble 


themselves with any permanent engagements with the 
other sex, but live solely in and with their boats, 
sheltered from the biu-ning heats of the sun and the 
severities of winter alike by the circular roof of bam- 
boo so graphically depicted here. A few moveable 
boards cover in the daytime the bed on which they 
repose; the fire destined to cook their frugal repast 
sparkles near the poop ; gravely seated on the mat of 
rattan, and with the quiet aspect of a precocious man- 
hood, the copper-coloured urchins wait in silence for 
the anticipated plate of rice, whilst the pi-otecting 
genii, secreted in a more obscure comer, are not for- 
gotten, but have their daily allowance, the incense of 
sticks, and perfume of sam-chu. 

These tankas positively swarm in the waters of the 
much-frequented harbours of Hong Kong and Macao. 
And it is not an easy matter for a stranger to know 
how to select one ; for if the touters and boatmen of 
Europe are sometimes noisy and import-'nate, the 
gipsy boatwomen of China are a thousand tunes more 
so. And if any hesitation is manifested, they will 
carry the happy party off bodily to the shelter of their 
bamboo and rattan canopy. But neither tankas nor 
tankaderes are met with in the north of China : they 
belong especially to the river of Canton.* The son of 
a tankadere cannot become a mandarin : if, disguising 
his origin, one such should succeed in passing his 
examinations, and obtain the blue globule, and then 
his origin should be discovered, he would be imme- 
diately degraded. 

The shape of the boats tell of the different districts 
firom which they come ; thus, from Kiang-soo, where 
there is little but water-travelling, as in Holland of old, 
the boats, which pass through a net-work of large 
canals, are roomy and wide, affording every convenience, 
as if you were in a house. In Cheh-Kiang, where are 
the coal mines, the boats are narrow and fiat-sided, as 
in Staffordshire, to push easily through the narrow 
sluices ; in Fo-kien they have mat sails and an immense 
plank out at the stern, which acts as a rudder to assist 
the helmsman in working his boat quickly through the 
rapids; and the Kwaasi boats have long and flat bows 
at an angle of 43 degrees from the floor, that the boats 
may not rush under the water in rapidly passing down 
tho sluices. 

A child overboard ! Observe the hubbub. Tho little 
amphibious yellow thing has a gourd attached to it as 
a life-preserver ; it is quite safe; see the mother has 
picked it up and hushes it on her bosom. Are these 
the {Hjople with whom infanticide is universal ! There 
must be some mistake. Yet that horrible story of the 
Tower near Shanghai I Let us give the Chinese 
women, poor illused creatures, the benefit of the 
doubt. They do sell their children, we know; perhaps 
they may not destroy them. There goes a young girl, 
twelve years old, with full charge of the boat, sculling 
away with the large poised scull, and flying alxmt 
through crowds of boats, and hark to her little shai-]> 
tongue I as saucy as a Ix>ndon cabman in a crowded 
throughfare during a stoppage. 

' Here, too, wo fint aeo tho Ljrclia (tin "ah" <s pronouiu'cd 
ni"ur"in Itircker) a name made bo familiar in rnrlininentary 
debates. It is nothing mora than a Jnnk ilightly improved. 
They arc owned indiflbrontly by Chinew or fureisners, and liavo 
•ailing letters oooordingly. There never would have been a dis- 
pute abont the "Arrow," lud there been an interpreter preaentt 
bnt how much theae uncful persons are wanting judged 
from the fact that at one time in Siiiga|)oro there were 70,000 
ChineMt. and no one that could understand them. 



One of the.most ntriking sights on tho Canton river 
is the immense number of boats which are moored all 
alor^ the sliore, near the foreign factory. Thei-e are 
hundreds of thousands of all kinds and size, from the 
splendid flower-boat, as it is called, down to the small 
barber's boat, forniing a large floating city, peopled by 
an immense number of human beings. In sailing up the 
river you may observe a very small boat, jjcrhaps the 
smallest you ever saw exposeu on the water, being 
nothingmore than a fewplanks fastened together. This is 
the barber's boat, who is going about, or i-ather swimming 
.about, following his daily avocation of shaving the 
heads and tickling the ears and eyes of Chinamen. By 
the by, this same barber has much to answer for; for 
his practice has a most prejudicial effect upon the eyes 
and ears of his countrymen. He, however, works his 
little boat with great dexterity, and with his scull 
manages to propel himself with care and swiftness 
through the floating city of boats, larger and more 
powerful than his own. Then you see boats of various 
sizes, such as those at Macao and Hong Kong, covered 
over, diviJed into three compartments, and kept re- 
markably clean and neat. These arc hired by either 
natives ov foreigners for the purpose of goins; ofi" to the 
large junks or other vessels moored out in the river, or 
for short excursions to the island of Honan, the Fa-Teo 
Gardens, or such places. Tho centre division of the 
boat forms a very neat little room, having windows in 
the sides, ornamented with pictures und flowers of 
various kinds. The coiopartment at the bow is occu- 
pied by the rowers, and that at the stern is used for 
preparing the food of the family for whom the boat 

The boats of the Hong merchants and the large 
flower-boats are very splendid. They are aiTanged in 
compartments like tho others, but are built in a more 
superb and costly manner. The reader must imagine 
a kind of wooden house raised ujKjn the floor of the 
boat, having the entrance near the bows, space being 
left there for the boatmen to stand and row. This 
entrance being tho front, is carved in a most superb 
style, forming a prelude to what may be seen within. 
Numerous lanterns hang from the roof of these splendid 
showy cabins; looking-glasses, pictures, and jioetry 
adorn their sides ; and all the peculiarities of this sin- 
gular people are exposed to our view in these their 
floating palaces. 

Then there are the chop boats, which are used by tho 
merchants for conveying goods to the vessels at Wham- 
poo; — tho passage boats to Hong-kong, Macao, and 
various parts of the country ; tho Mandarin boats, 
with their numerous oars, which have a strange appear- 
ance as they pass up and down the river ; and lastly, the 
large unwieldly sea-going junks, There are various 
modifications of all these kind of boats, each adapted for 
the particular purpose for which it is designed. At 
festival times, the river has a singularly gay and striking 
appearance, particularly at night, when tho lanterns 
are lighted, and numberless boats, gaily decorated with 
them, move up and down in front of the factory. The 
effect produced upor a stranger at these times, by tho 
wild and occasionally plaintive strains of Chinese music, 
the noisy gong, the close and sultry air, tho strange 
people full of peculiarities and conceit, is such that 
he can never forget, and leaves upon his mind a mixed 
impression of pleasure, pity, admiration, and contempt. 
Thjroughout the whole of this immense floating city, 
the greatest regularity prevails, Tho largo boats are 

arranged in rows, forming streets, through which tho 
smaller craft pass and repass, like coaches and other 
vehicles in a large town. The families who li'-'O in 
this manner seem to have a great partiality for flowers, 
which they keep in pots, either upon the high stem of 
their boats, or in their little parloiu^. The Chinese 
Arbor vitie. Gardenias, Cycas revoluta, cockscombs, 
and oranges, seem to bo the greatest favourites with 
them. A joss-house— small indeed in many cases, but 
yet a place of worship — is indispensable to all these 
floating houses. There the joss-stick and the oil are 
daily burned, and form the incense which these poor 
people offer to their imaginary deity. 

Inside the Bogue, or Bocca Tigris, as it is called, the 
river widens ■'•ary much, and presents the appearance 
of an inland sea. The view now becomes beautiful 
and highly picturesque, the flat cultivated land near 
the shores forming a striking contrast to the barren 
hills on the outside of the forts ; the mountains in the 
distance appear to encircle the' extensive plain ; and 
although, hke the others, they aie barren, yet they 
make a Sne back-ground to the picture. A lew milca 
further up the river, the shipping in Blenheim and 
Whampoa reaches come into view, and the celebrated 
Whampoa Pagoda, with Ecveral more of lets note, 
besides numerous other towers and joss-houfes, all 
remind the traveller that he is approaching the far- 
famed city of Canton, one of the richest and mvtt 
important in the Celestial Empire. The noble rivtr, 
with its numerous ramifications, forms many islands, 
on one of which the small town or village of Whampoa 
is built. 

Large quantities of rice are grown, both on (he 
islands foi-med by the river, and on the flats on the 
main land. Tho tide is kept out by embankments, 
and the ground can be overflowed at will. These 
embankments are not allowed to lie idle, but are made 
to produce crops of plantains. When the land is too 
high to be flooded by the tide, the water-wh^el is 
brought into play, and it is perfectly astonishing how 
much water can be raised by this simple contrivance in 
a very short space of time. 

Sugar-cane is also grown rather extensively near 
Whami>oa, and in its raw state is an article in great 
demand amongst the Chinese. It is manufactured into 
sugar-candy and brown sugar ; many kinds of the 
latter being particularly fine, though not much UEcd 
by the foreigners residing in the country, who generally 
prefer the candy i-educed to powder, in which state it 
is very fine and white. 

The Pagoda of Whampoa (see p. 92), exhibits some 
peculiarity of design. It stands upon a teirace, its 
porch is a flight of steps, its vestibule or anti-sunctuary 
is a covered building, and its inner sanctuary is one of 
those Taas or lofty towers which are so characteristic 
of Chinese ecclesiastical architecture, and wliich con- 
sist of several stones, diminishing in height and width 
as they ascend, each having a projecting roof of glazed 
tiles, and generally ornamented with bells. The 
imitation taa or pagoda in Kew Gardens, erected by 
Sir W. Chambers, is well known to our readers, and is 
a lofty and fair sjiecimen of what it is intended to 
represent. The celebrated taa or tower at Nankin, 
composed of porcelain, is, like most others, an octagon 
upwards of 210 feet high, and divided into ten stories, 
each of which has a marble gallery, with gilt lattices, 
the stairs being formed within the thicknesa of the 
walls. Tho siuumit is surmounted by a cupola, from 





which riiies n lofly i>ole or mast with oriflaiiuiic, oa we 
see erected in front of the Pagoda of the Bocks at 
Macao, about 30 feet high. There is a similar tower 
at Ting-tshang-fu, the exterior of which is of porcelain, 
but the walla themselves are of marble. Others have 
a single staircase in the centre, carried up through all 
the different stories. Although so completely dis- 
similar in style, their towers bear a strong analogy to 
the Qopuras and Vinanas, or lofty pyramid tower- 
temples, of the Hindoos. Both seem to have originated 
in a common idea, differently modified, according to the 
taste and mode of building of the respective nations. 

Whampoa island is the last but one, and, indeed 
the last uland of any size or importance met with on 
ascending the Bocca Tigris to Canton. On the left 
bank are French Folly, Lin's Fort, and the Barnes' 
Forts ; on the other, Uonan and the French Islands. 

Hence it was, that, during the late war, Whampoa, 
which was formerly a place of imirartance, and has two 
pagodas, became a great rendezvous, and a conference 
was held there on the 2lBt of December, 1857, by the 
plenipotentiaries and naval and military commandero, 
shortly before the assault and capture of Canton. 
"Our principal amusement," says one present on 
the occasion, " was rambling over that picturesquu 
spot : though not above five miles in circumfer- 
ence, the island was broken into hill and dale 
and fertile glens, where a rural population lived 
peaceably amid all the troubles, and seemed utterly 
indifferent as to the fate of their provincial city. In- 
deed, many of them who had suffered severely by the 
interruption of trade, rather hoped for our success than 
otherwiM ; and in one of the villages, a man was met 
who had formerly lived at Whampoa, and spoke a little 

1 r^^'^'^'X 

X \» Vr it. «' Cf 



English, who (issured us that he expressed a sentiment 
very common among his counti-ymen when he said, 
" You takec Canton choi)-chop, my no gotchie money." 


From Macno to Canton, is from Gravesend to Black- 
wall — only more densely;- crowded ; and, by all the 
powi..s of Cockneyism, ihete is a boat race.* Pull away, 
ladn ! on she goes, and our little steamer after her, stem 
on, and close up! on they go. No, by all that's unlucky, 
over they go ! Surely these are wager boats, and Mr. 
Searle is umpire. They are all righted again. 

Now by rice-groves, lichen trees, and banyan forests, 
by docks, by the battle-ground of the Fatshan River 
(where the bravo Kei)i)el won his laurels), the whole 
looked down upon by a kind of Richmond Hill, where 
the fort used to be under which the " Coromandel" 
ran aground — by the old and picturesque sliipping, 
with the many flags flying. There is nothing pic- 
turesque about the city itself, no more than there is in 
Wapping. The grey roofs stretch in long lines, out of 
which rise pert pigeon-houses on poles, with ladders 

' It is cuHtcnmry in Cliinn, nt ccrtnin ecnsons of the year, to 
linvc junk races, nnd for the towns near navignblo rifcrs and tlio 
sc.i'ports this is an occasion of great rejoicing; tho mogistratea and 
Eonictimrs tho rich merchants of the locality distribnta the prizes 
to tho victors ; and .hose who wish to enter the lists organize 
tlicinsclves into a company, and appoint a chief. The junks that 
serve for tlicse games are very long and narrow, so that there is 
only just room for two benches of rowers ; they are most richly 
carved and ornamented with gilding nnd designs in bright colours. 
The prow and the poop represent the head and tail of tho Imperial 
Dragon, they are therefore called loung-lchouan, that is to say 
drngon boats. They are bung with silks and tinsel, and along 
their whole length are displayed numerous streamers ; bright red 
pennants float in the wind, and on each side of the little mast 
that supports the national flag are placed two men, who leave off 
striking the tura-tum nnd exccnting rolls on tlio drum, whilst the 
mariners, leaning over their oars, row on vigorously, and make the 
ilmgon junk sknn rapidly along the surface of the water. Whilst 
these elegant boats are contending with one another tho people 
throng the quays, the shore, and the roofs of tho neighbouring 
houses, and the vessels that are lying in the port. They animate 
the rowers by their cries and plaudits; they let off flreworks; 
tlicy perform at various points diafeuing music, in which the 
sonorous noise of the tum-tum, and the sharp sound of a sort of 
clarionet, giving ]m'i)ctua1Iy the same note, predominate over all 
the rest. The Chinese relish this infernal harmony, It happens, 
sometimes, that a drngon boat is upset in a moment and emptied 
of its double lino of rowers, but the crowd greets tho incident with 
a shout of laughter ; nobody is at all disturbed, for the men who 
row arc always good swimmers. You soon see them emerge f^ora 
bcucath the water, swimming about in all directions to cutch their 
oars again and their rattan helmets; the water springs up beneath 
their abrupt and rapid movements, you might take them lor a troop 
of porpoises disporting in the middle of tho waves. When every 
man has founu his oar and his hat, again tho drngon boat is 
placed once more on her keel, the streamers are put to rights as 
well as circumstances will permit, and then comes the grand diffi- 
culty of how to get into her again ; but these people are so ngle, 
adroit, and supple that they always manage it somehow. Tlie 
poblio have often tho satisfaction of witnessing these little inci- 
dents on fMo days, for the boats are so frail nnd light that the 
slightest fault in tho movements of the rowers may capsize them. 
■Ihesc nautical games last for several days together, and are con- 
lii.acd from morning till night, the spectators remaining fnitli- 
iul' . (,t tlieir posts all tho time. The ambulatory kitchens and 
tl.c i;i .Jers in provisions circulate through nil parts of the crowd 
tc I'o'd this immense multitude, which, under pretext of having 
no regular meal at home that day, is eating and drinking con- 
tinually, whilst rope dancers, jugglers, pickpockets, and thieves 
cf every species profit by the opjmrtunity to turn their talents to 
account, and vary the amusements of the day. Tho official f*te 
is terminated by tho distribotion of prices, and the rowers wind 
np with merrymaking, and sometimes also with quarrelling and 

to < .em, which they tell tit are 'watch-boxes. (Tho 
Chinese do all things by contraries:^ we used to place 
our watchboxes on the ground — they put theirs in 
the sky.) Then mandarin poles with flying streamers; 
then, the line is broken by high square warehouses, 
just such as you see about our docks, and these, we 
are told, are the pawnbrokers' shops; fcr pawning and 
money-lending are carried on in Canton and throughouit 
China on an enormous scale.^ 

' We mourn in bhick — they mourn in white t we regard coro- 
nets and crowns as badges of dignity— they respect the boots; 
we build solid walls — they make them hollow ; we pull a boat — 
they push it ; we place the orchestra in front of the stage— they 
hide it behind ; we feed the living — they get dinner ready for tho 
dead. "In a country," says Mr. Wingrove Cooke, "where tho 
roses have no fragrance, and the women no petticoats ; where tho 
labourer hns no sabbath, and the magistrate no sense of honour; 
where the roads have no vehicles, aud tho ships no ke^'ls ; where 
old men fly kites; where the needle points to tho fouth, and Iho 
sign of being puzzled is to scratch tho antipodes of the head; 
where the place of honour is on the left hand, nnd tho scat of in- 
tellect is in the stomach ; where to take off your hat is an insolent 
gesture ; we ought not to be astonished to find a lltemture with- 
out an alphabet, and a language without a grammar,' We use a 
whito flag for peace, they brandish it in war; and n want of 
knowledge of this fact led to the rebe' " -ing upon Lord Elgin's 
party in tho Yang-tse-kiang river — the return of which fire has 
brought on an awkward imbroglio between foreigners and the 
insurgents, who accuse us of favouring the Anti-Chinese party of 
the Tartar Mandarins. 

' A part of the pawnbroking establishments, so numerous in 
China, also belong to the government. The rate of interest is 
2 per cent, per month, for jewels, and articles of the metallic 
kind. Tlie legal interest of money has been fixed at SO per cent, 
per annum, which makes 3 per cent, per month, as the sixth, the 
twelfth, and tho intercalniy moon (when there is one,) do not 
bear interest. One would like to know what object the Chinese 
government bad in view, in fixirg the interest ot money at so enor- 
mous a rate, andto nnderstand their mode of regarding questions of 
political and social economy. According to Tclmo-yang, a distin- 
guished writer of the Cele al £mphe,lhepuriioEewnsto prevent 
the value of land from increasing, and that o< money from diminish- 
ing, by the mediocrity of interest. In fixing it at a very high rate, 
it has endeavoured to render the distribution of land proportionate 
with the number of families, and the circulation of money more 
active and uniform. Tient-schcli, an economical writer, poes 
further into this subject, in a manner of which the late Mr. Wilson 
might not have been ashamed, ns follows : — 

"How is it that the high rate of interest fixed by the law 
affords advantage to commerce? Ilceauso it opens a career to 
those who have the talent, nnd favours its division among a 
greater number. The genius for commeicu is a peculiar one, lika 
that for letters, for government, for the arts; possibly, even one 
might say that, in some rcspcets, it embraces them nil. Kow 
this genius for commerce is lost to the empire in all these whc 
follow a different career; it remains, therefore, to developo it in 
those who have no other resource. Although commerce is indis- 
putably necessary to the State, yet tho administration which 
goes to so much expense to fncilitaie study, and to form by 
that means men capable of p<Iitical business, docs nothing 
for those who have a genius for commerce to assist 
them in its development. Kow the high interest of 
money makes amends for this kind of neglect. However 
poor a young man mny be, if he is well-conducted and clever 
he will be able to borrow enough to make an attempt, and ns soon 
as this succeeds all purses will be open to him ; — and this 
interest now will have given to the empire a uscftil citizen, 
who would have been lost if a helping hand had not been held out 
to him. Now when men can enter into business without having 
any money of their own, commerce must necessarily be divided 
among a great number, and that is what the present state of the 
population render desirable. 

" A man, whatever he may be, has bnt • certain amount of 
time and strength to employ ; if his business demands more he 
must call in help, that is to say, he must buy the services of 
others ; they cost him little, for the most part, and ho endeavours 
to obtain the utmost advantage from thrm. What he gains by 
these assistants, by degrees releases him from tho necedsity of 
working himself, and the public is charged with his idleness. It 



Behind the city rise odd-shaped, jagged, green 
mountaina and hilla, with fortu upon them — forts that 
resemble gigantic frames or hot-houses in a suburban 
garden ; down to the water-side are shed-houses, built 
on piles, and just behind are the walls. All about 
are from 50,000 to 60,000 boatmen, who live on the 
river ; and there is no end of yellings and jabberiugs, 
pulling and hauling, pushing, punting, rowing, and 
sculling, screeching and gesticulating ; the tide 
running a perfect sluice. Some of the women are 
comely, and in their peculiar Bloomer style of costume 
and strikingly original stylo of head-dress, are attractiva 
The fare for a boat load to the shore is a shilliDg, and 
that is a trifle to give a pretty girl after a hard pidl. 
Once landed, you have plenty to do ; with excursions 
up to the Hills, and to the Pagoda, and the Farsee 
Gardens, and the Curiosity Shops. After you have been 
through the hongs and gardens, scanned the tea 
prepared for shipment, and talked with some of the 
Chinese merchants, whom you find flying kites^ and who 
insist on your taking with them a cup of tea without 
milk or sugar, the grounds in the cup, each made ex- 
pressly for each person ; after you have ci.'in-chinned 
pcveral of these Hong merchants, and heard, them ex- 
]>ound commercial afiairs ; after you have been over 
the Dutch Folly, the pavilion of the Fire Genii, the 
large Pngoda at Whampoa {see p. 92), the wonderful 
Gardens — wonderful, because so singular andso novel, — 
after yon have seen the duck-hatching (in the cupboard 
of an old fisherman) up the river, where the young 
ducks are nursed in all their stages ; after you have 
had a ride on a Chinese pony up the Chinese hills, and 
looked down ujwn Canton and its 124 temples and 
halls and pavilions, all on the ground-floor, and gazed 
with uover-ending pleasure on the flower-boats {see 
P.129),and the fantastically-dressed women, whom yon 
.nuat not mistake for respectable ladies, — for they are 
Rcaixely ever visible, — ^you will have seen almost all that 
there is to see of the thousand-year-old Canton. On 
every side pigeon English, — that horrible jargon of 
mutilated baby-talk, — meets yom* eai\ You hear 
nothing else. An American tells of a tR<nslation of 
Hamlet's soliloquy into pigeon English (which, 
by the by, means business English), in which " To 
bo, or not to be," reads "Can, no can." Send 
for your hat, and this would be the style : " Go 
top-side, sabe, that hat, bring my." A noise is 
heard in the adjoining street, the cause, says the servant, 
is, " Chiney woman have catchee one piece cow chilo," 
in other words, "Mrs. Pigtail, of a girl." You call u|)on 
some ladies, boy retuiiis, " No man can see," intima- 

was naked of Se-ling why he had lent 20,000 ounces uf silver from 
the public treasury to twelve small traders. ' It was,' he replied, 
' in order that the public might no longer have to pay for the 
lacquered work, the shows, the festivals, concubines, and slaves o( 
himwholiasmonopolisedthcsilk-fiictorics. Rivalry in tradeobligcs 
traders to emulate each other in labour and industry, that is to 
say, to be less extortionate towards the pnblic' " 

' The Chinese, as everybody knows, are grout in kites. It is 
strange to see sober and sedate merchants tugging nwny at a long 
string, guiding a kite very effectually in the air. Some ore made 
in the shape of birds j and the hovering of the kestrel, or the quick 
dive of the spnrrow-hawk, are beautifully imitated by expert guid- 
ance of the string. The Chinese bent us hollow in these things, 
especially in the "messenger" that they send spinning up the 
string. They send up protty painted gigantic butterflies, with 
outspread wings, at the back of which, is n simple contrivance to 
make them collapse when the butterfly reaches the kite, and, as 
soon as they collapse, down comes the butterfly, sliding along the 
string, roady to be a^nsted fot anotlier flight. 


ting probably they were not at home. For " yes " 
read "can do." "How many to dinner this evening) " 
Your boy presently replies, "Some piece man — two 
piece micsie." ' 

Sometimes the stranger in Canton for the first day 
finds it impossible to believe in anything he sees. You 
fuel just as if you had got by mistake on to the stage 
of a theatre instead of the boxes, and find yourself, 
uncomfortably, one of the draittatis persona in a 
Chinese ballet. Everything seems sham and unsub- 
stantial ; the houses look lUke so many painted sheds. 
The place is very intricate, and the alleys innumerable. 
There is the Tartar barrack, with its two colossal lions 
— anything but lions did the men show themselves 
when the fighting came.^ It has an exercise ground of 
sixteen acres, with a temple in the centre, and some 
fine trees scattered about in park-like fushion. The 
streets to the east and west — the sti-ects of Love and 
Benevolence, as they are called — and the Curiosity 
street, are not for our pockets, which are reserved for 
Japan. Otherwise you may buy their lacquered ware 
and sandal-wood boxes, and carved ivory, enough to 
eat up a year's income, and leave you no better at 
the end than the experience of having found out how 
many things there are in the world that a man can do 
entirely without, and never feel the want of. Come 
with us, in the country, to the " Potter's Field," the 
execution ground where Yeh, the hideous pagan, cut 

3 Mr. Wingrove Cooke gives an amusing illustration of this ; — 
"The basis of this Canton English, which is a tongue and a litera- 
ture, consists," as he tells us, " of turning the r into the /, adding 
final vowels to every word, and a constant use of " savcy " for 
" know," " talkee " for " spenk," " piecey " for " piece," " number 
one " for " first class," but especially and above all tlie continuc<l 
employment of the word " pigeon." " Pigeon " means " business " 
in the most extended sense of the word. " Heaven pigeons liab 
got " means that " church service has eommenced ; " " jos pigeon " 
means the " Buddhist ceremonial ; " " any pigeon Canton p " means 
" have any operations taken ploce at Canton ? " " That no boy 
pigeon, tliat coolie pigeon," is the form of your servant's remon- 
strance if oskcd to take a letter. It also means profit, advan- 
tage, observation. " Him wrong too much foolo, him no savey, 
wely good pigeon have got," was the commentary of the Chinese 
pilot at the Fatshain Creek business. 

> A Chinese battle is as good as a farce. Mr. Scarth, a tnelvo 
years' resident in China, gives us a description. " Some of tlio 
little fights at Shangluii," he wys, " were very amusing. One 
day, when a great many soldiers were out, I saw more of the 
combat than was pleasant. Having got into the line of fire, I 
was forced to take shelter behind a grave, the bullets striking the 
grave from each side every second. Why they cnme my way it 
was difiicult to discover, for they ought to hare irasscd on the 
other side of n creek about twenty yards distant, to the people 
they were intended for ; but to see the dodging of the soldiers 
(the ' Braves,' tee p. 120), then of the rcljels, encli trying to evade 
the other, was almost amusing. One fellow, ready ])rimed and 
loaded, would rush up the side of a grave hillock, drop his match- 
lock on the top, and without taking aim, bhize awoy. Tliere is 
no ramrod required for the shot they use, the bullet or bar of 
iron being merely dropped in upon the powder. There was a 
fine scene on one occasion when the Shanghai rebels made n sortie; 
one of the men was cut off by an Imperial skirmisher, who had 
his piece loaded. The rebel had no time to charge his, so he ran 
round and round n grave which was high enough to keep his 
enemy from shooting him wlien on the opposite fiiic. Ifnrc- 
hnnting is nothing to it) Red Cap described parts of circles, nnd 
the Royalist was fast getting blown, wlun by sonic unlucky 
chance the rebel tripiwl nnd fell! The soldier was at him in a 
moment, and, to make sure of his prize, put the nmzslc of his 
matchlock to Bed Cap's head, fired, and took to his heels as fast 
as he could go! It is diflleult to say who was most nstonis'jed 
when Mr. Red Cap did exactly the same. The bullet that dropped 
down readily upon the powder, fel' out as easily when tlio barrel 
was depressed. The rebel got off with a good singing of his long 




off 70,000 men's heaas, several English being amongst 

' "These crossoi" — Mr. Wingrove Cooke ia speaking of the 
gamo place, — " arc the inslraments to which those victims were tied 
who were condemned to the special torture of being shced to death." 
Upon ore of these the wife of a rebel general was stretched, and, 
by Yeh's orders, her flesh was cut from her body. After the battle 
at 'Whampoa the rebel leader escaped, but his wife fell into the 
hands of Yeh : this was liow hs treated Aw prisoners. Her 
breuts were first cut off, then her forehead was slashed, and the 
skin turned down over the face, tlien the fleshy parts of the body 
were sliced away. There are Englishmen yet alive who saw this 
done, but at what period of the butchery sensation ceased and 
death came to this poor innocent woman none can tell. The 
criminsis were brought down in gangs, if tlicy could walk, or 
carried down in chains, and shot out into the yard. The execu- 
tioners then arranged them in rows, giving them a blow behind 
which forced out the head and neck, and laid them convenient for 
the stroke. Then comes the warrant of death ; it is a banner. 
As soon as it is waved in sight, without verbal order given, the 
work began. There was a rapid succession of dull orundiing 
sounds — chop, chop, chop, chop. So second blow is ever dealt, 
for the dezterons mnnslayers are educated to their work, nntii 
they can with their heavy swords slice s great bulbous vegetable 
as tUn aa we slice a cucumber. Three seconds a head iniBce. 
In one minute five executioners clear off a hundred lives. It 

There is a street up to the north a mile long, with 
shops of oveiy kind. On the left are streets leading 
up to private houses, which have no windows to the 
streets. It is all very quiet now ; to-morrow there is r 
holiday. Then the sam-shu houses (grog shops) are 
open, and the sing-so^:;; women come in all painted 
and brocaded ; and the gravest and the oldest hang 
strings of crackers outside their houses, and paint 
lanterns, and make noises. Then there is a screeching 
of song and a twanging of the stringed lutes, and a 
burning of paper, and occasional tipsiness, and a riot 
where you see an English or American sailor. Dinner 
is being got up in all directions in a wonderfully ex- 
temporaneous manner ;' and occasionally you may get 

takes rather longer for the assistants io cram the bodlct Into 
rough coffins, especially as yon might see them damming two 
into one shell, that they might embeule the spare coffin. The 
heads were carried off in boxes; the saturated earth was of valua 
as manure. 

' A Chinaman will bake a dinner for a dozen with a mere hand- 
Ail of ftiel. Their boiler is cone-shaped and large; say two Aet 
in diameter by one foot deep ; it covert the whole en the fin 
merely with a small por' ' '>n of the lower part of the coie, bat tha 


a glimpse of a prettjr woman— a real Chinese lady 
(iM p. 108)— modestly and becomingly dressed, her 
hair built up with &ise " whisks," (as the hairdressers 
call them) underneath, made up into something like a 
shoe-shape, and butterflies on pins stuck in it, with 
flowers, and jewels, and combs ; nor is the use of ban- 
doline, or stiffening gum, foreign to the Chinese toilet ; 
the loose fitting silk tun!';, of bright colour, from the 
throat to the ankles, and silk trousers, embroidered in 
gold or silver, with minute feet, complete the costume. 

The ladies of distinction are seldom permitted to 
stir abroad, except to visit their nearest relations; and. 
on these occasions, they are always carried in close 
chairs, and attended by their servants. The women of 
all ranks stay pretty much at home. The smollness of 
their feet, which renders them unable to walk to any 
considerable distance, makes their confinement less 
disagreeable. As soon as a girl comes into the world, 
they bind her tender feet with tight bandages, which 
are renewed as occasion requires, to prevent their 
growing. This custom prevails universally, the Tartar 
ladies residing in China only excepted, who appear 
to have no inclination to conform to this fashion. 
This fashion yna introduced into China by a great 
princess, who lived some ages ago. She was a lady of 
extraordinary beauty and virtue, and has obtained the 
reputation of a saint; but, it is reported, her feet re- 
sembled those of birds; on which account she kept 
thorn always carefully wrapped up, and concealed even 
from the Emperor her husband. The ladies of the 
Court followed her example, which, of course, soon 
became general. The Chinese women never pare their 
nails, but suffer them to grow to the full lengtL This 
proves no impediment in embroidery, and other needle- 
work, in which they are constantly employed. These 
they finish with extraordinary neatness, as fully appears 
from some specimens of them brought to Europe. It 
is needless to remark, that the tale told of a great lady 
having bird's feet has no origin in truth. The evasion, 
however, shows that the Chinese are ashamed of a 
custom which has its origin in a puerile and dis- 
reputable jealousy. 

The dress of the women, among the lower orders, 
differs little from that of the men. A cotton frock, 
tawdry coloured trowsers, drawn tight by the calf of 
the leg, to show off an overgrown ankle, swathed round 
with party-coloured bandages, and a dwarfish foot or- 
namented with embroidery, are the principal articles 
in the female dress, which are decorated with artificial 
flowers, dec., according to the taste and circumstances 
of the wearer. Paints are used universally ; the teeth 
ore tinged green and yellow : and the nails, among the 
higher classes, kept nnpared till they often reach a length 
of 12 inches. Bamboo sheaths are used to preserve them. 
Owing to the preposterous use of small shoes, instead 
of walking, the Chinese lady hobbles with an awkward 
and painful motion, so that a Chinese beauty is what 
in other countries would be called a cripple. The laws 
of China prohibit the dressing of children in silks and 
furs, the head cannot be covered till the individual be 
of & certain age. The assumption of the cap, like 

heat and flames enfold the reat. Water and rice are pat at the 
bottom, with an open frame over them abont half the depth of 
pon I on thii aro placed diahei of fiah, fowl, or Togetableatoboil. 
The wholo la covered with a wooden oorer, in the centre of which 
ii • roond hole about four inehea in diameto*, and in this another 
diah ia often placed the contenta of whidi are cooked by the 


that of the toga among the Uomans, is accompanied 
with considerable ceremony. The person is informed 
that now he has assumed the dress of a man, that he 
ceases to be a boy, and that ho ought, therefore, to dis- 
tinguish hinuielf by his actions, as well as by the manly 
habit. When the British and French Embassies were 
at Tient-sin, the fair sex, they declare, was almost in- 
visible. It was by the rarest accident that a glimpse 
was caught of a woman, not belonging to the lowest 
class. Even these latter all cramped their feet — a 
practice not so general among the same class in the 
south. Some of the little girla they saw wei-e pretty, 
and with their heads decorated with bright flowers, 
and their gaudy skirts fluttering in the wind, they 
looked piquant and graceful ; but aa a rule, the women 
generally seen were hideous. This use of flowers 
seems to be universal Another traveller describes 
the ladies of Fu-chu-fu, as being particularly fond of 
flowers — artificial as well as natural — for the decoration 
of their hair. The rustic cottage beauty employs the 
more large and gaudy, such as the red hibiscus, while 
the refined damsels prefer the jasmine, tuberose, and 
others of that description ; artificial flowers, however, 
are more in use than natui-al ones. 

But it is time for us to attend to business. We 
have with us our comprador — that is a party to whom 
we may be said to belong, individually, during our stay. 
He does all for us ; buys, sells, pays, hires servants, 
and arranges everything. He is our contractor; every 
one is responsible to him, and he to us. So, armed 
with an interpreter and our comprador, we "roceed to 
business, and call upon a merchant respec ig certain 
arrangements for future commissariat suppl'.es. 

In China, as in all other countries, there are not 
only very different classes of society, but there are 
also very different grades in the same position, fiom 
that of a mandarin to a merchant and a tradesman. 
Mr. Fortune, for example, who had to do with a 
truculent class of men to procure plants and seeds 
from the interior, declares that no dependence can be 
placed upon the veracity of the Chinese. It may 
seem uncharitable, he says, but such is the case. There 
is no doubt that, as a mass, the Chinese are eminently 
deceitful, distrustful, and non-veracious, and that even 
to one another ; but experience has shown, since the 
opening of the ports, that as there are many really 
learned and wise men among their philosophers, so 
there are many most civil, upright, and honourable 
men among their merchants. They constitute, how- 
ever, most decidedly the exceptipn to the rule— not 
thp rule itself. 

In this land of ceremonies, the farther you are to 
the left of your host, the more highly honoured is 
your position. There, seated in the presence of some 
dignitary of the land, who is supposed to have taken 
a place to the right, the following elaborate intei-change 
of compliments takes place — the visitor having re- 
signed himself entirely to the good offices of the inter- 
preter, who, in all probability, throws them into some- 
what the following shape : — 

English gentleman, who has never seen his Chinese 
host before, expresses his pleasure at meeting him. 

Interpreter. — His Excellency has long looked forward 
to this day. 

Chinue DignUary. — I meet him now as an old 
friend, and request to know his honourable age. 

Int. — His Ezoellency has profitlessly passed—— 



Chin. Dig. — Tlin cars of his Excellency aro long, and 
betoken grcnt nbility. 

Int. — Ah ! oh ! \w in unworthy of the compliment. 

Chin. Diij- — You Imvo hiwl an arduouH journey. 

Int. — Wo (It'«crvcd it. 

Chin. Diij. — I tmst your honounihlo hciilth is good? 

Int. — Relying on your liapjiy auspiccB, his Excel- 
lency's lipiilth is still robust. 

Int. — The great Emperor of your honourable nation, 
is ho well t 

Chin. Dig, — Ho is well. The great Sovereign of 
your honourable nation, is sho well? 
' Int.— Hhii is well. Do the troublesomo pests (rebels) 
still infest the country? 

Chin. Dig. — Tho insects are being s])eedilv oxtermi- 

Tho information wo wished for was obtained, and 
tho bargain made. On this occasion our accomplished 
liost overwhelmed us with civilities, constructed pyra- 
mids of delicacies on our ])Iatcs, and insisted on our 
drinking a quantity of hot wine, obliging us to turn 
over oin- glasses each time, as a scc^irity against heel- 
taps. C'ha-ci's yanum was a far handsomer residence 
than any similiir oflicial abotio at Canton. The inte- 
rior was invested with an air of comfort unusual in 
China, the walls nicely i)apered, and tho floor carpeted. 
The whole establishment has been recently put into 
good order, and was altogether a fit residence for so 
elevated a functionary 

At last wc " bogged to take our leave," and began 
violently to " tsing-tsing," a ceremony which consists 
in clasjiing yotir hands before your breasts, and making 
a crouching babotm-like gesture. It is tho equivalent 
of shaking hands, oidy one shakes one's own haiuls, 
instead of another jwrson's, which may or not have its 
advantages ; in China the custom of tho coiuitiy is the 
preferable one. This is followed by a scene very like 
that which occui's on similar occa-sions among our- 
selves. Our host insists upon following us to our 
chaii-s. We remonstiiite, " Stop, stop, stop, wo are 
unworthy," say we. "What language is thi.s," ho re- 
plies. " We really are unworthy," we reiterate. " You 
arc in my house," he insists, and so wc back to our 
chaii-s, iH'rpetually imploring him not to trouble himself 
by accompanying us, which he vehemently resists, until 
at last, when we aro in our chairs, ho relucttuitly con- 
sents to return, apologising to the likst for being so 
nidc as to leave us even then. It is just jK)Ssiblo that, 
inider the circumstances, his satisfaction at getting quit 
of us had as much to dd with tliis " empreaiement," as 
his sense of politeness. 

Let us now look at the soldiers belonging to the 
Emperor — some of whom arc on guard even in Canton, 
which we have taken from them. Let us regard their 
" Braves," or volunteers, we had better call them. 

Tho Chinese soldiers of the Imperial Guard have 
received the designation of " tigers," not, as might be 
imagined, fram their courage and ferocity, but from 
their yellow tunics, \\\wn which tho head, eyes, and 
even part of the bock of a tiger is represented, some- 
times with mane erect, as if to inspire greater awo into 
the beholder. Tho idea, like that of the grotesque 
standards and shields with terror-ins]iiring monstci's 
of tho Chinese, seems to us absurd, from the mode 
of their ai)])licatiou ; but if wo consider the matter 
more closely, we shall find that wo liave admitted 
the same kind of thing into our own civilisation, only 
modified into a form and system known to the initiated 

OS tho science of heraldry, and, in some instances, wo 
have almost as quaint un attire in our own civil and 
military departments. 

The assimilation of tho Chinese theology with that 
of EuroiH) was not a dream on the part of tho old 
missionary, Father Bicci. We have seen in modern 
times that M. Hue has found that, in Thibet, tho 
Romanists have been anticipated both in doctrine and 
practice, and that many of the tenets of the Buddhists 
foreshadow tho principles of Christianity. And so it 
is also of Chinese civilisation, which i-ecent I'cscarches 
have shown to have far moi-e analogy and closer rela- 
tions to Kuro|)ean civilisation than people were at one 
time |irepared to admit, and that oven in its most 
absurd and ridiculous aspects ; for are not the dragon 
standards and tiger adorned shields found emblazoned 
in tho heraldry of tho West ? and are not the analogies 
of tho red and blue mantles, conical caps with diverse 
coloured stripes, and other grotesque military and 
official insignia, to bo with in European costumes, 
in great hirsute head-gear, feather-topped hclmetfs 
cocked hats, and other strange attire ? It is not, after 
all, for us to laugh at tho tigers of the Middle Empire, 
more especially when it is rememliered that not many 
years back the command of " Rosto feroz al inimigo " 
was included in the Portuguese drill, and thereupon 
the soldiery showed their teeth, and looked ferocious at 
an imaginary enemy. 

The costume of tho patriot rebel or bravo (bravo of 
the French) of China, partakes moie of a civil cha- 
racter. It is that of the old Chinese or Ming dynasty, 
as distinguished from that of the Mantchu Tartar 
dynasty and soldiery. All those who joined the move- 
ment under Tian-toh, " Celestial virtue," also called 
Tai-ping-wai, the great i)acificator, whence his follow- 
ers have been called Tae-pings, were obliged to cut 
off their pig-tails, a practice borrowed from the Tartars, 
to allow their hair to grojv long, and to replace tho 
Turbir cloak liy the old gaiment, opening in front, 
which was worn in the time of the Mings. 

It would be of little interest to our readers to narrate 
here the rise and j>rogress of the Chinese insuiTection, 
and the varying successes and failui-es of the patriots; 
still, it is a movement of va,st importance, and as that 
of a purely Chinese jiarty who are now in possession 
of Nankin — the ancient capital of their dynasty — 
against an usurping Mautchu-Tartar dynasty, seated 
at Pekin, it deserves much greater attention than it 
has hitherto received, and is pregnant with interest in 
connection with the proceedings of the Allies against the 
existing government, as well as to the future of China 
itself. Add to all this, albeit as yet much corrupted 
by imperfect knowledge and vain and empty tradi- 
tions and ceremonies, still, it seems certain that there 
is in connection with the same movement the dawn of 
a more enlightened, moral, and religious condition for 
this vast and populous empire. 

When Tai-ping had obtained possession of Nankin, 
he is described as having with him four kings, his 
colleagues ; Tung-wang, king of the cast, a little spai-o 
man, about thirty-five years of oge, and pitted with 
small pox ; Il-wang, king of the west, young, active, 
and brave, the Achilles of this pleiad of kings, but 
since dead ; Nan-wang, king of the south, a man of 
letters ; and Pay-wang, king of the north, young, and 
of great strength and intrepidity; the hero of the in- 
surrection. Such were the five chiefs whose army now 
acted in concert, and they were aided and abetted by 


a great number of inferior officers. Two ininistorg are 
also deserving of mention, ai thoy may play un impor- 
tant part, should the Chinese party be successful, and 
carry the day against the Muntchu Tartars. One is a 
little sharp, clover personage, Fung-y-chang, by name; 
the other is thin, ugly, and bony, but a highly educated 
man, and the author, it is supposed, oi most of the 
proclamations issued by the insurgents ; this is the 
person who is believed to t>e a Chang si, or Protestant, 
and a member of the " Chinese Union," ii'not an actual 
disciple of OutzlalTs. His name is Chi-ta-kai. 

But soldiers, Tartars, ladies, mandarins, and mer- 
chants, and people making holidrty in Canton — a 
bastard population between that of Waijping and the 
worst part of Liverpool — are not tho Chinese people. 
We must teach you something about them before we 
go further along tho coast, or else we shall always bo 
on the outsido of things. We will therefore tell you a 
story, which being true, will give you a complete insight 
into tho habits and manners of {hat jmrtion of tho 
Chinese people who are not on tho sealxxird. 


PossiBbY our readers, by lending their attention to 
a short and interesting narrative, may be the better 
enabled to learn sufficient of the modern history of 
the Chinese dynasties, and some special peculiarities 
of Chinese religious and political systems, to give 
them a tiscful insight, in an agreeable manner, into a 
subject more than usually confused and unintelligible, 
such as Chinese history is in general. The story we 
ore about to tell them of the elevation of Hung-woo, 
the first emperor of the Ming dynasty, is translated, 
and of course abridged, from the Hungwoo-Tsuen-Chuen, 
in ten small volumes, itself a )>artial abridgment of 
the history of the Ming emperors, in sixty-eight 
volumes; and this abridgment is regarded not as a 
romance, but as an historical text-book.' 

It happened in the 13th century of our em, that 
the Mongols, a tribe of wretched barbarians living on 
the frontiers of Siljoria, thought it a very hard thing 
thai they should po^ all their days under snow and ice, 
while other beings, mode of the same flesh and blood, 
revelled in all the luxuries of the South. They, 
therefore, held a council, in wliich it was resolved to 
follow in its winter flight the wild goose, a bird, in 
their opinion, more sagacious than stupid. Home may 
bo sweet, but no one likes to starve in it : nor could 
any fatigues or perils of the way equal what they had 
to suffer in their native steppes, — a day's hard labour 
in the snow for the chonce of half a day's food. There- 
fore, having once bidden farewell to the icy mountains, 
and found thp'r way, through snows knee deep, to a 
more genial region, all traces of their former habitations 
were obliterated, and they buried the remembrance of 
their tents in oblivion, until nearly a century after- 
wards the Chinese reminded them of their lost eom/orta, 
and sent them bock, attended by a military escort. 
How this happened we shall now relate. 

Central Asia is an immense plateau, where little 
grows but stunted grass — where sand is plentiful, and 
f hining pebbles which, (according to accounts of Bus- 

' Tbere li another teit-book i "The Tii-tten," by an emperor 
of the UIng djfnuty, in 28,897 chapters, and nearly that nam- 
bet of valain«< 


sian embassies) all but lajtidaries mistake for diamonds, 
abound. Through this country the Mongolii' pushed 
their way, fighting with tribe after tribe, and nggro- 
guting them under their "standards." The further 
they advanced, the greater grew their numbers; and 
they increased by degrees like a rolling snowbull, 
imiierceptibly larger and larger, till men beheld 
them in the liegiuning of the thirteenth century n 
complete avalanche, which at last cunie plunging 
down ujwn tho frontiers of tho Kin vm])ire — wlicro 
these wanderers wero not only requested not to move 
any further, but oven ordered to piiy tribute for being 
allowed to dwell whore they wero in safety. Having 
no alternative, they yielded to circumstances — and be- 
came, in the language of the A't'n court, " humble 
vassals, most reverentially obedient, like the kings of tho 

' The Mongol tribea generally are a stout, squnt, awnrtliy, ill- 
fiivouro<l race of men, having high and brotiil abouldcrs, iiliort, 
broad noaefi, pointed and ]ironiincnt chins, long troth distant from 
each other,— eyes bincit, elliptical, and unstcody,— thick abort 
necka, cxtremitic* bony and ncrvoua, mntculur thighs, but abort 
legs, with a stature nearly or quite equal to the Kuropcan. They 
are nomadic in tlieir habits, and subsist on animal food, derived 
chiutly from tlicir flocks and herds. Xbey have a written language, 
but their literature ia limited and mostly religious ; tlio aamo 
language is spoken by all the tribea, with alight viiriations, and 
only a small admixture of foreign words. Most of the occonnta 
Kurnpcans posseas of their origin, their vara, and their babits, 
wero written by foreigners living or travelling among tliem ; hut 
they tiicmcclvcs, as M'Culloch remarks, kniw as little of tbeso 
things ns ruts or marmots do of their descent. The fate of the 
vast swarms of this race which have di'seeudcd from the tablo 
lands of Central Asia, and overrun the pbiins of India, Cliina, 
Syria, Kgypt, and Eastern Kuropo in difltrcnt ages, and the riso 
and fall of the gigantic empire tlicy themselves erected under the 
Qcnghis in tlie ehvcntli and twclftli centuries, are among the 
most romarkublo episodes in the world's history. They haTe 
always maintained the same character in tlicir native wilda, and 
tlieir conquesta have been extcrminationa rather than aubjugationa. 
The nmnlier of petty tribea and familiea of this race witliin the 
limits (if the Chinese empire is not known. In Inner Mongolia, 
there are twenty-four aimaki, or tribea, arranged under six 
chalkatit. In Outer Mongolia, tho Kalkas are governed by four 
khans. The Ortous, Tsiikliun, Eleutbs, and Kortchin, are tho 
iiirgest tribes, next to the Kalkas. Tho Tonrgotha, llorsoita, 
Choros, and Kholts, are among the tribes dwelling in Koko-nor. 
In III, the Miingols are mixed up with and subordinnto to tribes 
of Turkish origin ; tho former are mostly Uuddhiats, wbilo the 
latter ure bigoted Muhammadnna. 

According to Abulgnzi ISayadur Khan, who waa himaelf n 
descendant of Zingliia Khan, rommonly raited Qcnghis, Abniza 
Khan, who was tho sixth in descent from Japhet, had 
twin sons, one called Tatar, from whom descended tlio 
Tartars, and tho other Mungj, ' the sorrowful or morose," 
whence the Moguls or Mongols, both by corruption. (BMoire 
OinMogique Sea Tatart iraduite du mantuerit Tatare 
d'Abulgazi Bayadur Khan. Fo. Leyden, 1726, p. 23 et teq.) 
In our own times the Mongoliana of the Eoat present aomo 
marked features of diatinction from tliote of tho West. The one 
live in towns and fixed dwellings, the others arc nomadca. They 
differ also in their language and religion, and in their habita, 
maimers, dress, and appearance. The Mongols proper arc 
divided inio three great nations; the Tsliakar, Khaikiias, and 
Sunnit, the Western Mongols into Kalmnks, Bashkirs, Buriats, 
and other roving tribes. Besides the twenty-four, or, according 
to some, twenty-six, Aimaka in the former, with their hereditury 
princes and four Great Khans, there aro numerous tribes of greater 
or less power and importance, as above noticed, but the relationa 
of which have not been accurately determined. The beat 
anthorities. Abulgszi, Leyden in the Memoirs of Baber, Pallas, 
Klaproth, Ritter in the " Erdkinde von Asien," and Uiillman, 
" Gesichte des Mongolen," are all agreed, however— notwithstand- 
ing the confusion that has so long prevailed with regard to the 
Turkish and Tartar and the Mongolian races— as to these primary 
distinctions, more eapecially as regards the Mongoliana, as 
diatinguished from the other Turanian raoes, whether longuiisn, 
Uyporborean, Chinese or Thibetian. 



WoHt." Ar for tliOHO Kin, they had in timeH of yore 
boon cnllcd Niouichi, ami lived on the banks of the 
Block Dragon rivers (Ilihlung KtUng), having from 
HJinilar motives, and in a similar manner witli the 
Mongols, rumovod from the South. There they first 
ovcrtlirow the Kelaui, a Tartar horde, who had for 
many years dictated laws to China ; but wore Bur]>ri8cd 
that their less civilised brethren wished to imitate their 
oxam))le. The Chinese at first rejoiced at their doughty 
deeds, and sent them presents and exhortations to per- 
severe; but the Kin, without further dispute, took 
liossession of all the territory to the north of Hwang-ho, 
and the river Hwoe, and then mode arrangements with 
the Kelaui, that, to prevent further fighting, each 
should keep as much of the Chinese territory as they 
could defend. Thus was one-third of China, comprising 
most of the northern provinces, Hoopih, .Shan-tung, 
Slmnsi, Shen-si, Ilonan, all under the rule of barbarians. 
They had been in quiet ixiSHOssion of these fertile tracts 
for about a century, and had given up the idea of 
ceding them to anybo<ly, for they lived uiton their 
nmnora — iia comfortably as did the Mantchous, until 
within the last ten years — when lo ! the Mongols put 
in a word, to claim an equal right to the booty. At 
that time the terrible Genghis was the Mongol chief, 
and 08 this hero thought proper to claim the whole 
glolie ashis rightful possession by the decrees of heaven, 
ho naturally included also the Kin monarchy. The 
veterans of the desert apiieared — and within a fow 
yeors all northern China lay prostrate before them. 

The Chinexe lived at that time under a line of 
princes, who by their ill-success against the Kin had 
lost all courage and influence. Availing themselves of 
this fine opportunity for punishing their hated enemies, 
they concluded on alliance with the Mongols, expecting, 
when tho common enemy was vanquished, to share the 
spoil But Genghis hoid no such intention — his was 
the lion's share. The Chinese, by way of making sure, 
took possession of the most important fortresses to the 
south of the Yellow Biver. This, though patriotic on 
their part, did not suit the disposition of the Mongols, 
who regarded it as an act of treachery. The Tartars 
declared war, and the struggle lasted from 1234 to 
1279; when it terminated in the submission of tho 
Chinese toKubhii (orKoubilai) Khan as their emperor.^ 

' It may not he nnintcrcsting hero to give Morco Polo's itccount 
of Kublai Khan and his stylo of waifarc. " A certain chief, 
named Naj'an, who, although only thirty yean of ago, nos uncle 
to Kublai, had succeeded to tho dominion of many cities and pro- 
vinces, which enabled him to bring into tho field an army of 
400,000 horse. His predecessors, however, Itad been vassals of 
the great Khan. Actuated by youthful vanity, upon finding 
himself at the head of so great a force, ho formed, in tlie year 
1286, tho design of throwing olT his allegiance, and usurping tlie 
sovereignty. With this view, he privately dispatched messengers 
to Kaidn, another powerful chief whose territories lay towards 
the greater Tartnry (Turkistan), and who, although a nephew of 
the Qrand Khan, was in rebellion against him. As soou as 
Kublai had received notice of this, he collected 360,000 horse, 
and 100,000 foot, consisting of those individuals who were luuolly 
about his person, and principally his falconers and domestic ser- 
vants (he roust have had a great many). Hut this was not his 
whole army ; many thousand Mongols, scattered throughout the 
provinces, were not only maintained from the pay they received 
from the imperial treasury, but also from the cattle and their 
milk. Kublai reached within twenty-five days tho camp of his 
enemy ; ho called his astrologers to ascertain, by virtue of their 
art. and to declare in prvsence of their whole army, to which side 
victory would incline. They ascended the hill with alacrity which 
separated them from their enemy, who was negligently posted. 
In front of each battalion of horse were placed 600 infantrj. 

The Mongols had thus arrived at the goal of their 
wishes; and they now commenced sleeping on their 
laurels, Bl the Mantohus have done, whdst they very 
rapaciously appropriated to themselves the hard-eanied 
possessions of the Chinese, These at first, seeing no 
alternative, quietly submitted ; but, in course of time, 
Chinese eyes, though small, being piercing, they saw 
that their masters, tho Mongols, being quite out of 
their element, were getting stupid and weary, and, one 
generation after another, effeminate. They therefore 
began to part with their chattels not without grumbling; 
and imagining that the Mongols of their day, like tlio 
"men of the eight standards" at present, were not 
likely again to fight over tho battles of their ancestors, 
watched for an op[iortunity to show how much they 
despised their insolent lords. 


Eight Mongol emperors had sat upon the throne, and 
tho last v'f t^e race, Toh.wan Temur, or Shun-te, a boy 
of thirteen, ut '.' ascended it. He was very timid, and 
devoid of ti:l-Lt; women reigned at court ; ministers 
did as they pleased ; and eunuchs aiTanged and de- 
rang'x! >■•/' rything. But all would not go right — 
omeiiu, '■i<: tliquakes, a i-ain of bloody hail, and sundiy 
other potents of no good succeeded each other. Then 

armed with short lances and swords, who, whenever the cavalry 
mndo a show of flight, were practised to mount behind their 
riders, and accompany them, alighting again when they returned 
to the charge, and killing with their lances the horses of the 
enemy. As soon as tho battle was arranged, an infinite number 
of wind instruments of various kinds were sounded, and those 
were succeeded by songs, according to the custom of the Tartars 
before they engage in fight. Tho order for fighting was given ; 
a bloody conflict hvam j a cloud of arrows poured down on every 
side, and then the hostile parties engaged in close combat, with 
lances, swords, and ro".ccs shod with iron. Nayan's forces were 
devoted to^ their nmstcr, and rat'/ier choso to meet death than 
to turn their back upon the enemy. Nayan was made prisoner, 
and sh' n between two carpets vmtil the spirit had departed 
from hi.. The motive for this peculiar sentence being, that the 
sun and the air shonld not witness the shedding of the blood of 
one who belonged to the imperial fiunily. The troops whicb iur- 
vived swore allegiance to Kublai. After this signal victory ho 
returned to Kambalu." 



again aome prince of the blood, tliinicing lio Imil a 
gnmtcr right to the roynl diailcm, coiiapirod and tivi-n 
stormed tlio palaco. But thosu attonipta fuiled. Thu 
empress dnughter, an accomplice, foifuitcd her lifo ; and 
the boy-eni|ivror prvforring, liice nil boys, play to biisi- 
ncRB, left everything to hix eunuchs. 

Scarcely had hu entered his 17th year, having taken 
one of his futher'M widows to wife, and forced tho 
im|)eriul princesses into his harem (siiyi* this vei-ocioiu 
history,) when insurgents,! in four ditl'uront places, 
without being connected with ejtch other, simultii- 
neouflly proclaimed their intention to suhvert tin- 
reigning dyniutty. Two of these uroso in tho pro- 
vince of Kwangtung ; but, as this was at a very great 
distance from thu capital, (us fur, in fuel, as from Kdin- 
burgh to Madrid,) the Emperor cured as little about it 
na the late Tiiou-kw:ingUMMl. Matters were, however, 
diseuHsed in council, and one amongHt tho niiniHter.) 
declared, that these revolts ought to lie ascribed to tho 
avarico of tho ]\Iongol offlcera, who burdened the un- 
happy people beycmd endurance. This was a homely 
truth the young prince could not digest. At a public 
audience, ho then fjro addressed hm ministers, say'.iig, 
" I have been five years on tho throne, and jwrci-'ivo 
that tho government is in a stAto of confusion, so that 
[ am restless day and night, and can never enjoy 
myself. I ask, my lords, whether you cannot prepare 
for mo any satisfactory pastime V 

Oneof those present, called Sat-un, speedily answered, 
" Let us enjoy life, carouse and drink, and you may 
make suro of real mirth." But another statesman 
present, advised the emperor to put to death tho 
insidious counsellor, and quoted several instances 
where love of pleasure had accelerated tho ruin of 
pi'inces. This being undeniable, the prince wished to 
bestow valuable presents on tho speaker ; but he re- 
fused them all, saying, that his only reward was to do 
his duty. Greatly content with the issuo of his admo- 
nition, the faithful minister rejoiced in the unenviable 
fall sf his enemy, when some unforeseen circumstances 
deranged the whole plan. A creature of Sat-un, the 
depraved courtier, had on the same day collectc<l a 
company of most beautiful play-actresses, and was just 
wending his way towards the palace, when ho met 
Sat-un, with clouded brow and a look bespeaking dis- 
tress of mind. He immediately engaged himself to 
settle the subject of his master's uneasiness, went under 
the windows of the harem, and presented to the asto- 
nished queens his cortege. From this moment, tho 
])rince's mind was changed ; and as soon as he had 
given audience, ho immediately repaired to the inner 
apartment, and there spent day and night in witnessing 

' " Robbera," myi Dr. Newnun, in his " Tranilation of the 
Hiitor]! of the Chinese Pinteii," " are oiuacceuful conquerors. 
If the founder of tho Hin(r dynasty had failed in hii rel>ellion 
against the Mongols, history would have called him a robber j and 
if any one of the various robber cliioft who in the course of the two 
last centiriei made war against the reigning Mantcliu had over- 
thrown the govemmentof therorGignerB,thcofficial kistoriographers 
of the ' Middle Empire ' would have called him tlie/ar/amed i7/iw- 
triout elder father of tho new dynasty. The fruit of labour is too 
often taken out of their hands, justice sold for money, and nothing 
is safe froin their rapacious and i xurioua masters. People arise to 
oppose and act according to tho pliilosophical principles of l.-iman 
society, without any clear idea about them. Bobbers aad Fin.'es 
■r^ in fact, the opposition party in tlie despoticul empires of tl e 
East) and their history is fitr more intoteating than that of tbi 
reigning despot." 

On n certain night ho full wenrjr on hU eoticli, and 
then dreamt that wasps and ants tilled the hnieni. 
Having ordered his attendants to sweep th'j hall, theiti 
starto i from the south a niuu dresHod i'.i jiurple, who 
bore on his left shoulder the sign of tho kuu, and on his 
right the moon ; in his hand he hch' a Ih'soiii, and hoou 
swept tho whole oh.'iir. The <'>ii|>i'ror hastily unked, 
" Who are you 1" Tho Ktraiigcr did not auMwor, but 
drew his sword, and made towiird.s tho emperor, who 
wishing to avoid him, endeavoured to run out of tho 
)ialaco, tho door of which tho man clud in purple imme- 
diately closed. Tho alarme<l monarch calleil aloud for 
tho iiHsiMtunco of his s.-rvants, and then awoke. 

This draam, as afterwards api>e.ired, hail n-ferenco 
to his KiicceNsor. His majesty was just relating the 
curiou.s viMion to his dear spouse, when ou a sudilen a 
tremendous crash, resembling a clap of thunder, wih 
heard. The soothsayei-s were at the moment inter- 
preting what tho Huid dream might signify, and nil i:s 
one man ran to ikscortaiu the cause of this noise. I'licy 
found tlut a wing of tho paliice hud fallen in, and that, 
under it, was to be seen a deep cavern, from wlii'iico 
rose a black vapour. Anxious to ascertain what this 
might lead to, tho emperor cauHcd a cviiiiinnl, under 
sentence of death, to bo let down, who brought up a 
stone tablet, upon which, in the obscure language of a 
Sybil, a sudden revolution coming from the south-west, 
and the cxpidsion of the Mongols, were foretold. 
Nobody, however, would understand tho meaning of 
it this way ; but tho courtiers suggested it might bo 
necessary to change the name of the reign, as that 
would, at once, settle the matter. In the meanwhile 
tho chasm had closed, and the infatuated monarch gave 
himself up to the superatitiaas rites of Buddhist priests, 
and the most infamous debaucheries. Inaccessible to 
all but the companions of his vices, the government of 
so vast an empire wos entirely neglected by him, ond 
whilst robbera travei'scd the land with impunity, the 
most dreadful scourges from on high afflicted the 
suffering nation. AU was ripe for revolt; a leader 
only was wanting. 

Let us leave tho palace for a while, and descend to 
a temple. In Keaug-su there is a place called Tuu- 
yung-fu, and in its neighbourhood a small town named 
Chung-lo-tung-Keang. Close to this is a romautio 
temple, where a number of fat Buddhist priests enjoyed 
their indolent life. One cold winter's day the abbot 
assembled all his brethren, and told them that he 
wished to spend the evening in contemplation, and 
therefor'? must not be disturbed. He suddenly found 
himself transported to the elysiuin of all the idols he 
worshipped, and there was ojien court held. The 
general conversatiou of the gods referred to the troubles 
wliinh then disturbed the empire, and they were 
unanimously cf opinion that a sage o-j^ht to be born 
in onler to set matters to rights ; but thought it best 
that some worthy of a former glorious age should again 
be bom of a virtuous woman. But those good kings 
of old, having in the interval been metamorphosed into 
stara,^ they did not relish the proposed change as far as 

' " It is a common opinion among tlie Cliinese," says n writer 
in the Miuionan/ Berald, 1852, " tliat tlio rcgioim of tlio deod 
ore placed under the government of a single individual, who acts 
HS criminal judge, and punishes the soul according to its sins in 
this lift. For this purpose he is said to have eighteen places of 
punis)iment, each varying in intensity according to the degree of 
the guilt of those who are consigned to them. The Chinese 
divide the untvene into three divisions, the first including the 



(hey wuro concerned. Their silence availed to hinder 
all tlio other constellations from accepting the proffered 
honour, until two little prying stara (of which wo do 
not know exactly the names in English, but they keep 
their court somewhere in the neighbourhood of the 
Great Bear), after much wriggling and coyness, took 
the Sun and Moon gently in their hands, and putting 
them together, agreed that the name of the new 
dynasty should be Ming — " Brightness " (formed by the 
two Chinese characters representing the Sun and Moon 
being united) and that one of the luminaries should 
become emperor and the other his consort, (that is, the 
male and female principles of the Dualism, Yin and Yani;, 
should rule the world in righteousness).* This being 

lower regions, tlio second the present world, nnd the third tlio 
upper regions, or tlio dwelling place of tlio pods celestial. Tlio 
iiilinbitnnts of the first are ciillcd tiniy, 'spirits' or ' ghosts/ nnd 
those of the third are cr'led thin, 'gods,' In resjiect fo tlie kwiii/, 
it is supposed that suinc descend in the scale of animal existence, 
and aril born brutes ; some continue in n separate state, in tlie 
furm of hungry nnd famishing ghosts ; some nre again born in a 
human form ; while lew rise in the scale of being and becoinc 
'gods.' Hence the practice of pretciitiiig offerings of food to the 
dead, which prevails so universally among the Cliinesc, This is 
done for the benefit of the 'spirits' of the dead, nnd to prevent 
them from doing injury to the living. 

" According to the Chinese, the tlirec souls and seven spirits of 
each individual oro uncieated; and though separated from the 
body at death, they may again be collected, and constitute another 
person, when they will lose all coiuciousncss of a former life. 
Thus the Chinese acknowledge no Creator as the author of tlieir 
existence; and, consequently, they recognise no obligr.tion or 
duties to such a lieing." 

' This is the great metaphysical mystery of the Chinese r,;ligion 
First, they iinogiue matte" — the first material principle — this they 
call iai-kihf nnd by the operation of this npon itself (I) it evolves 
the dual powers, Yin and Yang, Tni-kcih is described ns " the 
first link in tlie chain of causes"— the extreme limit— the root 
nnd spring of all principle and existence, but without power, 
wisdom, jiist'cc, or gomlncss. The iflo^ien of Tai-keih generates 
(tliey say J a ma-icuHue power, Yanf (** light and perfection ") ; the 
rest of Tai'keih originates a feminine power, Yin (" darkness or 
imperfection"). From these two nre derived 4 Seang, or linages 
of things both physical nnd moral. These 4 Seang multiplied by 
2 produce 8 A'lea, or lineal diagrams (!> of Folii; mid these, in 
their ever-varying existence, are the iir.iiges, symbols, or cniblenis 
of nil existences, states, clr-n-t.-.^, nd circumstances. The just 
proimrtions of Yin and Yang produce harmony in the universe and 
virtue in the human system : excess in uitluT produces discord. 

The alternating circulation of motion and rest produce 17/i, 
" change." This motion and rest must have a Le, " principle of 
order," by which they move nnd rest. Beyond Tai-kelh there is 
nothing : one writer calls it " tlio utmost limit in the midst of 
illlmitableness," by which ho was believe<l to express " that in the 
midst of nonentity there existed an infinite Le" (!). The Le is 
called illiniitablo by its being impossible to represent it by nny 
figure "because it wns antecedent to notliiiigness " (!), and 
further, " subject to existences, as it always has l«ing " (!). 

Yung is explaii.. d to mean the centre or mirf(i/«— boiievolonco 
nnd excitement- nnd by those the Tai-kcili operates : coeetousness, 
righteousness, and ^lillnest constitute I'm, and by these the sub. 
stance of the Tao-keih is estnblisheil. These six nre blended, nnd 
form one complete substnnco or body, but rest is nlways chief 
lord; and man is by these established ; and heaven, earth, sun, 
moon, and the seasons : also demons and gods aro thus regulated 
by n power which they cannot opjiosc. 

The good man, by caution, and care, nnd fear, cnltivntes respect 
fcir these )iriiieiples of nature: the bad m.m, by .'nrclessnest, 
dopr.ivity, nnd cxtrav.igance, opposes them, nnd is involved in 

There is another principle opposite to Le, " cnnsc," viz., Ke, 
the grosser substi'-ecs of existence, — natter — aa "form nnd 
Bubstnnce." Two lingular expressions of Chinese mctnphysics 
limy be quoted, " In the Yang principle, hnrdncss and benevo- 
lence go together. In the Yin princlpl», softness and righteout- 
ness are conjoined," nnu " ifenven, unrth, nnd man have each n 
Tae-heih ,— but the three Kcih aro rcnlW only one Tat-keih." 
This IS from tlio 3rd book of the Yih-king, containing the 

notified, they agreed to take, in the ninth month of the 
next year, their departure to the earth. The grand 
question was now i ■ ■ find out r family worthy to bring 
tills new sovereign into the world. This caused 
tmiazing trouble ; since only to sterling virtue of 
several generations' endurance would the honour be 
awarded. In the meanwhile the entranced priest was 
sent about his bu.siness ; and found, on awakening, that 
he was lying on a haitl cold couch, in a room very 
different from the blissful regions which ho had just 
left. Being, however, of a very inquisitive cast of 
mind, he regretted not having inquired the names of 
the people who were to pro<luco the future august 
jiersonagc.'i, and determined, hi order to get at the 
secret ot once, to transport himself by rigid abstraction 
(which is done by looking steadily nt one's navel)* to 
the idols' court. There he was told that heaven's 
decrees must not be betrayed, and that he must wait 
with patience until they were executed. 

Time sped on, and the old abbot had nearly forgotten 
the vision, when on a sudden he was informed that 
the true "heaven's son" had now come. Anxiously 
ho looked out at the foot of the hill, near to which ho 
was standing, to perceive this wonderful personage ; 
when lo ! to his disappointment, he saw a poor vagrant- 
looking man, witli his pregnant wife, who told him, in 
a few words, that he had been driven from his house 
by Mongols, and was seeking a relative, hoping to earn 
with him a livelihood by spinning. " Can this be the 
' heaven's son V " said the abbot to himself, doubtingly. 
His heart sank, and he retained scarcely courage 
enough to ask the hopeless stranger, who could move 
no farther, to take up his abode in the ncighljouring 
village. This man's name wns Choo Shechin, and the 
father of the hero of our story — the founder of the 
Ming dynasty. 

Oil the following day the old friar received from a 
stranger, who immediately afterwards disappeared, a 
pill to facilitate the delivery of the said lady. When 
her hour was come, the villagers heard the music of 
the Bjiheres, the very birds fluttered about rejoicing, 
and a brilliant halo, proceeding from the sun, was 
reflected by the clouds. Under all these phenomena 
the child came into the wond ; and the bolus, when 

Doctrine of Clinngcs, and the Dual Powers of Nuturc. The 
author of The Vestiges of Creation must hero acknowledge 
himself defeated. This is the philoriphy thut nil the wise men 
of old travelled to tho East to learn, and this is an undoubted 
fragmentary tradition of the most ancient metaphysical system in 
tho world. Alas for Iiuinnn intellect, left to itself! 

All that we learn fronx tho Chinese mctaiihjBicians is, that, 
ftam two nothings, put into a bag by nolxKly, and" left to lie quiet, 
something is generated, which, by ferinontation, produces «o»i«. 
hoigi and this somebody, by dividing itself, becon.ei two 
contraries, that act upon each other and devclope something; out 
of which gradually emanates everything. 

' Tho Gnostics, who in the second and third centuries blended 
with the sublime and pure faith of Christ many wondrous but 
obscure tenets, derived from oriental philosophy, and even from 
the religion of Zoronster, concerning the eternity of matter, tlie 
existence of two principles, nnd the mysterious liienrchy of tlie 
invisible world, adopted this nonsensical notion among other*. 
They lielievcd that the divine spirit of the world, by long con- 
templation, would strike "uiion them, on the stomnchl" It 
would not bo out of p'.iico to note here, that thoTaou (rationalist) 
nnd Dnddlin priests use mesmerism nnd animal mngnctism largely 
and mischievously in their rites; nnd that the Cliiiiese priista, 
who combine the idolatry of both sects with tho cold, ientimentBl 
philosophy of Confticins, aro also conversant not only with much 
of the "magic" of tlio ancient "flro-worshippcrs," but aho 
those tricks and secrets by which the priesthood of tho I'ngam 
exercised such inlluennu over tho worsliippcra of their mdi. 



eaten by hi» mother, filled the room with the sweetest 
perfume. His father then went out bathing; and 
there floated down the river, as very seldom happens, 
a splendid piece of red satin, of which he immediately 
made a dress for the babe. He was yet a puling 
infant when his father presented him before the 
idols, where he received the name of Choo Yuen- 
hung. Poverty obliged the father to leave the 
place with his three elder children, and hire 
himself OS a common labourer, whilst Choo Y wen-hung, 
who frequently played about in the temple, was ap- 
pointed a cowboy. When rambling with the other 
boys over liill and dale, they proposed to play the 
emperor, and for this purpose raised a mound of earth 
to represent the thi-one. All the urchins surrounded 
it, but none of them dared to personify the monarch, 
until Hung-woo, the name by which we shall in future 
call him, ascended it, and with a gracious and grave 
air received the homage of his playfellows. This being 
freqrently repeated, gave liim a great name amongst 
those little fellows ; and he had, moreover, the knack 
of making his cows march in a row, like soldiers, in 
token of his future generalship. In one of these frolics 
he killed a calf, took some bitishwood, roasted the 
flesh, and feasted his comimnions. His master, dis- 
covering the trick, by the treason of one of his con- 
federate.", turned him out of doors; and the future 
emperor of China, like the great Napoleon in his 
youth at Paris, was hard put to it for a dinner. 

After several miracles performed in his favour to no 
purpose, he was admitted a priest, "and appointed 
scullery-boy to the temple, in which resided the old 
abbot who first saw the lieavenly vision respecting him. 
Hung-woo finally obtained employ with his mother's 
brother, his father being dead. It was summer, anti 
our hero having never troubled himself much abont 
books, was now for the firat time, in his eighteenth 
year, sent to school.^ Here he had to suffer very much 
from hunger, and a compassionate damsel amicably 
supplied him with cakes. He was delightfully en- 
gaged in eating them, when his uncle summoned him 
to wheel a barrow, loaded with plums,' to the nearest 

town. An unfortunate quarrel on the road leu to 
blows, and their antagonist was laid lifeless on the 
ground. This was lather a ticklish aflair ;' and, meet- 

' hi China, .vlion a Inii coramcncei l>i» studiw, iin imprMtive 
ceremony tukcc j^lace, or did formerly, fi' it Bcems to li«vo fallen 
into dcsnotuilc. The full... lc«d» hi« son to the teacher, who 
kneels down before the name pr titU of aomo one ov other of tho 
ancient aagca, and 5 iv:'li"'t«« "i"'' Uessing upon hi pupl; after 
which, aeating hinuyU; he rocelvea tho homage and rctition of 
the lud to guide him iu hia lca«on». A present is expected to 
accompany th-j i:;tr;Aiu -uun to literary pursuits. The furniture 
of the school merely com., tj of a desk and a stool Jor eacli pupil, 
and an elevated seat for tho master. Upon each Jcsk are imple- 
ments for writing, and 1 fow hooks. In one corner is placed a 
tahlet or an inscription o.i the wall, dedicates! to Confticius and 
tho God of Letters; tho sage is called the Teacher and Pattern 
for All Ages, and incenso is constantly bu- ned in honour of thenj 

» The Liai Chai, a Chinese story-book, in sixteen volnmes, fur- 
i.ishcs B story illustrative of tho selling ol plums at market, and 
will servo to give an idea of Chinest tjilca n general ;— 

" A villager wa/i oneo selling plums in t le morkct, which wero 
rather delicious and frngranl, and l.igli in ^v'vx; and there was 
n i'au priest, clad in rugged irnr.nents of co.'rse cotton, becir'ng 
before liis wof.on. Tho villager scolded him, h'lt he wc-ald not ^'o 
ofTj whcreupo.'i, becoming angry, he reviled and h.ioteil at him. TU 
priest said, 'T^o wagon contains many hundred phms, and I 
have only bcggc;' one of them, which, for jon, re«r> ■•''' "ir, 
would certahdy be no (treat lossi why then are you so ong.y ?' 
Tho spectators odvised to k'.vo hiin a pour p'un. send liMi 
away but the vUlogor would not consent. Tho w.n xmon <i, the 
market, dUliklng the nolso and cUraour, ftmilshi^ a few eop;,oji. 

and bonght a plum, which they gave the priest. He bowing, 
thanked them, and tumi ig to the crowd said, ' I do not wish to 
he stingy, and request you; my friends, to partake with mo of this 
delicious plum.' One of them replied, • Now you have it, why do 
you not 'eat it yourself?' ' I want only the stone to plant,' said 
he, eatuig it up at a munch. When eaten, he held the stone in 
his hand, and taking a spade off his shoulder, dug u hole in the 
ground several inches deep, into which ho put it, and covered it 
with earth. Then, turning to the market-people, he procured some 
broth, with which he watered and fertilized it : and others, wish- 
ing to see what would turn up, brought him boiling dregs from 
shops near by, which he poured npon the hole just dug. Every 
one's eyes being fixed upon the spot, they saw a crooked shoot 
issuing forth, which gradually increased till it became a tree, 
having branches and leaves; flowers and then fruit succeeded, 
large and very fragrant, which covered the tree. The priest 
then approiiuhed the tree, plucked the fruit, and gave the he- 
holders; and when all were consumed lie felled the tree with a 
colter— chopping for a good while, until at last, having cut it off, 
he shouldered tho Ibliage in an easy manner, and leisurely walked 

"■When first the priest began to perform bis magic arts, the 
villager was also among tho crowd, with ontstretched neck and 
gazing eyes, and completely forgot hi, own business. When the 
priest had gone, he bejian to look into his wagon, and lo I it was 
emptj of plmns ; and for the first time he iierccived that what 
had just been distributed were all his own goods. Moreover, 
looking nnrr-ji/ly about his wagon he saw timt the dashboard was 
pone, having just been cut oil" with a chisel. Much excited and 
incensed, he rnn after him, and as he turned the corner of the 
wail, ho saw the board thrown down beneath the hedge, it being 
that with which the plum-tree was ftlled. Nobody knew whero 
the priest had gone, and nil the mar.eet folks laughed heartily." 

* Lynch Law is not unknown in C hina. Hero are two instances : 
One large village, not far from the Great Wall, was celebrated 
for its proftissional gamblers. One day, the chief of a considerable 
family, who himself was in the habit of playing, made up his 
niiiid to inform the village. Ho therefore invited tlie principiil 
inhabitants to a banquet, and, towards tho end of the repast, ho 
roie to address his guests, made some observations on the e\ il 
consequences of gambling, and proposed to thein to join in associa- 
tion for tho extirpation of this vice from their village. The 
proposal was at first receivcil with astonishment; but finally, 
lifter a serious consultation, it was adopted. An act was drawn 
np and signed by oil the associates, in which they bound tlicm- 
icivc.', not only to abstoin from playing, but to watdi the other 
inhabitin J, and seize upon all gamblers taken in the fact, who 
should be iftimediately carried Iwfore the tribunal, to bo puiiished 
according to the rigor of tlie laws. The existence of the society 
was made known in the village, with the warning tliat it was 
n.olnte and ready for action. Some days afterwards, three de- 
tei mined gam'ilers were arrested with tho cfinls in tlieir hands, 
taken lieforc the trihunnle, beaten, and fined. Tho measure was 
efllcpcious in putting down gambling. Not far from the place 
whore the anti-ganibling society had flourished, there arose a 
much more redoubtable association. This part of tho country is 
inhahite<l by a population jMirtiaUy Chinese; partially Mongol, and is 
intersected by mountains, valleys and stcpires. Tliivilhiges scattered 
amongst them have not been considered of suftleient imimrtanco 
by the government to have mandarins placed in them. l)eprive<l 
of this restraint of authority, this wild region had l)ecome the 
resort of many bauds of .robin!™ and miscreants, who exercised 
tlieir trade with impunity throughout the neighlmurhood both by 
day and night. They pillaged crops and flocks, laying wait for 
travellers in tho defiles of tho niounbiins, pitilos.xly stripping 
them of all their property, and afterwards put them to death ; some- 
times they went so fur as to attack a vilhigo and l.iy it waste. The 
Maminrins, though asked for assistance, dared lot at tempt to 
i:ngt%i) i-i a conflict with an army of banditti. Tluit whieli tho 
Miiidnri'is 'lafed not attempt, a simple villager undertook mid 
aceon', 'i>.lie<l. " fiinco the Mandariiiii cither cannot or will not 
nid us, l..t ns," said he, "protect ourselves, and form a Hum." 
The Ao»i>, n society of the Chincso (like our own), are always 
inaugurated with a feast. Regardless of expense, the rillagc'rs 
killed an old bullock, and sent letters of invitntior to the villagers 
all round. The society was entitled " The Old Hi 11." Tho regu- 
Istioas wcrt brief and simple. The memben w.^reto eurol as 


ing with a number of lusty fellows, who like himself 
had nothing to lo3c, and all to gain, they united to 
take their chance of the latter together. From this 
moment dates the greatness of Hung-woo. 

Being obliged to enter into he house of one of the 
above idlera on account of the ..eavy i-ain, the clowns 
told him that the true Heaven's Sou having been, by all 
accounts, bom somewhere in the neighbourhood, they 
had gone out that morning in search of him, since a 
Taou priest had told them they would meet liim on the 
road ; but "we have waited," said they, " all the day, and 
have not met him." When Hung-woo had gone to bed, 
all these six boon companions said to each other, " This 
man really answers the description given to us." They 

many |)Coplc us possible in their mills. Many bound themselves 
to 1)0 always ready to assist in the capture of any robber, great 
or smiiU, and cut off his head at once, or arrest, withont form 
of trial, or refcreiice .to the worth of the article stolen. It 
the tribunals interfered, the whole society was responsible for 
every member, and collectively for all heads they cut off. The 
energy and unitv> of pi^rposo with which the society set to work 
soon told, and the heads of robbers fell with amazing and awful 
rapidity. One night they all assembled and cnptutvd the Rob- 
bers' Nest, n notorious villofte at the bottom of a mountain 
gorge. Tlio Society of the Uld I}ull surrounded it on all sides, 
set Are to the houses, and massacred the inhabitants, old and 
young. The effect ot this summary proceeding was the extermi- 
nation of brigandage throughout the whole district, to such an 
extent that the people would pass any article lying in the road 
without venturing to touch it. The relatires of the victims com- 
plained to the tribunals, and the Society presented themselves, 
according to their custom, in a body, to meet the charge of 
assacsinatlon. The trial was carried to the court of Pekin, which 
rewarded and applauded the society, but directed that for the 
Aiture they should be enrolled in the public service as "Tai-piug- 
clie," or the "Agency for Public Peace." 

were about to acknowledge him their leader, when the 
villagers suiTounded the house with cries of " Fire I " 
All hastened to a back room, where the flauies had 
broken out, — but how great was their .istonisbment to 
perceive that a streak of red light eucirckJ the adven- 
turer ; who was, however, fast asleep, and unconscious 
of the distinction. Hung-woo, in the morning, having 
sold his plums at the market, pocketed the money, and 
went in search of new adventures. The first thing he 
fell in with was a gymnastic hall, where some athletic 
prize-fighters challenged him to show his .strengtlu 
Some Boldiers happening to iiass, and obser\'ing that 
the company had come to blows, attempted to seize the 
offenders. These, however, took to flight, and ran to 
a temple, 'which Hung-woo burnt to the ground. 
This temple he rebuilt magnificently when emperor. 

On Hung-woo's return to his uncle's house, he met 
numbers of Lrave men on the road side, who, having 
heard of his feats, followed withont hesitation. At that 
|X!riod largo bands of robbers traversed the land, and 
whenever there was a resolute man, it was in his iwwer 
soon to become a powerfid chie£ Kwang Heang, his 
uncle, who had beci'. denounced to government for tlio 
murder of a police >; i.n, considered it imjiossible to elude 
justice, and thereluto declared himself, on the strength 
of his nephew's cortige, king — a most wonderful eleva- 
tion. As a proof, moreover, of his gratitude, he ap- 
pointed Hung-woo his generalissimo, and married him 
to his foster daughter, the same who had previously 
supplied the young adventurer with cokes when he wa« 
starving at school. As these freebooters luid nothing 
to depend upon but what they took ' y > loleuce, they 
soon oecamo formidable i:r bo »ieig'ubourlio.3d. Many 
industrious peasants nat.' .11^ thousht that it was in 
Vain to plough the fielda whilst otlfi ■■ i'' : the fruita 


' il 


thereof, and therefore joined the robbers. As soon, 
however, aa the forces amounted to several thousands, 
Hung-woo issued strict ordei's that no Chinese should 
be molested on any account, and that their war should 
be solely with the Moogols. This was, however, by no 
means a regulation similar to those which are put on 
record at the governor's office at Canton — no such 
thing, — whosoever offended against the law lost his 
head without mercy or reprieve. This order being 
rigorously executed, added respectability to Hung-woo's 
position. Ho appeared no longer an an adventurer, 
but under the honourable appellation of patriot. The 
men most famous for bravery flocked in crowds to his 
standard ; and showing themselves in battle array 
l>efore a fortress, of which the Commander was a 
Chinese, they suggested to him that to serve a 
vicious foreign prince was not consistent with the duty 
of a friend to hin .'country, and that he ought there- 
fore to come over to them. Persuasion availed in 
this instance more than arms ; and the same officer, 
who held a commission from the Mongols, became 
afterwards one of the most ardent champions of the 
liberties of the Chinese. 

The soldiers of his army are said to have been clad 
in a most brilliant armour, which enclosed their bodies 
like the scales of fishes ; their swords and sjiears glitter- 
ing in the sun, their bright helmets and coats of mail 
according with the strong bows that hung over their 
shoulders ; they also had a cartridge-box, with six or 
seven iron bullets, which they hurled against the heads 
of their enemies.' 

The coimtry was in such an unsettled state, and the 
finances so deranged,, that at first no notice yras taken 
of these proceedings by the Government. When, how- 
ever, Hung-woo grew more and more bold, and defied 
wliolo battc'.ions, the Mongol magistrates resolved upon 
crushing the rebel. For this purpose they collected all 
tito trooi>s of the neighbouring districts ; but wliilst 
yet preparing for battle they were attacked on all .sides. 
Amongst the banners that were present, , Hung-woo's 
was conspicuous, — and the victory in the first engage- 
ment was owing to his breaking the enemy's centre. 
The enemy assemblcil a second army. But the Chinese 
had been beforehand, and planted (would the reader 
believe it) batteries in flank and rear of the Mongol 
army. Where they got the cannon we cannot tell ; 
but the Mongols were so much terrified at the tremen- 
dous noise, that they fled hi consternation. Again the 
Mongol armies crowded on the Chinese army, but 
Hung-woo, having noticed their intended concentration, 



* It in aiiijniliir tliat tliero aro pictures extanl; ropmenting the 
Chinese at this' period at nrmcd with tubes emitting lira and Bmoke 
witli great noite. They got thus fur toworda the ilrciock ; but 
the bttilets, as will be seen, they carried in their pockets, and 
threw them at their enemies' lieads, with their hands. The gun- 
powder was used to frighten their enemies. 

Chinese artifices of war aro always carious. ^Vhon H.H.S. 
" Rattler," with pert of the crew of the U.S. frigate " Pow- 
hnttan," went to Kulan, to destroy the southern squadron of 
rebels whom they called pirates, and liillcd 600 of them, thf> 
chief portion of the junks were destroyed, and only six prisoners 
taken. The Chines* used a curious artifice for their defence; 
they threw overboard a lot of cocoa-nuts, and then jumped into 
the tea among them ; it wot difficult to tell which were heads 
and whioh were nuts. Of the six prisoners, three proved 
themselves to be innocent men, held for ransom. Wliat of the 
other 600 killed i how many of those were innocent P At Canton 
a case was reported of a, rebel despatch being found under a 
plaster on a pretended sore on a woman's leg. 

attacked them in detail, and defeated them, 
ended the first campaign. 

Kang-Hweang, the greengrocer, who had raised him- 
self to a king, did not long enjoy his dignity, but died 
in the arms of his affectionate nephew. The oflicers 
wished to make Hung-woo king ; but too humble yet 
to assume the diadem, he willingly yielded the throne 
to his cotisin, an inexperienced youth. For this gene- 
rosity, as is often the case in this world, he was ill 
rewarded j some haughty general wished to take away 
his life, and during a splendid eutertainment, at which 
Hung-woo was present, had already drawn his sword 
to pierce the rising hero, when another officer stabbed 
the miscreant on the spot. The future emperor es- 
caped, but his mind was scared; and for the first time in 
his life he felt that in the midst of success and worldly 
greatness a man may still be miserable. These events 
bring us down to the year 13u6. 

We must now, for a short time, return to the palace, 
which was so unceremoniously left. It will be remem- 
bered that the emperor, while the country was in a 
state of insurrection, amused himself with dancing 
girls and Lama priests. But ho had still a very faitli- 
f'ul minister, who, notwithstanding the 
cor ■ ption, directed the military opei-ations of the 
Mongols, and, at any lute, kept the rebels at bay. 
Being, however, at variance with the emperor's minion, 
who was called Hama, the statesman, was fii-st exiled 
and then beheaded. The infamous Hama now played 
the tyrant over liis sovereign, as prime minister, and 
even made him abdicate in favour of his son. But 
affairs prospered badly with the Mongols. The country 
was infested with robbers ; a scion of the former Sung 
dynasty, a royal Chinese, took the field as a highway- 
man on a large scale. The seas were infested with 
pirates, who had 3,000 vessels at their command ; and 
slaughter and carnage went on by sea, river, canal, and 
land. What shocked the nation, also, was a proposal 
to divert, or canalise the Hwang-ho, or Yellow River. 
It wos always overflowing its bed ; and because the 
Mongols had repeatudFy lost the tribute by the impe- 
tuosity of the waters of the Grand Canal, they 
determined to cut new canals. To dig them, they 
drove the peasants together in crowds, and paid them 
only with blows and scanty fare. The jieosantry 
revolted at this injustice, drove off their tosk-mtwtei's, 
and traversed the country in numerous troops, pillaging 
all in their way. From this centre all rebellions in 
China have radiated and received strength : and a 
similar caiie of a population driven to wander in beggary 
from their homes, materially aided the first organi- 
sation of the Insurgents in 1852, and their subsequent 
increase in power. These discontents furnished Hung- 
woo with new levies, and repaired his losses. His 
soldiers were in such Itigh spirits, that on a 
certain occasion, when a dangerous enterprise was 
to be entered upon, two generals wished to fight a 
duel, to deoido who should lead the van ! Such 
incidents have not been frequent of late in the 
Chinese army. 

The grand principles on which Hung-woo waged war 
were exactly those of the present " Prince of Peace." 
Ho was welcomed everywhere by the jieoplo, even 
when he appeared as an enemy. His heart and his 
proclamations overflowed with benevolence towards the 
commonalty and the real Chinese people ; and the 
only cruelties ho committed were agamst the Mongols. 
Ho, moreover, like Tae-ping now-o-days, coivtrived to 



have a military chest and magozinea, a distinctive 
fuiituro of the present contest : and, instead of allowing 
his soldiers to i)liinder, he paid thorn well, and thus 
kept the niaraiidei's in order. Conduct like this at- 
tracted notice ; and a fierce pimto chief, who ravaged 
the coa.4t (some one is always doing this in China), sent 
an envoy to Hung-woo, proposing au alliauco. The 
cnso is exactly pamllol with the tactics of the present 
insiirreetiou. Hung-woo accepted the offer of the 
huccaneers, and having thus, by the assistance of the 
pirates' armament of 10,000 junks, the means of loco- 
motion so indispensable for Chinese travelling, which 
is all by canals, ho directed his stejjs towards Cho- 
keong, in order to keep up his communication with the 
sea. I3«t he had to cross the Yang-tse-keang (or " Son 
of the Ocean") River (the scene of the present contest 
with the rebels),! and fought a bloody battle to accom- 
plish that object. 

The Mongols, as soon as they hail refitted their 
army, appeared again ir. great force in the field. This 
time the victory was not so easily bought by the 
Chinese; yet their irresistible >'alour stood proof 
against the despair of the enemy. 

The Mongol commander-in ;hief fled with unmanly 
haste, and being hotly pursued, siirreu'iered to Hung- 
woo. As soon as he appeared in the presence of the 
prince, his counsellors, seeing something sinister in the 
general's countenance, without consulting Lavater, 
advised him to execute the prisoner on the spot. 
Though the Chinese hero had made the same remark, 
he did not consider it consistent with justice to execute 
a man who had surrendered of his own accord ; and 
he entrusted, on trial, a small troop of horse to his 
command. Before accepting this command, the Mongol 
swore near a slaughtered horse (the object most sacred 
to a Tartar,) fidelity to his new raivstw, and impre- 
cated upon himself the most dreadful curses if he should 
not prove faithful. A few days afterwords, Hung-woo 
had undergone many hardships, and it was expected 
he would soon retire to his tent ; the renegade had 
marked this pi-opitious moment, and softly stole 
towanls the entrance, hurriedly burying the dagger in 
the bedclothes. The alarm wa.s immediately given by 

' " This grciit river," »ay» Viscount Jocelyn, in Six Monthi in 
China, " may I» called tlie main artery to tho body of the Cbineio 
empire, and tlio soutco of its interior woaltli. In extent and navi- 
gable facilities it is not surpassed by any in tbo world i wbilst 
from its bosom, not only the central port of China draws its 
existence ond riches, but tlie traffic of tlio northern provhices also. 
It is connected with the Peilio by means of a canal, called tlio 
Imiwrial (or Great Canal of China), which wonderful work thus 
leads the central t rade, and oven tho southern commerce, to tho very 
north of China, pouring it into the navigable waters of tliat river 
at a town called Tien-tsin, not more than 40 miles distant iVom 
Pekin, while its southern mouth meets the Yang-tse-kiang 60 
miles below Nankin." " Unless tho Mississippi and Missouri," 
says another writer, " arc to be considered as one river, then tho 
Amazon being the flrst, the Yang-tsc-kcang is tlio second river in 
the world. If you consider, however, the countless canals which 
it supplies witii water — to keep under constant irrigation the 
surrounding codntry — the commerce which it carries on its breast, 
the fruitf\ilncss displayed on its banks, whore the richness of tho 
foliage and the greenness of tho herbage are quite astonishing ; 
if, lastly, yon add the depth and volume of its waters, it has some 
claims, I conceive, to the very flrst pbcc among the rivers of tho 
globe. In going up the river, nautically speaking, the left, goo. 
graphically the right, bank of the river is tho most picturosquo 
side. Tlio ranges of hills wore flrcquently quadruple, the nearest 
sweeping down gi-acefliUy and gnutually towards the river. The 
other sido for a long way is flat. Tho neat little villages are flre- 
quently, if not generally, placed in an angle formed by a ctinal 
and tho great river." 

the sentinel, but the assasain had time enough to save 
liimself by flight, and ho was not heard of for many 
months. In one of the engagements, however, a 
Chinese officer, on perceiving hiui, darted his javelin at 
him, which ho most dexterously avoided. In tho 
midst of the confusion he entangled his foot in the 
stiiTup, lost his balance, and was dragged by a restive 
horeo to a considerable distance. When nearly expiring 
from the bruises he had received, his antagonist rode 
up to ]um, and ran his sabre through his heart, in re- 
compense for his treachery. 

Whenever tho combat in the south was hottest, 
Hung-woo kcj)t his court at Kin-ling, directed from a 
distance the military o])erations, and endeavoured to 
extend his power towards tho north. This is also the 
policy of Tae-ping, the emperor of the present insnn-ee- 
tion. City after city yielded to the army of Hung- 
woo : the soldiers called upon him to proclaim himsclt 
emperor ; but ho refused, saying that he was, as yet, 
but a petty chief, holding only part of the empire. IBut 
while he himself so obstinately refused the title, 
dragons and serpents, that entwined themselves about 
him at a gi-eat military festival, pi-oved to the Chinese, 
that having such imperial emblems, ho ought to assnme 
the titlea The dragon is, to the Chinese, a most pro- 
pitious omen. They have not been seen lately. 

The Mongol emperor at last took alarm at the pro- 
gi-esa of the rebels. In a council of state, at which all 
the ministers were present, the best measures proposed 
were rendered nugatory by indecision. Yet the army 
is said to have been 50,000 or 00,000 always in arms, 
and tho rebels in less than a fortnight brought 
200,000 into battle. The numbein said to have been 
killed on each side are prodigious, and the battles more 
numerous than those of Kapoleon. 

Hitherto Hung-woo had been only a subject ; but 
one of tho rebel chiefs having killed his master the 
king, and he having already received the title of duke, 
he now assumed the dignity of Prince of Woo, and 
adopted a systematic plan for conqueiing the whole oi 
China, which resulted in the em])cror's retiring for 
safety outside the Wall of China into Ying-chang-fu. ' 

" The Chinese have had their " Vespers," it api»ars, after the 
fushionof theSicilinns. " Wcarrived,"say8FathcrFuc, "atChabote 
on the 15th day of the 8tli moon, tho anniversary of gr«at re- 
joicings among the Chinese. This festival, known as the Yue-ping 
(Loaves of the Moon), dates from tho remotest antiquity. Its 
original purpose was to honour the moon with superstitious ritea 
On this solemn day ell labour is suspended ; the workmen receive 
a present of money from their employers ; every person puts on 
his best clothes; and there is merry-making in every family. 
Relations and friends interchange cakes of various sizen, on which 
is stamped the image of the moon ; tliat is to say, a bare crouch- 
ing amid a small group of trees. Since the fourteenth century 
this festival has borne a political character little understood 
apparently by the Mongols, but the tradition of which is carenilly 
preserved by the Chinese. About the yeor 1368, tho Chinese were 
desirous of shaking off the yoke of the Tartar dynasty, founded by 
Qenghis Khan, and which had then ruled the empire for nearly a 
hundred years. A vast conspiracy was formed throughout all tho 
provinces, which wassimultancously to developeitself on the fifteenth 
day of the eighth moon, by the massacre of tho Mongol soldien, who 
were billeted upon each Chinese family for tho double purpose of 
maintaining themselves and the conquest. Tlio signal was given 
by a letter conceiiKd in the cakes, which, as wo have stated, nro 
on that day mutually interchanged throughout the country. Tho 
massacre was cA'ccted, and the Tartar army, dispersed in thk 
bouses of the Chinese, utterly annihilate<l. Tlus catastrophe put 
an end t« tho Mongol domination ; and ever sine*, the Chinese, in 
celebrating the festival of Yeu-ping, have been less intent on tho 
■nperstitlous worship of the moon than on the tragic event to 
which they owed the recovery of their nntioDil independence." 


In thia Hung-woo was favoured by the intrigues of 
tho emperor's court One of the nobles, who had 
received orders to collect a very numerous army in 
Mongolia, and to overwhelm China with these hordes, 
had led them against the emperor himself. Had he 
persevered in his march, he might have taken the whole 
court and all tho appurtenances prisoners ; but outcr- 
ing u|)on a negotiation, and flattering himself with 
the highest dignities falling to liis shai-o, ho was 
wheedled into an interview, and delivered himself 
to justice. Tlie minister who brought this about 
was an enemy to the heir of the crown. The latter, 
liad been sent to the army in order to fight his father's 
battles, and was highly indignant at his enemy's 
success, and his winning the affections of his parent 
Itccallcd finally to his palace, and securing the murder 
of the minister, this youth went on embroiling himself 
with all tho great men of tho state. When the din 
of war grew nearer to the capital, tho weak and 
debauched prince lost all courage, and stole nway in 
the night to his native deserts; and thus ended tho 
Mongol dynasty, a.d. 13G8. 

Tlio Mongols tliemseh'os retired not with the em- 
))eror, butfcU back, slowly and sternly, contending their 
way, and holiling on fortress after fortress. Many kings 
and emiierors, alias robber-chiefs, sprung up— witii 
titles as good, they said, as that of Hung-woo. At Inst 
the Tartars confined themselves to a defensive wnr, 
and only occasionally rushed forth to rob un all sides. 
All they now hoiKid was to get back to Mongolia. But 
tlii.s was not easy. Liko their predecessors, the Kii:, 
tlicy had lived with groat profusion. They had ))awned 
and sold their horses, and their arms and lands ; 
and when the sudden alarm was sounded that the 
C'liinese were on their heels, they looked in vain into 
their stables for a swift charger to cany them off. 
Strange as it may seem, ho who could insiiect now-a- 
days tho shopkecixir's books of Canton would find a 
large catalogue of horses, barracks, houses, goods and 
chattels, all belonging to tho "Eight Banners" • garri- 
soned in that city, in pawn to ouuuing Chinese shop- 

' Tho " BnnnorB" of Cbina are cquivnient to our " brigades." 
When tho Mongol emperors conquered tho empire, they gave to 
their soldiers certain lunds under tenaro of military service when 
called upon. Tlio "Uannera" are again subdiriued into camps 
and wings, — the right, left, and centre. Ihey aro commanded 
by otScers who undergo examinations in tho military art, such as 
archery, throwing a javelin, Sus. Tlie greater part of the officers 
aro nuscd from the ranks, hut have regularly to take their 
degrees. An account of the Eiglit Uannors of Tartary is given 
by Father Hue:— 

" During our modest repast, wo noticed that one of these Tartars 
was the object of especial attention on the part of his comrade. 
We asked him what military grade he occupied in the Dine 
Uanner. ' When tho banners of Tchakar marched two years 
ago against the Bebels of tho South (tho Englisli, in 1842), I 
held tho rank of Tchouanda.' 'What! were you in that 
famous war of the South f But how is it that you, shepherds of 
the plains, have also tho courage of soldiers? Accnstomed to a 
life of peace, one would imagine that you would never bo 
reconciled to the terrible trade of a soldier, which consists in 
killini; others or lioing killed yourselves,' 'Yea, yes, wo are 
shepherds, it is tmoj but we never forget that we nro soldiers 
also, and that the Eight Banners composo tho army of reserve of 
the Grand Master (the Emperor), xou know tho rule of tlie 
Empire; when tlio enemy appears, they send against them, 
first, the Kitat soldiers; noit, tho banners of the Solon 
country are set in motion. If tho war is not finished then, all 
they have to do is to give tho signal to th« banners of Tchakar, 
the mere aonnd of whose march always suiBces to rednce the 
rebels to sul^ection.' * Were all the banners of Ichikar called 


Tho most determined antagonist of Hung-woo was 
doubtless a chief styling himself Prince of Han. He 
not only had a large land force, but also commanded 

together for this southern war ?' ' Yes, all ; at first it wo) 
thought a small matter, and every one said it would never alTcct 
the Tchakar. Tho trooiis of Kittat went first, but they (Ui 
nothing. The banners of Solon also marched; but they could not 
bear the heat of the South : then the Emperor sent us his sacred 
order. Each man selected his best horse, removed the dust from 
his Iww and quiver, and scraped the nist from his lance. In every 
tint a sheep was killed for the feast of departure. Women and 
children wept, but we addressed to them the words of reason. 
' Here,' said we, ' for six generations have we received tho benefits 
of the Sacred Master, and he has asked from us nothing in return. 
Now that he has need of us, can we hold back P Ho has given to us 
the fine region ot Tchakar to be a posture-land for our cattle, and 
at the same time a barrier for him against the Khalkhns. But 
now, since it is from the South the rebels came, we must march 
to the South.' Was it not roMOn in our mouths. Sirs Lamns F 
Ves, we resolved to march. The sacred Ordinance rencbcd us at 
sunrise, and already by noon the Bochehous, at tho head of tlieir 
men, stood by the Tchousnda ; next to these were tho Nourou- 
Tchayn, and tho Oiigouras. The samo day we marched to 
Pekin ; fVom Pekin they led as to Tien-Tsin-Vei, where wo 
remained fur threo months.' ' Did you fight,' asked Samdad- 
chiemba ; ' did yon fee tho enemy ?' ' No, they did not dare to 
appear. The Kittt told us everywhere that we were marching 
upon certain and unavuliiig death. 'What can yon do,' nskcil 
they, 'against sca-monstcrsP They live in the water like fish. 
When yon least expect them, they appear on the surface, and hurl 
their fire-bombs at you ; while, the instant your bow is bent to 
shoot them, down they dive liko frogs. Thus they essayed to 
fHghten us ; but wo sofdicn of the Eight Biinncrs know not fear. 
Before our departure the great Lama? had opened the Book ot 
Celestial Secrets, and hsd thence learned that the matter would 
end well for us. The Emperor had attached to each Tchouanda 
a Lama, learned in medicine and skilled in all tho sacred auguries, 
who was to cure all the soldiers under him of tho diseases uf the 
climate, and to protect us from the magic of the sen-monsters. 
What then had we to fcarP The rebels, hearing that tho 
invincible troops of Tchakar were approaching, were seized 
with fear, and sought peace. The bacred Master, of his 
immense mercy granted it, and we returned to the care ot 
our flocks." 

Tchakar signifies, in the Mongol tongue, Border Land, This 
country is Umited, on the east, by tho kingdom of Gechekten, on 
tho west by Western Tonnict, on the north by tho Souniot, on 
the south by the Great Wall. Its extent is 160 leagues long, by 
100 brood. The inhabitants of Tchakar arc all paid soldiers of 
the Emperor. The foot soldiers receive twelve ounces of silver 
per annum, and the cavalry twenty-four. 

Tlie Tchakar is divided into eight banners— in Chinese Fa-Ei— 
distingniBlie<l by tho names of eight colours : white, .blue, red, 
yellow, French white, Ught blue, pink, and light yellow. Dach 
banner has its separate territory, and a tribunal, named Nonrou- 
Tchayn, having jurisdiction over all the matters that may occur 
in the Banner. Besides this tribunal, thcro is, in each of the 
Eight Banners, a chief called Ou-Uourdha. Of the eight Ou- 
Gourdhos one is selected to fill at the same timo the post of 
governor-generol of the Eight Banners. All thete dignitaries aro 
nominated and paid by the Emperor of China. In fact, the 
Tclioka is nothing more nor less than a vast camp, occupied by an 
army of reserve. In order, no doubt, that this ormy may bo at 
all times ready to march at the first signal, the Tartars are 
severely prohibited to cultivate the land. They must live upon 
their pay, and upon the produce of their flocks and herds, Tlie 
entire soil of the Eight Banners is inalienable. It sometimes 
happens that an individual sells his portion to some Chinese ; but 
the sale is always declared null and void if it comes in any shape 
before the tribunals. 

By means of usury and cunning, and persevering machinations, 
tho Chinese have since rendered themselves masters of all the lands 
of their conquerors, leaving to them merely their empfy titles, 
their onerous statutory labour, and tho payment of oppressive 
rents. Tho quality of Mantchu has thus by degrees become a 
very costly aflhir, and many of consequence seek altogether to 
abnegate it. According to tho law, there is every third year a 
census made of tho popubtion of each banner, and all persons who 
do not causa their names to bo inscribed on the toll ore deemed 
DO longer to belong to the Mantchu nation i those, therefor e, of 



tlio water communicationB by a very largo river navy, 
Hung-woo at firet EOiight to satisfy his ambition by 
splendid ])roniiscs, and to detach him from the alliance 
of somn of the other leaders; but the Prince of Han 
so greatly succeeded that he could not hear or profess 
friendly intentions with the one who wished to share 
with him the throne. Hence arose a fierce struggle, 
wliich kept our hero for several yeaifl employed, and 
left tlio Alongols time to take breath. Whosoever had 
the command of the great rivers, was naturally in com- 
mand of the most flourishing part of China, and by 
being enabled to obtain supplies whenever wanted, and 
attack his enemy upon every weak point, must have 
the fate of war in his hands. The subject of our history 
was too good a general not to see these advantages at 
once, and his whole strength was. therefore concentrated 
to secure the .avigation. Determined to fight to the 
last, tlio Prince of Han had his war-boats chained 
together, and did not retreat until he saw them all on 
fire; a second navy was created as by magic, and the 
resistance was equally strong. But Hung-woo had 
nioi-o powerful arms; pei-suasion and kindness won 
over many an influential officer; so that in the heart 
of a naval battle one squadron after another struck to 
their humane prince. 

Hung-woo now regarded himself as the minister of 
heaven ; so did Attila, so did Alaric, so did Napoleon, 
and so did the emjxjror Nicholas. On invading Keang- 
soo, Hung-woo issued a proclamation, in which he 
declared all who did not submit to his arms to be 
" traitors ond rebels against the aziu-e heavens." Kind 
treatment, and a general amnesty secured to him the 
attachment of the inhabitants ; the submission of the 
roving bands he secured by bribes. Some of them, 
who thought it clever to take the money and sell 
themselves again to a better bidder, he chastised 
inexorably. But he did not confine his attention to 
mere exploits ; whenever a district yielded to his 
victorious arms, he a.ssumed the power of a judge. An 
open hall was instantly prepared, when all those who 
had any complaint to make obtained free access. Even 
old garrulous women were not excluded, and the 

(he Mnntclius whose indifience induces tlicm to desiro exemption 
from stiituto labour mid military service do not present tliemselves 
to llic cen-us enumerators, and by thot omission enter tlic ranks 
of tbn Cliineso people. Tims, wliilo on the one iinnd constant 
migrntion lias carried bcj'ond tlio Great Wall a great number of 
Cliiiiesc, on the otlier, n great number of Mantchos have 
voluntarily abdicated their nationality. 

The decline, or rather tlio extinction of the Mantchu nation 
is now progressing more rapidly than ever. Up to the reign of 
the late emperor, Tuou-Twan, the regions Watered by the Songori 
were exclusively inhuhitcd by Mantcliua : entrance into those 
vast districts was prohibited to tho Chinese, and no man was per- 
mitted to cultivate tho soil within their range. At the com- 
mencement of the last reign, these districts were put up for public 
sale, In order to supply the deficiency in tho Imperial treasury. 
The Chinese rushed uimu them like birds of prey, and a few years 
sufficed »o remove everything that could in anyway reodl tho 
memory of their ancient possessors. It would be vain for any one 
now to leek in Mantchuria a sin^ town, or a single village that 
is not composed entirely of Chinese. 

Yet, amid the general trnnsformatlon, there are still a few 
tribes, such ns the Si-Po and the Solon, wbieli MtMblhr rrtaln 
jlio Mantchu type. Up to the present day their territoriea have 
been invaded neither by the Chinese nor by cultivation; they con- 
tinuo to dwell In tents, and to furnish soldiers to the Imperial 
nrmics. It Ims been remarked, however, that their (Vequent 
"Ppcarnncc at I'ckin, and their long periods of service in the 
proyincial garrisons, are beginning to make terrible Inroads upon 
tbcir habits and tastes. 

patience with which the victim bore their invectives 
procured him tho highest popularity. 

The rebels of the south being now chastised, it was 
high time to visit the territories to the west of the 
Hoang-ho, where one of tho Mongol chiefs was still in 
possession of many fortresses. The army was approach- 
ing to cross the river, when one of the descendants of 
Confucius' presented himself to the conqueror. It 
was always Hung-woo's principle to gain popularity, 
and he therefore rejoiced to pay homage to this sage, 
upon whom tho whole nation looked with veneration. 
Having given tho descendant of the great sage valuable 
presents, with assurances of protection, he charmed the 
assembled multitude by tho deference he thiu piid to 
departed merit. In only a few minute instances the 
Mongols resisted the invading forces, and Shem-se, as 
well as Shan-si, received Chinese garrisons. 

After numerous triumplis, and when Hung-woo had 
shown that he despised pride, by visiting in state the 
burying-place of his poor father, the fisherman, and 
built a large city over his remains, the conqueror con- 
sented, at tho clamorous urgency of his army and 
people, to be named Emperor, expressed a desire to bo 
appointed " jmstor to continue the succession of Yaou 
and Shun," and raised his faithful Ma-she, his inse- 
jtarable companion in joy and woe, to the dignity of 

Hung-woo's generals followed the Mongols beyond 
tho Great Wall, surprised their emperors camp, and 
took the whole of the Imperial family prisoners. Ngai- 
yew-chilipata, the sou of the deceased emperor (who 
died in 1370, two yeare after leaving China), contrived 
to escape ; but his grandson Moitilipala was brought 
before Hung-woo. The victor's humanity was shocked 
by the proposal of his officers to murder the youngprince 
in the hall of his ancestors. He severely reproached 
the cruel advisers, and was moved to tears at the full 
of the Mongol dynasty, while he held it out as a 
warning to future sovereigns against degrading their 
station by vice. The exertions of Hung-woo to conso- 
lidate his empire and to secure peace have been seldom 
equalled. Hu continually declared his intention to 
imitate the happy days and innocent lives of Yaou 
and Shun (the golden age of Chinese history), reminded 
tho people, who imputed his own origin as a fault, 
that Lew-pang, the glorious founder of tho Han 
dynasty, the great emperor Kaoutsoo, had been, 
like himself, originally but a robber-chief. The 
Mongols fought on ; until at last he directed his 
army against their stronghold in the province of 
Leaou-tung, and subdued them with much caniago. 
The Chinese generals showed no mercy to the 
Mongol chiefs and captains, whom they now regarded 
in the light of rebels, and resisting tho decrees of 
Heaven. Many Mongols destroyed themselves by 

> Confiicius, according to Father Martin, admits three prime 

SInciples,— Heaven, man, and earth j three sorts of knowledge, 
ivine, human, and earthly ; five degrees of relationship in society, 
— 1st, Of father and son ; Znd, Of man and woman ; 3rd, Of prince 
and Bubiects ; 4th, Of friends ; 6th, and last. Of nations. Then 
these Chinese literati go on to treat of lesser orders,— belonging 
to gnests, visits, and entertainments, and likewise for the accom- 
modation of visitors, and of tho deprrtment of the boily, with 
many others, to the amount of 3,000, as Father Martin tells in 
his " History of China." The family of Confucius are the only 
heri'ttary nobility in China, most of the emperors excepted, the 
memuers of which have pennons granted to them in proportion to 
the propinquity or distance of their relationship. 


suicide,— othen were beheaded by the Chinese, — and 
" this once brave moo, who conquered the greater part 
of the old world, were crouching before the effeminate 
Chinese, earnestly suing for life." The hand of God 
was on them ; and the fierce race, elevated for His 
good purposes, to a mighty conqueror and a desolating 
«courge, were now humiliated. 

Much of the success of Hung-woo was owing to the 
wise counsels of his wife Ma-ahe, who influenced all 
his actions, and controlled his steps. Access to power 
was ombittei-ed by her loss and that of his eldest son. 
Feeling his end approaching, he sent all the princes of 
his blood to the domains he had assigned them, each a 
separate kingdom, keeping his heir (a lad of eleven) 
alone near him. He died, at seventy-one years of age, 
in 1398. 

The parallel in the conduct of Hung-woo's insur- 
rection, and that going on at the present period in 
China, is so close, that it can only be accounted for by 
the latter being an express imitation of the former. 
His appearance was as remarkable as his valour, and 
his statesmanship more than equal to his military skill, 
He was most anxious, in all cases, to avert the effusion 
of blood ; and the instances of cruelty which occurred 
at the surrender of certain cities, and the punishment 
of rebels, must, as in thepresent instance, not be im- 
puted to the orders of Hung-woo, but rather to the 
indiscreet revenge of his generals : — even the young 
Mongolian prince, grandson of the emperor, was main- 
tained by him at court with princely splendour, and 
preferred, when full liberty was offered to him, rather 
to remain with his generous enemy '' ~n nm the risk 
of returning to his native tents. 


Ok the death of Hung-woo his sons at once beset 
his grandson, whom he had raised up to the empire, 
with a formidable coalition. He degraded some; but 
one of them, the Prince of Ten, defeated him, drove 
him into exile, and ascended the throne. What follows 
of the story is but a recapitulation of boy-emperors and 
eunuch ministers, with Tartar irruptions, until we 
arrive at Shin-tsung or Wan-li ; in whose reign 
the celebrated Jesuit father lUcci first appears in 

Wan-li sentofficers, who destroyed all thehouses of the 
Niuchi merchants near the border, and drove the Niuchis 
— now called the Mantchus — to des])air. Hitherto 
they had been a scattered nation, but they now united 
under Tien-ning, their first chief, who, in 161 8, assumed 
the style and title of Emperor, having but a few naked 
savages under his banner. His father had been mur- 
dered by Wan-li's officers, and he swore that he would 
sauriflce 200,000 Chinese to his manes. He kept his 
fearful oath. The Emperor Shin-tsung, in order to 
weaken the power of his dangerous rival, Hon-wung, 
the Mantchn chief, besought him to send to him the 
flower of his warriors, under pretext of wishing to 
march them against the Mongols, who were threatening 
his states ; but as soon as he saw them in his power, be 
caused them all to be put to death (another slaughter 
of the Mamelukes) with the exception of one oaly, 
whose good looks interested a mandarin in his favour, 
who took him into the number of his domestics, and he 
BO gained hia confidence that he became steward of his 
household. In some time afterwards another Chinese 


officer, having cause to visit the mandarin, saw tho 
young Tartar, and told his colleague that ho ran the 
risk of drawing down on himself tho indignation 
of the Emperor. The other answered that he would 
get rid of him, but that in the meantime they 
should give themselves up to the delights of a banquet. 
In the interim the young man, who liad overheard this 
discourse, fearing for his life, ordered a groom to saddle 
the swiftest of his master's horses, saying that he hiid 
a commission of importance to execute. He mounte<l, 
and rode off at full speed to the White Mountain, 
where he announced to Han-wung the Emperor's trea- 
chery, and the fate of his unfortunate companions in 
arnjs. Hau-wung sent his eldest son tocapturo Mouk- 
den, in tho province of Leaou-tang ; but on his letreat- 
ing, from alarm at the force opposed to him, he slew 
him with his own hands, and himself captured the city 
by storm. 

His warriors seemed to be so resistless, that the 
Chinese generals despaired of opposing themselves, and 
called in the aid of their loyal vassals, the Portuguese. 
At that time Gonsolvez TeLxera was ambassador, or 
rather tribute •bearer,^ at Fekiu ; and as the Emperor 
liberally furnished the means, a body of 200 Portu- 
guese and 200 Western Asiatics were equipped, and 
sent to the capital. Each of them had a servant and 
plenty of money ; so that the whole cavalcade appeared 
more like a gay equipage than a real army. When 
they reached Pekin, the officers of Canton, doubting 
the policy of permitting such access to the court, bribed 
those who had suggested this measure to dissuade tho 
Emperor from employing the barbarians; and thus 
was this little band, under the valiant captains Cordicr 
and Del Capo, led back to Macao. 

Tion-wung, tired of war, proposed a peace ; but tho 
Imperial court answered by a rescript, ordering the 
extermination of all barbariaas. Nothing was heard 
of but extermination — the fashionable word of the 
Chinese authorities in war. The Mantchus gave up 
all hope of negotiating with such a people, and took 
possession of Leao-tung, from wliich they made inroads 
to the gates of Pekin, The terrified generals, sent 
out to annihilate them, disapiieared like gigantic 
shadows at the approach of night, and notwithstanding 
all edicts to the contrary, the barbarians grew more 
powerful every day, and would no longer hear of any 

The old emperor, Wan-li, took these reverses so 
much to heart, that he fell sick and died. Kwnng- 
tsung, the next emperor, died also, from taking " the 
liquor of immortality "—a trick, it is supposed, of the 
Taou priests, to rid themselves of a monarch who 
applies too carefully to business. His successor, 
Hetsang, reigned but se n years. 

Tho story of the next emj)cror, the last of tho 
Mings, is well told by Adam Schall and Father 
Martini, missionaries who witnessed it 

' Alt BmbUMdon are rtyled ■• tribute-bearers " by tl.o CliinoM 
hiitorians, and the piewnU usually brought by tlicin ■■•=.<»''»',; 
dercdtribuu). Their letter, are ill tho form of petition., or pin, 
-hence the refuwl to accept Cnptnin Elliof. credent ml. a. .upcr- 
intendent at Canton, which led to a war. If you ""gi^" «">"»• 
nie. with tho Chinew you must keep on them and be 
perfect, a. it U a matter of pride in them to get tiie better of one 
^thei. in ceremonie. mi politencM. But if you um no ccro- 
mony whatsoever with them, tliey let you have your oyinjny. 
and a. it were, ".tand adde to let the rudo,roa^h fellow gc 
hu road." 



Two groat rofcbor chiofg,* Lc and Sbang, infested th« 
country, and drove to desjiair the Emperor Tsung- 
cliiiig, who lind more to do than he could manage in 
coping witli the Tartars, and began to bo quite out of 

heart. "Till this time" (as Adam Schall avers) "the 
courtiers had kept the insurrection from the emperor's 
knowledge, partly by telling him they were only for- 
geries, though they were indeed certainly true, and 


partly by extenuating the business, which was the ruin 
of the empire." 

The emperor, now roused by the noise of arms, 
which daily increased in his ears, bestirring himself, 

> The general coininUiiloii of robbery, nnd the prevalence of 
bands of thicvci, proves the weakness of the government in Cliina, 
— not the insurrectionary disposition of tlie people. In one dis- 
trict of Htt-pcli, the governor reported, in 1828, " tliat very few of 
the inhabitants liave any regular occupation, nnd their dispositions 
are exceedingly ferocious ; they flght and kill each other on every 
provocation. In their villages they harbour thieves, who flee from 
other districts, and sally forth again to plunder." In the northern 
parts of Kwang-tnng, the people have erected high and strongly 
built ho'ises, to which they flee for safety from the attacks of 
robbers. Theso bands sometimes fall upon each other, nnd the 
feudal animosities of clanship adding fliel and rage to the rivalry 
of partisan warfare, the destruction of life and property is great. 
Occasionally the people zealously assist their rolers to apprehend 
them, though their exertions depend altogether upon the energy 
of tlie incumbent t an officer in Fuh-kien was recommended for 

Eroinotion bocanse he had apprehended 173 persons, part of n 
and of robbers which l-ad infested the department for yean, and 

though too late, to q\tcnch the flame, and i-aising 
several armies, consulted to fortify Pekin, But the 
eunuchs, who all this while hod deluded the emperor 
with feigned stories, now also regarded not the danger 

tried nnd convicted 1,160 criminals, most or all of whom were pro- 
babably executed. In 1821 there were four hundred robbers 
taken on the borders of Fuh-kien ; in 1827, two hundred were 
seized in the south of the province, and forty-one more brought 
to Canton from the eastward. 'Ike governor oficred 1,000 dollars 
reward, in 1828, for the capture of one leader, and 8,000 dollars 
for another. The judge of the province nut forth n proclamation 
upon the subject in the same year, in which be says there were 
four hundred and thirty undecided cases of robbery by brigands 
then on the calendar; and in 18i6 there were upwards of two 
thousand waiting his decision, for each of which there were per- 
haps five or six persons waiting in prison, or under constraint, 
until the case was settled. These bands prowl in the brge cities, 
and commit great cruelties. In 1830, n party of five hundred 
openly plundered a rich man's house in the western sabnrbs ef 
Canton ; and in Shun-teh, south of the city, £150 was paid for 
the ransom of two persons carried off by them. The Oovernor of 
Canton, in 1831, was attacked by them near the Mailing (or 


he wM in, but contrived to mve themselves in hiH 
ruin, by confederating with the enemy. During this 
time Licungz (Lo-tzc-shung, tlie robber-chief) sciit 
Reveral soldiers in disguise to the court, and furnished 
them with money to drive a trsdo, the better to cloak 
their designs, till ho should come with his army to the 
city walls, and then break forth in mutinies. To this 
plot, designed at court, Licungz added another, viz., 
private correspondence with the prime couucillor 
of 8tat<» ; who, it was said, obsci-viug the emperor's 
^■^Ainess to bo ruined, had agreed with the rebel to 
deliver the city ; but whether it wan so or not, he 
marched with all speed to Pekin, within whoao walls 
wore seventy thousand soldiers under three thousand 
commanders, and the store-houses provided with all 
manner of ammunition, and the walls round about 
planted with great guns, of which the rebels (as they 
afterwards confessed) were exceedingly afraid. But 
that fear soon vanished, for their associates within 
advised them to storm the city, promising to shoot only 
powder without bullets against them, by which means 
Licungz inarched with all his men (anno 1644), in 
April, into the city, the gates being opened for him.' 
Neither did the emperor's party make any long resist- 
ance, for Licungz' soldiers, who till this time had kc|)t 
themselves private, according to their agreement, made 

Plum Ridgo Monntnins) Fan, on lii> departuro from Canton, nnil 
plundered of nbout 10,000 dollars. The roagiatratea of Kian^-almn 
district,'soutli of Cnntoii, were ordered b; their auperiors, the sauiu 
year, to apprehend flvo hundred of the robbcra. The huy pricats 
of Buddha and the Taon monka aomotimea harbour giinga in their 
templea, nnd divide the apoila with them, occaaionally even going 
out themselvea on predatory cxcnraiouo. No mercy la aliown these 
niiscrcanta, wlien taken j but tlie multiplication of executions has 
no effect in deterring thorn from crime. 

' Thia ia the way the Pence party aro acting in Cliina at 
pt^nt. It ia a wondoiful country of ahama and shows. 
Witness the following occurrence at tho Politang Forts, on 
the Peiho river, commanding the approach to Fekin, in tho 
recent expedition : — 

A troop of Mongolian cavalry appeared drown up on the bridge 
and causeway to the left of tho town, wild watched our proceed- 
ings for somu tim ), and then rode off in the direction of the Taku 
forts, doubtless to report our arrival to Sangkolinain. Flags 
also wore flying fVom tho forts, and numbers of men could be 
seen peeping out from behind tho mantlets of the embraanres, so 
that we anticipated some resistance, and aa it took all the evening 
to land the force which had been told off for the operations — vii., 
aeoond brigade of the Firat Diviaion, commanded by Brigadier 
Sutton, and iS,600 Frenchmen, it was determined, I believe, that 
a joint attack should be made next morning by the gunboats in 
front and tho allied regiments in the rear. By sunset tho troopa 
lud poised through the mud and aeizcd the canaeway, without any 
opposition! a but waa then made, and we bivouacked for tho 
night. Meanwhile, shortly after sunset. Sir Hope Orant had 
pushed on with a few men, and entered on tho outskirts of tho 
town, where a Chinaman was seized, who said that tho forts were 
empty and undefended, whereupon Heasra. Parkca and Gibaon, of 
tho consular aervice, and Captain Williams of the Royala, with a 
oonple of men, made him lead them through the town, and, 
kicking open a gate at the rear of the south fort, they found that 
hia atatcment was correct, that there were only a few old wooden 
guna in some of the embraanres, and that the flaga and mantlets 
wore all a sham. A number of infernal machines, however, had 
been VCTy cunningly phced underground just inside the gate, and 
at the bottom of the a:icenta to each cavalier, and had any ono of 
them exploded, it miBht have done considerable damage. The 
man who was reoonnoitrins found the bridge across tho dry ditch 
which iurroundi it trembling with his wc^ht, and, upon a care- 
fill examination being made, it was shown to be ao conatructed 
with levers, &c, as to form a large hammer, which, in the ruah 
of any body of men, would have exploded aome detonating 
powder in eommanication with a largo quantity of gunpowder, 
effiMtnaUy destroying fbrt and aU within it. Of the guns found 


an nproar in the city, which caiuwxi bo great a confusion 
that none knew with whom to side, and every place 
was filled with slaughter. Hereupon Licungz, an con- 
queror, marched through the city directly towards the 
einiHiror's palace, which ho soon took. Tho enemy had 
got the first wall beforo the emperor know of any 
(lunger, for the reliels' confederates (tho eunuchs, who 
had all the command in their own power,) continually 
persuaded the emperor not to fly ; but when they per- 
ceived no possibility of \nn cncn\<c, they acquainted him 
with the loss of the city nnd palace. Tho emperor, 
upon this notice being given, asked first, if any proba- 
bility was left tocHca]ic; but being answered that all 
ways were beset, they say ho wrote a letter with his 
own blooil, in which he accused his eunuchs of 
treachery, and desired Licungz, sincd ho had, by tho 
help of heaven, gotten the empire, that he would 
revenge his full. This done, he took his sword and 
killed his daughter, that she might not full into the 
enemy's hands, and afterwards went into his garden, 
and there (us the most unfortunate emperor, and last of 
tho Taimingiau race), hanged himself with his girdle on 
a plum tree ; and thus ended the house Taiming by a 
robber, which was first raised by the like. After tho 
emperor's example, the kolou, or prime councillor, 
and likewise his queens, besides some of his loyalest 
eunuchs, hanged themselves, with several others in 
tho city, thereby seeming, that after their country's 
manner, to dio with the emperor, which is amongst 
the Chinese accounted a great honour, and sign of 

Adam Schall tells us, that "The emperor (betrayed 
twice in one moment, — once by his eunuchs, and then by 
t1iercbnl!)'confcderates,)mouuted on horseback, followed 
with six hundred horse, and fell into that part of tho 
city through which the enemy cnmo marching ; but 
there tho unhap])y prince ibimd liimself necessitated 
(tho great guns which were planted to defend the gates, 
firing against him, and wanting more aid,) to return 
again to his ])alace, where being arrived, and driven 
into utter despair, ho desired the emprefls his consort to 
hang herself, and advised his three sons to save them- 
selves by flight. He then took up his sword, with iu- 
tention to kill his own daughter, fit for marriage, that 
sho might not live to be defiled ; but she escaped the 
blow by fiight, yet received it on her right hand, which 
she lost ; which done, he went (bereaved of all hope) 
out of the palace again on foot, and ran directly to a 
mountain behind the palace, where, standing stUl, he 
wrote with a pencil, o-i ':.< hem of his imiierial coat, 
with his own blood (r.-. ii « ■■ j said), drawn from his left 
hand, to this effect: 'iViuch joy to the succeeding em- 
peror, Li ! I entreat earnestly, hurt not my people, nor 
employ my councillors.' Which having written, ho 
pulled off'Ius boots,' and throwing away his hat, hanged 
himself with his girdle, on a piece of timber, in a 

aome were only wooden dummies, but a large aupply of Chinem 
rocketa waa there, and the soldiers amused themaelvca by expend- 
ing these harmlessly in the air. 

' Boots ore an important conaidcralion in China. With u», 
among the vulgar, there ia an old superstition of throwing an old 
shoo after a departing fViend for luck. In China, reversing our 
cuatom, aa they do almost invariably, they preaent new boots, and 
keep the old ones. Tlius, wo have it told that "The Fuynen of 
Kwang-tung in 1833, Chu, was a veiy popular officer, and when 
he obtained leave to resign his station on account of age, the 
people vied with each otlier in showing their hearty regret at 



"Thus" {Myn Fiithcr Martini) " ended a i)iinco, pcr- 
hftpB tho Ki'ciitt'Ht in the world,ono who had noHuporior in 
wiHilom, undeintanding, luid good-nature ; who, witliout 
company, forsaken by all at the ago o( thirty-six yearn, 
through neglect and curelemness of his people, came to 
HO niiscnililo an end. Together with him, the name of 
tho empire, viz., Tai-Ming, that is, "of great hriglit- 
ncMM," after it had continued two hundred iind sixty 
ycnrH, and tho whole Im|)erial Family, reckoned to tho 
numlwr of 80,000, were utterly extinguished. 

Tho following day, being the third after tho enemy's 
coming, Licungz marched witli an army of 300,000 
men into the city, and so directly to tlie palace, where 
he took possession of tho throne, and settled himself in 
the sume. 

When the emperor did not appear, Licungz pro- 
clamed 100,000 ducats as a reword for whoever J>rought 
him, or could give information of him ; but at last tho 
body havingbeen found hanging, as before mentioned, the 
rebels, without reverence or compassion (says Martini), 
liy command of Licungz, hewed it in [lieces. 

Yet Schall tells us that, after tho expiration of 
a month, tho Tartars having driven out tho rebels, 
tho emperor was honourably buried, and though not 
laid among the emperors, yet amongst the princes 
their sons, and that all the magistrates, willing or 
not willing, wore forced to come and mourn over 
his grave. 

The remaining party of the robbere plundered tho 
ChincHO houses ; and whoever walked the streets in 
handsome apparel they immediately earned to prison, 
and there, by cruel torments, procured tho money which 
they suspected they had by their clothes ; insomuch 
that none appeared in the streets but tho conquering 
i-eliela. Thirty days this rage continued, while the 
robbers possessed the palace, and ])illaged that and the 
city. The Chinese already desirc<l, ujjon an appointed 
day, to elect Licungz emperor, but ho commanded them 
to desist, because, as some say, ho feared it would bo 
his ruin, for as often a.s he sat n|)on tho throne, he was 
taken with a shivering cold anil pain in his head, and 
thereby comi)ellcd to rise from it (unlawfully taken by 
him), and sit on the ground, as if he had deserved no 
better. Sitting on tho earth, they report, that he 
seemed, in tho eyes of the spectatora, to bo a despicable 
and ridiculous countenance, and rather showed like an 
ape than a man. It is believed that, before he would 
receive tho imperial dignity, he intended fiint to settle 
and quiet the cmi)ire, and, by force of arms, subdue the 
neighbouring princes, allies of the deceased emperor, 
which else might afterwaixis disquiet him. 

The same sad misfortune that befel tho emperor 
Tsung-chin, happened also to the Imj)erial family and 
children. The queen, or lawful empress, obeyed the 
emperor's command at his departure, and hanged her- 
tielf. His women fled wherever they thought to be 
safe from tho rebels, and went to their parents' houses; 
though afterwards by force and policy fetched from 
thence by the Tartars. One of the queens being taken 
prisoner in disguise, having alt'.red her majestic apparel, 
was made a slave to a Tartar ; but not being aMo to 

losing Mm. TliB olil cnstom was observed of retaining his boots, 
ami jircsonting him witli n new pair at every city ho passed 
tlirough, and many otlicr teBtimoiiialsof their regard were adopted." 
The Kuyueu is the licutcnant-govcmor of a province. Tho term 
means "soother," as having to please both parties,— tho one that 
Uaa, and the other that lias to pay. 

undergo such a yoko long, discovered herself, and woi 
thcrou))on sent and kept among the other women 
of the former king, and eunuchs allowed to wait 
upon her. 

The emperor's eldest son, in his eighteenth year, had 
thrown oflfhis royal habits, that ho might not be known, 
and hired himself as servant to a Tartar ; but impa- 
tient of hia master's cruel nature, ho went, after some 
few months, privately from thence to a certain euntu'h 
whom he supposed to bo his trusty friend. This friend 
durst not long conceal him, but advised him to go to 
his sister, who had fled to his grandfather's house. Tho 
unfortunate prince was then obliged, for tho sake of 
mere exiatenco, to discover himself; and, although the 
Tartars spared his life, they condemned him to im- 
prisonment. Some promised to let him have a jirince's 
rcvenucj and honour him with the title of king ; but 
ho who was fallen from tho highest pinnacle, and hod 
a noble heart, would not st()<i|) to mean things ; nay, 
he despised all that v/as proflcred him loss than tho 
empire, and delighted his fancy with music and singing, 
for the better dispersing of his sorrows. 

Many had already discovered who he was, from hift 
being formerly marked on his body, and declared him 
tho emperor's son. Certain passages of the court were 
discovered by him likewise and described, which were 
unknown to all persons. His father's soldiers ond 
officers ])ointiMg after their j>rince with their fingers, 
showed that ho began to Iw publicly known. There 
being some ajiprehension that he woidd form a combi 
nation, from the hatred which he boi-e to the Tartars, 
the possessors of the realm, it was judged convenient to 
dispatch him ; and forty magistrates and martial offi- 
cers were also executed, t/iat he might nvl die without 
company, or want attendance in the other world ac- 
cording to his birth and quality. 

The eldest brother, who had got to Konkin, camo 
almost to the same end, being killed by one of his near 
relation.s, who had there niised himself to bo emperor. 
J3ut if wo credit Father Martini (the writer of "Tho 
History of the Wars of tho Tartars"), the eldest of the 
emperor Tsun-chin's three sons was never heard of, 
though tho robber Licungz made long and strict search 
after him. Whether he got away by flight, or, as some 
say, drowned himself, is unknown. Martini also nays 
that tho two youngest sous fell alive into the rebels' 
hands, who on tho third day caused them to be dragged 
out of the city walls, and their heads to be severed 
from their bodies. 

Wu Sankwci, a relative of the Imjierial family, 
hap|)ened, at the time of the storming of Pekin, to be 
statione<l on tho frontiers to defend them against the 
Mantchus or Tartaiu When ho heard that a robber 
had seized the throne, his indignation exceeded all 
bounds, and taking 7,000 Tartars into hia ])ay, he 
marched to meet the enemy. In a hard-fought battle, 
victory declare<l in his favour, and getting another 
reinforcement of C0,000 Mantchus and Mongols, he 
pressed on to exterminate tho monster Li. In this 
he Euccecded ; but when ho wished to send home his 
Tartar auxiliaries they refused to leave, and in sti-ong 
force marched on the capital. "So great was the 
abundance of choice and |>recious goods" (says a jesuili 
writer, present at this jHiriod), " that the whole country, 
to the borders of tho province of Pekin, a way of ten 
days' journey, lay covered with satins, and all manner 
of embroidered clothes — a thing incredible unless one 
had been an eye-witness." Alter the army had lain 


four dayH boforo llio city, thn Turt<irH worn, by all the 
inhabitants and giiincl»i<g thnt wont into the army, 
rcc«!ived with much joy and fotcheil in ; whiTcupon 
Aniawang, tho luiole to the Torti\roni|K)i-or, wllo coni- 
mandud tho nrniy in behalf of hix nophow, BHki'd if 
they would really entertain and let them in i\n guoHts ; 
and if tliey would, from that timo forward, lio governed 
by tho Tartars ; at which the/ all cried with a loud 
voice, " Thousand and a thousand times, — a thousand 
and a tho\isand years, live tho emperor ; " a wish 
used at this day to tho Chineso em|)vror ; this ended, 
UIMJH tho ChincHu request tho young Tartar emperor 
followed them into tho city and palace — burnt down 
to a heap of rubbish. Tho next day, tho Tartars not 
having houses enough, turned the Chineso out of their 

Tho Chinese, as a UJition, made u hotter fight than is 
generally supposed against their invaders, — indeed, a 
longer and a stronger one than that of tho Saxons 
against the Normans. They stooil by one emperor 
after another with the energy of despair ; and when 
the Tartars insisted that all " loyal Chinose," that is, 
all obedient to themselves, should shavo their heads, 
weara pigtail,^ and adopt the c/iang, or Mantchu coat, the 
nation indignantly flew to arms, and drove an army of tho 
Tartars into tho river Yang-tze-kiang. All would 
now have gone well, had a patriotic tailor of Canton, 
one Ching-che-lung, tho father of the renowned Cox- 
inga, at that timo in command of 4,000 vessels, re- 
mained true to his countrymen, whose cause he had up 
to this time assisted. But Ching-che lung was an am- 
bitious tailor, with a "sold above buttons ;" he dcsiri'd 
to bo made emperor himself; which, when tho Chinese, 
who have a great aversion to parvenus, refused, he 
went over, in tho critical moment, to tho Tartars, who 
had offered him tho rank of generalissimo. Landing 
after this to visit the Tartar general Pei-le, ho was re- 
ceived with all the honours due to his rank. But when 
he again desired to return to his fleet, the Tartar cour- 
teously requested that ho would accompany him to 
court. On his arrival at Pokiii, ho was strictly 
guarded at first, and shortly afterwards put to death ; 
but when the pirates saw these treacherous dealings, 
they rai!'.ed their forces under Ching-chang-kung, and 
ravaged the coast. 

The last pretender to tho Ming throne, descended 
from the royal blood, was Ynng-leih, a Christian prince, 
who assumed the namo of Constantino. His court was 

' " Many," snyi Sir John Davis, " nrc tlio clinnges wliicli may 
bo made in despotic countries, withont the notice or even tlio 
knowledge of the lorgcr portion of the community : but an entire 
alteration in the national costume alTects every individual equally, 
from the highest to the lowciit, and is perhaps of all others the 
most open and dcgniding murk of conquest." This order was re- 
sisted by many, wlio clioso to lose thvir heads rather than f .irt 
with their hairj but tho irandiitc was gradually enforce;!, and hi,3 
now fiir about two ccnturit'S been one of the distiiigni«hing marks 
of a Chinese, though to this day the natives of Fnhkien wear a 
handkerchief around their head to conceal it. It should not 
escape notice that a similar change accompanied the conquest of 
Kngland by the Normans. The smooth chins, short hair, ond 
shaven lip of our own people were adopted to distinguish those 
obedient to the Norman rule, in contradistinction to those Snxons 
who manifested— by preserving the use of the long hair and benrd 
of their ancestors, their aversion to the conquerors, and dotennin- 
ation to free themselves whenever possible. The distinction in 
the tunic of the Saxon, and the Norman coat, the kirtle and the 
cloak, were of the same nature. Sir Walter Scott, in the opening 
scene cf Ivanhoc, makes n special note on this point, in describing 
the dress of Cedric tho Saxon. 


filled with converts, all his generals wore Christians, 
and his wife and mother (in 1G49), wrote a letter to 
tho Poj)o announcing their conversion ; a patriot hero, 
Keang-tsae, also appeared, and routed tho Mantchu 
army in a jiitc/ied battle on two occasions. In a third 
ho fell, pierced by an arrow in the heart, — and with 
him died, for two centuries, tho hopes of China. Tho 
EmjHiror Constantino was driven fr-iu city to city, and 
finally found refuge in Pegu, — returning only to bo 
treachorcHsly strangled by \Vu-san-kwei, tho general 
who hail received, as a reward for first admitting tho 
Tartars, the principality of Yunnan and Kwoi-chow. 
Coxinga alono remained to anuoy tho Tartar o.r<pcror. 
It is told of him, that when ho received the news of 
Yung leih's death, ho was so incensed that ho " attacked 
a Tartar fleet, sunk several of tho vessels, and cut off 
the ears and noses of 4,000 Mantchus." Those )ne« 
ho sent on shore ; but tho Tartars put them to death, 
so that tiio shame put upon them might not spread. 
Tho bravo Coxinga held out until 1CC2, having landed 
upon the island of Formosa and driven out the Dutch, 
— who, in spite of their presumed naval superiority, 
could never get it back, but suffered a defeat with 
their whole fleet, in an engagement in which, however, 
C'l inga full.' The Chinese pirate admiral, who sue- 
c( eilcd, was his son Ching-ke-san, who, at lasi., when 
tired of a roving life, and satiated with plunder, detia-- 
niined " to die decent," and accepted from tho Tartar 
dynasty the office of high admiral of China. 

With him was extinguished the lost spark of 
open rebellion against tho Tartar usurpers, — and with 
him perished, as was then thought, the lust hojH! of 
the Ming family, whose greatness at sea was equal at 
one timo to their si)lendour on the Chineso throne. 
Wo read in tho " History of tho Ming Dynasty," 
published, os we have stiid, in nioi-o than a hundred 
volumes by a Tartarcmiwror in 1792, that in the reign 
of Yung-lo, that great prince had, during twelve years, 
a fleet manned by 30,000 sailors, — which, at divers 
times, went to Manill.t, the Moluccas, Borneo, Java, 
Sumati-u, Tonkin, Cochin China, Camboya, Siam, 
Malacca, Bengal, and Ceylon. They sjHjak of tho 
Peak of Adapi, and tho impression of his foot (using 
their own term Plian-ku, the first demon god, whom 
they ))icturo with a hammer and chisel, actually hewing 
out the heavens !) of Calicut, Surat, Ormus, Aden, and 
of the sea near Me<lina and Mecca. They brought 
back to China enormous riches, and all the princes of 
those countries sent embassies to Yiuig-lo. 

The Empire of China has comprised ono sole and 
undivided monarchy ever since tho year of Christ 
1279, but instead of being regarded from that, as a i)ri- 
vileged country, governed from time immemorial by the 

* The Tartars gave an example, on this occasion, of what can 
be done by a great empire to defend its interior from tlie ravages 
of a piratical enemy. They destroyed all the towns, villages, and 
houses for a depth of two leagues along tho whole extent of tho 
coast, thus leaving a desert between tho devastators and tlie 
interior of tho Cclostiol Empire. "This memorable example," 
says M, Hue, " may enable us to judge what the Chinese are 
capable of, should they any day have to oppose themselves to the 
invasion of a powerful enemy. So long as they possess tho 
conscience of thr invincible force that Ilea in the immense extent 
of their territor, and their vast population, tlicy have nothing to 
fear from tho assault of strangers. When a nation has on ils 
side numbers and spocc, and it is resolved to take full advantapo 
of these two resources, there arc always means to paralyse tho 
learned strategy and the fulminating machines of an unju-st 




siiino constitution, exempt from foreign conquest and 
intestine commotions, tlie only i)cculiarity whioli it 
possesses, in comparison with other empires which have 
disap|ienre(l from tlie earth, is, that — owing perhaps to 
its peninsular situation, at the extromity of the habit- 
able world, and its consequent exemption from the 
sweep of those conquering nations who cuanged 
the iHjoplo whom they ovirthrew, — it lujs preserved 
its manners and usages, in a gi-cat mcasuro un- 
altered, amidst the various iijvolutions and sub- 
jugations which it has experienced.' There h's resulted 

' Cliina, it ought to bo more generally known, vna, i\: the 11th 
contnry, the rlctim of a "Social" Experiment. X o fnmons 
Wan^-ngan-clic, n groat pliilosopliical politician (they hi »c plenty 
of then: in France), got into |X)wcr, when the Emperor Chen- 
tuung dectrod to suiroimd himself with enlightened men, and in 
•pito of the inpositiun of a conBcrv Uive lender, Tw-ma-Ku...'ng 
(prononncod 2>omawhang), ho comluiUd the goTcrnmont on tl.o 
lollowing principlea : — " Xlie State ahould take the entire manage- 
too-t uf > . -nmerce, indnatry, and agriculture into iti own handa, 
with the view of luccouring the working-claHC* and preventing 
the'r being ground to the dutt hv the ricli. TribunaU wore eatn- 
bliahed throughout the empire, which fl«od the price of proviaiona 
and merchnndiic. For a certain number of ycara, tazea wore 

from this state of things, alike prejudicial to the 
pwgresa of a nation, and to the welfare of 
humanity at large, a spirit of cxclusivcucss which 

imposed, to be paid b} the rich, and from which the poor were 
pvcmpt. The tribunala were to decide who waa rich and who waa 
iwor. The sum thus collected was to Ik) reacrved in the eoffera 
of the State, to lie distributed to aged ]>aupers, to workmen out 
of employ, and to whoever should he judgixl to Us in need of it. 
The Htatc was to have the only protection of the soil ; in each 
district the tribunala were to assign the land annually to the 
fanners, and distribute amongst them the seed neccaanry to sow 
It, on condition that the loan was repaid either in grain or other 
possessions after the harvest n as gathered, and (lienr it, ye Begia- 
Irars-Qcneral!) the officers of the tribunals should fU what kind 
of crop was to l>e grown and supply the seed for it! Abundance 
and happiness were thus to .le avurcd to the land, and the 
necessaries of life sold at a nio:*ciate price." The contrary 
took place. Everything was overt ui.'<ed — nothing built up— 
everyone ruined, e^cry one lazy, .is there was no reward 
for industry. At last the great philawphei' atatetman, flnding 
that cveryoiio was s|)eaking against h'.ni, atopped all literature, 
and orderc<l that none but liis own books ahouit be read, as (he 
people were blinded to their own good by the literary men on 
the other side. This was too much j tho wise aid the leanM<^ 
combined, and with one united clauioar of the auTering pcopi* 


has engendered nn overweening Rclf-conceit, nnd con- 
tempt of everything tbat is not Chinese, — feelings most 
prejudicial to intcrcommuvication and commerce. The 
maxim of this government is to nile strangers or 
barixirians like beaats, and not like native subjects ; 
and hence it is not 8ui-])riBiDj,' that local iiuthuritics, 
and the people tiiemselves, should behave towards 
strangers as if they were a degraded order of beings, 
Thoy do not even consider treaties or agreements with 
barluirians binding ; insincerity and falsehood, which 
only lead to distrust and jealousy among themselves, 
lieoome virtues when practised towards strangers ; and 
hence it is, that however much a nnmlier of thougl'tful 
and earnest persons may regi'ot that the civilization 
of outer i-acos should be intruded u^ran an exclusive 
people by force of arms, still, if they will look more 
deeply into the matter, they will find that such action 
must bo ultimately for the benefit of the Chinese 
themselves. They are trampled upon by a foreign 
dynasty — the country is rent by insurrection — there 
is little or no o|H>ning to commerce, to civilization, or 
to the propagation of the Qospel ; the people labour 
under a thousand inconveniences and absuixlitics bund- 
ed down from generation to generation, which inter- 
communication with other nations would sotlen dcwn, 
if not utterly eflTaco. They have no confidence in one 
another, and it is essential to their welfare and progress, 
that such a state of things should be remedied, and 
that they should, as far as possible, be impressed with 
a sense of truth, justice and sincerity. The ways of 
Providence arc often phacure to the limiteil scope of 
our mental conceptions ; i^nd the Chinese, whom some 
look to, as, with the Japanese, as the future dominant 
jiowers of the Far-East, will probably only be roused to 
a sense of their own capabilities and resources by 
collision with otlier people, 


Trr2 story of the " First and Last of the Mings" is 
the story of all China. That of Hnng-Woo is being 
acted over again in the present rebellion under Tien- 
teh (pronounced Tien-tay). Shortly after the events 
in 1841, which led to the cession of Hong-Kong and 
the opening cf the fivo ports, the Chinese Em|K'ror 
Tao-kwang, who, by his haughty disdain of the barba- 
rous nations from without, biul hurried into a war with 
Great Britain, and by so <loing had laid the basis of 
rivil war, and unsap|)ed the foundations of the Mantcliu 
dynasty, died, and was succeeded by his son, a»1io 
assumed tlie title of Hian-fung — " Complete Abim- 
dauco." The new t'm])cror shut himsi^lf up in the so- 
oalled Paradise' — a city within a city — as large as a 

the Socialbti were driven out oi' '^liiiin. T'noy niMod tl") Great 
WM in largo troop*, and wanderoil into tlio uvwrt of Turlary. 
Hen they oomniunicat«d tlieir unquiet >pirit to tlio Mongi>i trilicMi, 
and the whole of Tartary woi in n fernicnt with tlie rci^uo or 
CliiiMM elTilliation, Nothing win wiintvd 'jut a man to orKunitu 
and command, and Oengliia Khun np|>vurcd. Ho gatlicrad 
together the wild and tcrribio horde* of theu regions, and led 
them in iuinientc Inttalioni oven into Kuiope, cruwing and over- 
whelmiiig all that came in hii way, 

■ Xlie emiwrar 'ive* by rule : but, according to the unial nialiion 
of thii neopio, that rule muat necowariiy be quite at variance witi' 
our notioM. Aboul three o'clocli in the afternoon, nr f"-r .,;, 
latest, the day clowis, and all rotiro to bed in the lulace, both in 
winter and <umm*r, Tlie hour for rlaing ia one o'clock in the 
inoming. After ha geta up, the emperor goe* to wait on Ida 
mother, irho, In 'irder to better maintain her dignity, loinettiiic* 


fortified town, surrounded by flatterers, eunuchs, and 
concubines. A new order of things was inaugurated. 
Mu-chang-ha and Ki-u were dismissed, and their suc- 
cessors were selected for their inveterate liostility to 

It is not surprising that under these circumstances 
a rumour became prevalent, and was universally re- 
ceived, that the end of the Tsing or Mantchu dynasty 
was at hand. The period of the downfall was even 
fixed by prophecy for the forty-eighth year of the 
existing cycle, which cori-eaponded to a.d. 1851. It 
was jiroclaimed that the chief who first unfurled the 
standard of the ancient native Chinese dynasty of the 
Mings would ascend tho throne. Such an individual 
was not long wanting. He was found in tho person 
of a youth, apparently without intellect, enterprise, 
or even physical courage to recommend him, but who 
was declared to be a lineal descendant of the Mings, 
and who assumed the name of Tien-teh — "Celestial 
Virtue," but is also variously designated as Tye-ping, 
Tai-ping-wang, &c. Barely twenty-threo years of ago 
at the outbreak of the insurrection, this tool of tho 
more secret and ambitious designs of others was always 
attended by an aged and mysterious counsellor, whose 
connc 'tion with him has never been perfectly ex- 

The province of Kuangsi, where the insiurection 
first showed its hydra-head, is a mountainous i-egioi 
as vast as the estate of many a sovereign in Central 
Euro|)e, in tho south-western iwrtion of the enipiiv. 
The less accessible ])orlion of tliis district is tenanted 
by tho Miao-tze — a warlike, fi-eebooting, inde])endent 
race. Backed by such hardy and intrepid mountain(>ers, 
Ticn-toh, or rather his generals, for he never ex|>08ed 
himself to the rebuke of rashness by participating in 
active hostilities, had little difficulty in subjecting tho 
city of Ho, and crossing tho frontiers of Kuang-si to 
enter into the province of Kuan-tong(Canton), The em- 
jicroi, faithful to his policy of retrogression, despatched 
that unscrupulous barbarian, Lii., to opfioso the insur- 
gents. But Lin died on the way, ■vnd was succeeded 
by Li-siug-wou. The new imperial commissioner 

declines to receive him. Ho prostrates himself ootaido tho door 
and rotuma. From thonco ho goes to light some accutcd alieks 
before nn idol. Somewhat befuro three o'clock, tlie grandcea of 
tlie empire, who seek nudieuco, arrive, lluaineas U transacted, 
nnd bvforo sunriao ail is idrcady tiniahud. In Kum|)c, vi\\e.\ a king 
shows himself in public lie delights in seeing liiinsclf surroundnl 
witli bis |ieople, and receives with picasuro the tribute of their 
iwciamiitions and iKiiimge, In Pel<iii, and wliorever the em|icror 
resides, u hcnever he g'x's abroad, every one cloaca his door, window, 
and siiop; however, it ia notorious tliat the Cliincso never fail to 

Iiecp at him tlirougb the cliiiiV" Not a »ou\ dure bo found upon 
lis pas5.t^o ; nU liiive tri' iliglit lH>forcliaiid, and woo to wlio- 
cver is not licet cnougli. Notwitiistaiiding tlieso honours, the 
emperor of Cliiiin is a recluse in liis palace of I^y-'lieii, wliere ho 
chietly resides, and be knows but very little of what is going on 
in ills state. The alxiird ceremony wlilcli surrounds him renders 
him inaccessible to trutb. Every coinniunication made to him 
readies lilni nianulacturcd by liis tat-ekang, or tiai/iiang, the 
mnndariiM of his palace j nnd, iK'sides, lie ia so infatuated with his 
pretended grandeur, so uiiplialiic in tlie midst of liuiiinn vicissi- 
tudes, so uninanageablo in reverses, so terrible, so ridiculous, so 
impliicablo in bis vengeance, tiitit tlio ^ri*at art of tlie court is to 
decei^t^ him, and {lersuiule biiii lie bus Ihh'Ii always succesHnil, The 
in.';prv\ors sent into tlie provinces are infiiilibly corniptcd, and the 
re|»rt which they give will lie moulded occordin/i lo cMitom, 
Thus Ills armies, which ho supposes to In iiiiiumcrnblo and invin- 
cible, have little exislenco exci'pt on |iii|K>r, and the manilariiis, 
who understand their traile, keep tor theiiiselvcs, as an addition to 
their salarica, tlio enormous iuma destined fur the pay of thcao 
muster rolls of soldiers. 



Instead of conveying Tien-teli, chained, to the foot of 
the throne, as he had been ordered to do, contented 
himself with attributing all the evils to want of energy 
on tlie part of Sin, viceroy of Kuang-si. 

Tlic insurrection in the meantime kept making head. 
All who joined iu the movement cut otf their pigtails, 
allowed their hair to grow long, and replaced the Tartar 
clouk by the old garment opening in front, which was 
worn in the time of the Mings. The imperial coni- 
niissioner Lin established his head-quartera at Kuay-lin, 
and he appointed as his lieutenant the ferocious Chaw- 
tian-tsin, governor of Ku-nan. Tliis was the savage 
who cut olf the lower lips of the opium smokers of 
Hu-nan. These chieftains began their cnisade against 
the insurrectionists by putting the suspected and the 
compromised to death, instead of boldly attacking the 

Such a mode of proceeding was naturally followed 
by no satisfactory results. Tien-tch, although kept in 
the background, was invested with the canary-coloured 
imperial robes, and his portrait was disseminated 
througliout the provinces, no doubt with a view of 
prepimng the minds of the people to the revived 
costumi of the ancestral kings. The emperor became 
exceedingly exasperated at the dimensions which the 
insurrection was assuming, and he despatched his 
prime minister, Sai-chang-ha, accompanied by two 
other Mantchu Tartars, Ta-hing and Ta-sung-ha — the 
latter ucained with the slaughter of the shipwrecked of 
the yerbuddha — to Kuay-Liu, 

It wa'4 at this time that the report became current 
that not only was Tion-teh a descendant of the kings, 
but tliat he was also a Christian, and that he overthrow 
idols and destroyed pagodas wheravcr he met them 
on his passage. Opinions are divided as to who 
contrilijtcd most towards disseminating this rumour 
— the insii'-^ents, who wished to conciliate the Euro- 
peans, or the imiMrialists, vho were desirous of injuring 
the insurgents in the opii-ions of the people. The 
progress of the insurrection, desultory aii it was, 
was at the same time not witliout its fatal eflccts 
on the countries in which war was waged. The 
Tartar gein i il, Ilu-lan-tai, dcs|tatched from Cantcn 
to confront the rebels, was sorely worsted near Lo-w-i. 
Sin himself then entered upon a campaign, aided and 
abetted by Sam-kwa, the prefect of Shanghai, but 
could effect nothing either witli gold or with arms, so 
he contented himself with sending bulletins of apochry 
phal victories to the Son of Heaven. 

In July, 1851, an attempt was made ui)on the life 
of the emperor, and, in consequence, eighteen grand 
mandarins and every member of their families were 
put to death. On the 29th of September in the same 
year, the rebels obtained a great victory at Yung-gau, 
and many important cities full in consequence into 
their hands. By the end of ISiil, their triumphs 
wero so nui'\erous, that the Gazette of Fukin ceased to 
register the victories obtained by the Tartars, in order 
to record the advantages obtained by the Chinese. 
All the fortilied towns thro\ighout the empire wero 
put in a state of defence, and to|)ographic plans wero 
publishe<l of the progress of the insurrection, and of 
towns and districts that had been successively occu- 
pied. It is stated, that the Chinese, at the onset, 
spared the inhabitants, and allowed those who chose 
to depart with their goods, when they took |M>s«e8sion 
of any new city, but that, when the peaceAd uerohanta 
and tradespeople took advantage of this clemenoy, the 

Tartar trooj>3 uniformly despoliated them, and, if they 
attempted to defend themselves, slew them without 
mercy. " You arc," exclaimed the indignant citizens 
to the Imperialists, "as mice before the rebels, and 
tigers to us." 

In the meantime Sin had offered eighty thousand 
taels for the head of Tien-teh, and that of his coun- 
cillor, that is to say, individually, twenty thousand 
taels less than the robels had ollered for his own 
cranium. But, no heads coming, he invented, in 
order to get back to Canton, the abominable falsehood, 
and which was published in the Fekin Gazette, that 
the Portuguese of Macao wero about to invade the 
Celestial Em])ire! 

The rebels — and it is an importiiat point to notice 
as a lesson for the guidance of civilised nations— did 
not care to preserve the places which they captured. 
It appears that they disregarded the Foos, or first-class 
cities, and Nans and Choos, or cities of the second and 
third class, with some few exceptions, alike; their 
object was to possess themselves of Nankin, the ancient 
capital of ^he Ming dynasty, and after levying the 
means necessary for paying their troojM, they evacuated 
each town in its turn. But in a country so ])eculiarly 
centralised as everything is in China, so long as Pekiu 
remains in the hands of the Mantchus, they will pre- 
serve the empire of the Central Land. So also is it 
there, and4liere only, that nations, baffled, traitorously 
astiaulted, and subjected to all kinds and descriptions 
of debasing indignities at the hands of a set of miserable 
mandarins, must seek for satisfaction. 

This victory was followed by the subjection of 
Hu-chu-fu, in the province of Canton. £uroi)eans 
had tlms a better opportunity of becoming acquainted 
with the tactics of the Chinese, and they ascertained 
that they advanced to the assault in different liodies 
led on by independent chiefs, but all acting in one 
cause — that of the overthrow of the Tartar dynasty. 
A new manifesto was also published by the Chinese at 
this epoch, which spoke, like all former ones, of a dis- 
memberment of the empire. ^Vhen once they got to 
Fekin, it was said, the land would be divided amongst 
the different chieftains. This may or may not be a 
deception on the part of one or more leaders to procure 
adherents, but it is interesting to know that any de- 
basement of the imiierial power by civilised nations 
may possibly lead to the dismemberment of this vost 
ogglomcmtion of j)coplo with different habits, mannerb, 
and feelings. At the least, a confederation of feudal 
sovereigns would result from the inauguration of a 
new state of things. Tlie different societies, so power- 
ful in China, already understand this perfectly, and 
are preiNired to act in such a sense when the time pro- 
pitious for such a change shall ariive. In the same 
manifesto the decrees of Heaven are spoken of. " They 
have prostrated themselvr they announce, "before 
the Suiireme Being, after daving learned to worshio 

The Tartar gcnci-al, Hiilun-tui, determined ujion 
avenging the disasters of which the province of I'ing- 
lo had been the theatre, marehed against the rebels at 

' Snbieqaeiit ]mx'Iainiitioii», more etpcdnUy one iaiued by Vuiig, 
King of tho Eoot, anil 8ini\, or Si-uuiig, Kini; of the Wett, lipve 
not only alluilcd to the Sa|iranie Lord, our Heavenly Father, who 
created the henven and earth, and all that therein fa in ^ daya, 
■mt to the Old TMtame. t, but alao to tho Lord Juua, the Saviour 
of the world, who wni incorpomted in the country of Jodaa, and 
iuAircd fbr the rcdcmptioD of mankind. 


the head of on army of thirteen thousand men. The 
forces met on the banks of the Kway-kiang, and, as 
usual, the Imperialists were defeated, with the loss of 
half their number by desertion and wounds. There- 
upon Sin pulled his grey moustaches with vexation, 
and hit upon a notable plan to repair tho damage 
done. Ho sent off four thousand buffaloes with resin- 
ous torches attached to their horns, accompanied hy 
four thousand soldiers, who were to turn them adrift, 
the torches having been previously liglitetl, into tho 
insurgent camp. The reljels, warned of this clever 
stratagem, lot the buffaloes go quietly by, and fell 
upon their guard, destroying one half of their number. 
The insurrection had spread by this time to Hai-nau, 
that great mountainous and yet fertile island, whoso 
aborigines have never been subjected by the Chinese, 
and the possession of which by Great Britain would, to 
a certain extent, counterbalance the power lately ob- 
tained by France in Cambodia and Cochin China. It 
appears that, as in tho province of Kwang-si, the 
native mountaineers abetted tho insurgent Chinese iu 
their rebellion, and they soon possessed themselves 
of Kiungchu-fu, tho capital, and of other chief 

To the north, the insurrection had ako spread iuto 
the provinces of Hu-nan and Hu-iwy, which, for 
brevity's sake, may be spoken under their older 
common name of Hu-kwang. They wej^ hilly or 
rather mountainous districts, with a comparatively 
cold climate, and the iuhabitants subsist mainly on 
com and vegetables. The progress of the insurrection 
was not less rapid in these provinces than in the two 
Kwangs. Almost all the chief cities, as well .is the 
second-class towns, fell into their hands without 
scarcely striking a blow. The people and their leaders 
alike went over to the national cau><o. True to their 
original system, the insurgents a])propriated to them- 
selves the public treasures aud Imperial tribute, but 
they always respected private ])roperty. As to the 
unlucky mandarins, they had no other alternative but 
to hang themselves in despair. Tien-teh remained all 
this time in a strong position in tho mountains of Tsc- 
king, not far from Kway-lin. That wonderfully intel- 
ligent viceroy. Sin, thought that he would now iiirthel 
illiutrate his career by entering into negotiations with 
this mysterious personage. Tien-teh contented himself 
upon this occasion with asserting his claim to tlin 
throne as a descendant jf tho Miugs, and declared 
that the time had come when tho usurping Tartar 
dynasty of the Tsings should withdraw to their own 
country. A further attempt was made shortly after 
tliis to carry Kway-lin by assault, but the insurgents 
recoiled before so strong a place well defended with 
cannon. The Tartar general, Hulan-tai, however, 
received a wound on the knee upon this occasion, 
^hich was rendered fatal by national ])rejudices. The 
issistance of a surgeon was sought for from Canton ; 
but as no stranger was allowed to penetrate into the 
interior, Hu-lan-tai had to go to him, and he ]>cri8hed 
on the way ! 

A strange rumotu also became current in this country 
of lies at this time. It was neither more nor leas than 
that Tien-Uih had been made a prisoner, and conveyed 
to Pek in in chains. The Gazette of Pokin even annoiuiced 
the condemnation of the pretender to death. His last 
dying speech and confession were also published at 
length in the same official sheet The chief object of 
this notable publication was to implicate the Chang-ti, 


I or Protestants, and uoro especially tho secret society 
founded by OutzlaS) and known as the " Chinese 
Union." This comedy was another ofispring of the 
fertile and ingenious brain of Sin, the viceroy of the 
two Kwangs. He had got hold of a minor rebel chief, 
and had sent him to Pekin, ticketed as the veritable 

In the meantime the insurgents experienced the 
first reverses iu the north. Attacked at Chao-chu-fu, 
they were defeated with the loss of some four hundred 
men, killed, wounded, and prisoners. A few days 
after they experienced another defeat at Yang-chu-fu, 
and this was accompanied by a sad disaster to their 
fleet of junks, which was partly consumed in an attempt 
made to fire the Imperial fleet They took their re- 
venge at Kway-jrang, which was carried by assault, and 
the war, like all civil wars, having become envenomed 
by prolonged struggling, assumed now a more grievous 
aspect — the public buildings were destroyed and bui-nt, 
the mandarins were put to death, and the inhabitants 
who had sided with the Impeiialists had to purchase 
their lives and property by heavy pecuniary sacrifices. 
The family of the Sins, the most wealthy in the pro- 
vince, was mulcted in the sum of 200,000 toels. 
Wealthy patriarchal families of this description exist 
iu each of tho eighteen provinces of the Celestial Em- 
pira Three or four generations live together, on the 
same property, under one ancestor ; but all luive some 
pursuit, for in China, the opposite to us, the man who 
gains his bread by industry is more esteemed than he 
who lives U]x>n his revenues. 

In tho month of September, 1S52, Tien-teh esta- 
blished his headquarters at Uing-gon, a walled city, 
admirably situated, and not far from Kway-lin, the 
head-qiuirters of the ingenious Sin. In the mean- 
time, in consonance with the political theory advo- 
cated by tho embodiment of " celestial virtue" of a 
federal empire, the rebels of Hn-nan proclaimed a new 
sovereign, without in any way infringing the rights of 
the descendant of the Mings. The whole disi>osable 
force of tho insurgents, estimated at eighty thousand 
men, next concentrated itself at Khu-chu-fu, led on by 
chiefs i!qual in their rights, preiiaratory to the descent 
of tho Yang-tse-kiang, the most disastrous of all the 
campaigns during the insun-ection. Several more 
towns had fallen into the hands of tho Chinese. At 
one, Tao-chu, the Tartars hit upon the happy expe- 
dient of tuniing the river upon the enemy, but it only 
destroyed the mts— tho first time probably that the 
race had been exterminated by Tartars. 

The Emperor, humiliated by so many disasters, re- 
called his old and faithful councillors, Ki-chan and 
Ki-in, to the ministry; Hing-gan, another liberal, was 
named prime minister, in the place of Sai-chang-ha ; 
our old friend Sin was appointed to the government of 
tho two Hus, and Y replaced him at Canton and in 
tho two Kwangs. But with these changes of coun- 
cillors Hian-fung did not change his policy. The Son 
of Heaven never deviated in his hostility to European 
barbarians; not even the services which they proffered 
at the most trying moments were capable of softening 
down that intttnsity of hatred which he has sucked 
with his Tartar mother's milk. 

The rcliels failed in an attack upon Clmng-cha, the 
capital of Hu-nan, a beautiful city situated on the 
borders of the Siang, which flows out of a great Like 
into the Yang-tse-kiang, and backed by wooded moun 
taina This city is celebrated for an annual regatta, in 




which boatH, roprosenting all tlw funtaatic animalH 
created by the imagination of the chililrcu of the 
Celestial Eiupii-e, for prizes. They were more 
successful, led on by one of their most distinguished 
chiefs, Tai-peng-wang, at Yt-chu, where they obtained 
great booty, and two hundred junks, with which they 
were enabled to navig.vte the river a» fur as Yang-chii- 
fu. It is to be observed here that the viceroy of the 
westerly and mountainous province of Kway-clm had 
always excused himself from sending aid to the Im- 
perial cause on the plea that the [irovinco was ravaged 
by rebels. The fact apiiears to bo that these moun- 
taineers, always vassals more than subjects, have 
riirely, if over, l)een well affected towards the Mantchii 
dynasty. The hilly region of Chang-tong, inhabited by 
a peaceable, industrious, and well-affected class of 
people— the birthplivce of Confucius — also declared in 
favour of the iusuri-ection, and slew their governor. 
The descendants of the philos.opher dwell in this dis- 
trict, and number more than a thousand. They have 
lived there respected and honoured by all parties for 
now twenty centuries. Where are the descendants of 
the great philosophers, moralists, and of the benefactors 
of humanity in Europe 1 

All these increasing evils woro augmented by n 
deficiency in the funds, which began to assumo an 
as|)ect 08 alarming as that of the insurrection. Tho 
governors of provinces could give no account of the 
monies entrusted to them. All they kept asking for was 
mor« money in order to be able to carry on the war. When 

they were modomtc in their demands, they contented 
themselves with declaring iliat they hod forty thousand 
men on foot; when they wore extravagant they boasted 
of one hundred thousand followers. The Son of Heaven 
is tho most impudently robbed man in his empiivi. 
Uia ministers rob him, the governors rob the minuters, 
the prefects rob the governors, and so on down to the 
scullion. It is one universal, organised system of 
plunder. Under such a pressure, the Bhnperor issued 
an edict calculated to debase a nation more than any 
that, iierhapa, '^as ever before issued by terrestrial 
moniirch. It is imimssiblo to give it at length, albeit of 
rare interest ; suffice it, that it openly permits the sale of 
all places and dignities, even of judges, and authorises 
rebellion, vice, and even crime to bo indemnified by 

The rebels continued, in the meantime, the descent 
of tho Yang-tse-kiang, and obtained possession of 
Ilu-chang-fu, the capital of the province of Hu-pay, 
and containing at that time some four nundred thou- 
sand inhabitants. They also succeeded in obtaining 
possession of one of the most remarkable districts in 
China, the oft described three cities, Hu-cbang, Han- 
yang, and Ilan-chu, situated at the junction of the 
river Han with tho Yang-tse-kiang ; the first on the 
right bank of tho Ilan ; tho second on the left, and the 
third on the opposite bank of the Yang-tse-kiang, and 
not less celebrated for their ])opalation, wealth, in- 
dustrial movement, and myriads of junks, than for 
picturesque detail of the parti and the genenl 






magnifioenoe of the whole, Sihee the period now in 
question, our enterprising war steamem have made 
their way up to this great oommeroial centre of China) 
and, alas ! found it sadly fallen off in every respect 
from what had been depicted by different traTeliers 
previous to the ravages of this most frightful civil 

The fact of the full of the Three Cities of Hu-peh, 
certified by imperial proclamation, carried with it alarm 
throughout the whole empire. Kot a town but made 
its levies, and prepared for war. The paucity of mili- 
tary resources possessed by China may be judged o( 
when it is known that Shanghai, with a large floating 
population (floating in the real, and not the received 
sense of the word), and a resident population of one 
hundred thousand inhabitants, could only furnish a 
contingent of a hundred regulars, and the same number 
of volunteers. The populace, especially the maritime 
portion, as experience has since shown, reserved them- 
selves for action when there were greater chances uf 

When the Chinese party had thus obtained posses- 
sion of the richest province of the empire, Kiang-nan 
and Kiang-si, their loaders, assumed a real importance, 
and more correct information was obtained as to their 
individuality. Tai-ping-wan, we use only his assumed 
name, " the great pacificator," was the commander-in- 
chief, and he had with him four kings, his colleagues : 
Tung-wang, king of tho east, a little spare man, about 
thirty-five years of age, and pitted with small-pox ; 
Il-wang, king of tho west, young, active, and brave, 
the Achilles of this pleiad of kings, but since dead ; 
Nan-wang, king of the south, a man of letters ; and 
Pay-wang, king of the north, young, and of great 
strength and intrepidity^ the hero of tho insurrec- 
tion. Such were the five chiefs whoso army now acted 
in concert, and they were aided and abetted by a great 
number of inferior oflicera. Two ministers are also 
deserving of mention, as they may play an important 
part should tho Chinese party be successful, and carry 
the day against the Mantchu Tartars. One is a little, 
sharp, clever personage, Fung-y-uhang, by name ; the 
other is a thin, ugly, and bony, but a highly educated 
man, and tho author, it is supposed, of most of the 
proclamations issued by the insui-gents ; this is the 
person who is believed to be a Chang-si, or Protestant, 
and a memI>erof the " Chinese Union," if not an actual 
disciple of Qutzlaff's. His name is Chi-ta-kaL 

After they obtained possession of the triple city of 
ITu-poh, the rebels continued tho descent cf tho Yang- 
tse-kiang,and occupied successively Kin-kiang, Oan-kin, 
and Hu-hu. Obtaining possession, at the same t' j> 
of all the junks and merchants vessels that were on 
the river, the five kings made their appearance before 
Nankin, > -'''h a formidable fleet and an army of fifty 
thousand me.>. Nankin, with its five hundi-ed thou- 
sand inhabitant had been the capital of the empire 
under the Ming t Chinese dynasty. What remains 
in the present day of this once great city, occupies, 
like the existing t. \sments of Bagdad — the city of 
KhaUfk— only a smi U extent of the circuit of the 
walls, which embraced an area three times tho extent 
of Paris. The land is now cultivated where there 
were formerly streets, and the grass grows on the quays 
where the junks used to lie in a triple row. Yet 
nothing can exceed the fertility of the province of 
Kiang-nan. It surpasses alike Flanders, Belgium, and 
Lombardy. The fertile alluvium of the Yang-tae- 

kiang is furrowed by a thousand canals fhll of fish, and 
lined with bamboos and willows. The plains between 
are covered with ycUow cotton, rice, fruit, and 
vegetables that yield two crops in tho year. Scarlet 
and mother-of-pearl pheasants enliven the scone. This 
prorinco alone supports thirty-eight millions of in- 
habitants, ten times as many as Belgium, and more 
than all France put together. 

Whilst the army of the five kings was gathered 
around the old monument of the Chinga — the axis, as 
it were, of an extinct dynasty — the well-known nine- 
storied pagoda— the Emperor was raising his wife by 
proclamation in the Kin-sin-pao — the official gazette 
of Pekin, and the Moniltur of the eighteen provinces, 
and of three hundred and sixty millions of people — 
to the rank of Empress associate. Sin was deiiosed, 
and tho aid of ships purchased from the Anglo- 
Americana, and of rusty guns bought from the 
Portuguese of Macao, was sought for, but all in vain : 
the people of the old capital of the Chings naturally 
sided with those who proclaimed the revival of tho 
dynasty, and the re-establishment of their city as tho 
capital of the empire. Nankin soon capitulated to 
the insurgents, who have held it and the mouths of 
the Yang-tse-kiang ever since. The Chinese party 
may be barbarians : in that they only imitate their 
rivals, the Mantchus. They may have destroyed cities 
and massacred tho inhabitants, where they met with 
prolonged opposition; they may have since been beaten 
by the Mantchu Tartars, when they crossed the Hoang- 
ho, or Yellow River, on their way to Pekin; they moy 
havo manifested a hostile bearing to Europeans, owing 
partly to the misrepresentation of their countrymen, 
and partly to the attitude assumed by the Europeans 
themselves ; they may have treated Sir George 
Bonham's mission scurvily, and their chief may, in 
Oriental extravagance, have gone so far as to designate 
himself " Brother of Our Saviour." It is an Eastern 
expression, as they say Son of God. But they have 
some redeeming points about thcni; they have over- 
thrown idobtry, they receive the Word of God with 
the greatest deference nud eagerness ; they call us 
brothers, and they are engaged in printing tho Bible 
to a very large extent. There cannot be a (|ucstion, 
then, but that, with all their faults, they present the 
best material with which to work out tho regeneration 
of China. If, after the lapse of so many years, they 
have been unable to expel the reigning dynasty, 
still they hold possession of the richest and most 
wealthy and central provinces of the Flowery Laud. 
Of the four most important and central marts of 
China, Chu-sin, on the Yellow Kiver, Fu-slmn, Han- 
chu, and King-tse-chin, three are on the vast and 
populous plain of the Yang-tse-kiang, and in the hands 
of the Chinese ]>arty. In those of the brokea-down 
Mantchus, there only remain a few strongholds, the 
ports maintained by Europea n forces, nud the northerly 
provinces of Fe-cheli, or Pay-chi-li, Clian-si, and 


The vast empire of China is divided into three 
valleys, by three great rivers : the Pearl River, at the 
sea board of which lies Canton and Hong ; tho Yung- 
twi kiaiig. or " Son of the Ocean," at tho mouth of 
which lie Chusan and Shanghai; and the Yellow 
River, on the other side of which lies Pekin. It is 



goograpliicnlly boimtled on tlio south find oast by tho 
Pacific Ocean, on tlio north by tho Yn chain of moun- 
tains, nnd tho Great DcHort of Gobi, or tho "Sea of 
Sand ;" to tho west by tho mountains of Thibet ; and 
to tlio sotith-wost by the loss elevated ranges that 
extend along tho limits of tho UurmcHO empire and 

Tlio position of tho Chineso empire at the present 
moment is truly deplorable. It is pressed ujion, on 
tho coast line, by Franco and England ; on the side of 
its northern frontier, by tho Russians : and, upon tho 
south and in tho centre, by itn own i)coplo, who 
seem resolved to extirpate tho Tartar government. 

It will be seen that for the purposes of Euroiican 
trade, the river communication of China is one of tho 
utmost importance, and to tlii.s point wo must draw our 
readeiij' attention. Of the three great rivere — Canton 
has alreotly mado us ncqimintcd with tho Pearl — the 
Yellow River, from tho shitting of its watei-s (which, 
of latp, have destroyed tho Grand Cuual), is of minor 
ini)H)rtance as a means of communication from tho sea 
board, but tho Yang-tse-kiang stands unrivalle<l by 
any other river in tho world, as regards its population, 
its wealth, and the enormous traffic that takes placo on 
its waters. Thei'e is a gi-eater trade carried on between 
tho eighteen pi-ovinces of China than between all 
Europb and tho rest of tho worlil. If we wish to have 
a share in that trade, wo must go up to Ilan-chu,' 
whore wo slmll tiiid a new market for our manu- 
factui-cs, and means of distributing them in the 
interior among millions who have never heard of 
them. No real progress will bo mado till wo have 
gained theio two ^Hrints — free access to the tea and 
silk districts and tho central marts there, and the 
right to navigate tho Yang-tse-kiang, and to enter tho 
great cities on its banks and those of its tributaries. 
Tho ]>opulation of tho great plain to the Yang-tse- 
kiang is somewhere about ono hundred millions, or 
about three and a-half tiroes the population of the 
United Kingdom, and the navigation of the Yang-tse- 
kiang will utford us tho moans of controlling the 
Cliiuesc, and dictating to them terms of fairness and 
justness in our intercoui-se. It is of the first imimrtance 
that access to this district should be secured to us : it 
appears to be the most important mart in Asia; half 
the Manchester and Leeds goods that are sent to China 
have already found their way there. If a line of Euro- 
pean commerce wcro o|)ened, sea-going shiiH would 
leave their ciirgoes at Shanghai, and steamers would be 
employed on the river. Compare tlio Yang-tse-kiang 
with the Mississippi, there are no two rivers so nearly 
alike. ' But there is this difierence, that while one has 
a population of one hundred millions on its banks, the 
other has not more than ten or twelve millions. Now 
whdn we come to consider tho immense number of 
steamers running on the Mississippi to supply the 
wants of those ten millions; we can form some idea 
of the enormous number of ve..sels there must be on 
the Yangtso-kiang to supply the wants of that vast 
population of ono hundred millions, or more. Tho 
Mississippi and its tributaries have in constant em- 
ployment more than a thousand steamboats, and many 
of these of very large size; and were tho same class 
of steamers introduced on the Yang-tso-kiang that 

' Fu Bignifin, In Cblneie, tlie first order of towns i ehu, of tlio 
Mcondt '*>■> of tlio third i all tiictt) iro town* bavbie walU 
around them. 

i-un on tho American rirerB— TeHela drawing Aroni 
thirteen indies to three feet of water— it would inevi- 
tably givo an enormous impetus to tho traffic of that 
r'oat river. 

:\ s we ascend the Yang-tse-kiang, the cities are found 
' sadly desolated' by prolonged civil war, Han-kow, 

Han-chu, is the most central spot in the empire, 
from whence foreign trade might i-adiate. The Funcus, 
Captain Shcrard Osboi-n, drawing sixteen feet of water, 
reached this groat and important central mart. The 
river is navigable much further np, and beyond aro 
caravan routes to Nepal and India — tho ancient com- 
mercial lino between tho extreme cast ond tho central 
east — beforO ships went to India by the Cope of Good 
Hope. If the Yang-tse-kiang is not the longest river 
in the world, being three thousand miles, if it does not 
drain so large an area even ns the Amur— 136,600 
to 145,000 square miles — it ia universally admitted 
to be one of tho most important, having eo 
many populous cities containing one hundred millions 
of people on its banks, and traversing as it does the 
centre of one of the richest and most productive 
countries in tho world. The trade of Shanghai in 
exports alono is now About £12,000,000 sterling per 
annum, paid for by Manchester and Leeds goods, bar 
silveriand opium. To what extent tliis trade might be 
extended in the valley of tho Yang-tse-kiang it would 
be futile to speculate upon, but it opens pros])ects cvoi. 
far beyond that, and which extend to the very heart 
of Thibet. 

As you proceed up the river, it will be found that 
the population is not so much collected into largo 
villages as in the south, but scattered over the 
country in farms and hamlets, imparting to the other- 
wise uninteresting scenery that air of domestic comfort 
and civilization which is moi« particularly the charac- 
teristic of Belgium and the low countries. Every- 
where the population are industriously engaged in 
agricultural pursuits ; uot an incli of ground seems 
uncultivated ; not a resource neglected for increasing 
the fertility of the soil. Tho whole country is in- 
tersected with water communication, lEOst of (he 
channels being a combination of the natural and arti- 
ficial, and tho sails of junks are visible above the 
level of the country, through which they seem im- 
pelled by some mysterious and hidden influence. In 
spring (about Febniary), a thick hoar frost covered 
the fields in early morning, and a good coal fire is 
enjoyed at night. 

Half way up the Yang-tse-kiang, also known by 
the name of the Blue River, it entera the province of 
Scatchcwean at a distance of about 000 miles to Thibet 
Here, at the distance of nearly 500 miles from the sea, is a 
coal district, and here also ai-e tho famous Salt Wells 
of Onchar, where the Chinese ai'o in the daily habit of 
holing artesian wells, which not rarely pass through 
coal. The gas from some of these wells is used to 
evaporate the water and make salt, which it contains 
in the proportion of one-fifth. On up the river you 
will see officera who collect tho salt duties. It is the 
income-tax of China — every one cats salt, and when 
you tax salt you tax everybody. 

The Yang-tse-kiang is regarded as the largest, tho 
deepest, and tho most abundant river in the world. It 
{tosses first, as wo ascend from the sea, through the 
province of Kiangsen and runs post Chekiang and 
Nankin, tho capital of Southern China, now in 
possession of the rebels. It then pasBoa upward* 



through the province of Anhui for two hundred miles, 
through large towns and first-ctosa citiea, until the 
provinces of Hu-pch and Ila-nan are reached, the one 
on the north and tlie other on its south bank. Hero 
grow the finest teas, wliich have hitlterto been carried 
to Canton on men's backs over the mountains, instead of 
being placed on board our ships, which can sail up hero, 
if permitted. Here are lakes, narrow rivoRt, and 
canals intersecting the country on all side; ; and just 
licre the Yang-tso-kiang unites with the river Han, at 
u 8|)0t about which are concentrated the throe great 
ti-ading cities of China, Wu-chung, Han-nan, and Han- 
kow, or " the Mouth of Commerce," which three cities 
are said to contain eight millionsof population. Through 
the great province of H"i-poh the river flows, passing 
the great cities of King-chan and Tchang, with water 
deep enough for 300 tons burthen ; indeed, there are 
no rapids, though the bottom is rocky, until we i-oach 
up to Kwei, which is 900 miles from the sea. When the 
snow molts xx\ym the Thibetian mountains, tho river is 
full, and the falls can be floated over; but these 
portions may be canalised. Here begin tho coal fields 
of tho Yang-tso-kiang ; but above Kwei the river is 
deep and broad as the Canton river, and joins the 
Kialing river, which runs through the province of 
Yuniutn, and on to Thibet and Burmah, where already 
English enterprise has pushed a trade over tho Burmese 
territory from our own ]iosse8sions on tho Irrawaddi, 
so that Eliiglish enterprise is prepared to com|)Rto with 
the Chinese trade on both of her frontiers. Take the 
description of travelling on the Yang-tsc-kiang on two 
points, we find it as follows : For two hours we followed 
narrow tortuous paths, now winding among hills of 
red earth, where cotton and indigo grow in abundance, 
now returning through valleys between verdant plant- 
ations of rice. Soon we caught sight of the lake of 
Ping-hoe, whoso blue surface, slightly ruffled by a 
slight breeze, glittered in the sun as if covered with 
innumerable diamonds. Three l)oats lay ready for us 
at the bank, our party were soon embarked ; long sails, 
made of bamboo, and folded like fans, were quickly 
hoisted, and wo pushed off. The wind being insuffi- 
cient, it« place was supplie<l by numbers of rowers ; 
towards noon, however, tho wind strengthened, and 
carried us rapidly over a magnificent lako. We 
encoimtered boats, of every size and shape, carrying 
passengers and merchandise, as well as numerous 
fishing smacks, distinguished by the black nets hung 
on the mast. The various vessels passing and re- 
liassing, with their yellow sails and striped flags, the 
vague indefinite murmur floating around, tho aquatic 
birds hovering over the lake and diving suddenly after 
their prey, all this presented a most charming and 
animated picture to the eye. We passed several 
floating islands, those curious productions of Chinese 
industry, which no other people soem to have thought 
of. These floating islands are enormous rafts, generally 
constructed of bamboos, which resist tho decomposing 
influonco of the water for a long time. Upon tho raft 
is laid a tolnrable thick bod of vegetable soil, and 
thanks to the patient labour of a few families of 
aquatic agriculturists, tho astonished traveller beholds 
a whole colony living on the surface of tho water, in 
pretty houses, with their gardens, as well as fields and 
pUntations of every sort. The uihabitants of these 
brms seem to enjoy ])eaco and abundance. During 
the leisure time that is not occupied by the culture of 
their rice fields, they employ themselves in fishing, 

which is at the same time a pastime and a source of 
profit ; often after gathering a crop of grain from tho 
lake, they cast their nets and bring up a harvest of fish 
from its dcptlis, for these waters teem with creatures 
fit for the use of man. Many birds, particularly 
swallows and pigeons, build their nests in these floating 
isles, and enliven the peaceful and poetic solitudes. 
Towards tho middle of the lake, wo encountered one ot 
these islands, on its wiiy to take up a fresh position. 
It moved very slowly, although there was a good deal 
of wind, and large sails were attached to tho houses, as 
well OS to tho corners of tho island ; tho inhabitants, 
men, women and children, lent their strength to aid 
its progress by working at large oars, but their efibrts 
did not seem to materially increase the speed at which 
they moved. However, these peculiar mariners do not 
probably trouble themselves much about delays, a^ they 
are sure of sleeping on land, at whatever place they 
may go. Their migrations are often without any ap- 
parent motive. Like tho Mongols in their vast prairies, 
they wander at will; but more fortunate than these 
latter, they have constructed for themselves a little 
solitudointhomidstof civilization, and uuitedtliccharms 
of a nomadic life to tho advantage of a sedentary abode. 
These floating islands are to be found on all the great 
lakes of China, and at first sight prcNcnt an enchanting 
picture of happiness and gaiety, whilst it is impos- 
sible not to admiro the ingenious industry of these 
Chinese, so singular in all their proceedings. But when 
you consider the cause of their construction, tho labour 
and patience necessary for their creation, by people 
uimblo to find a corner on the solid earth on which to 
establish themselves, the smiling picture assumes a 
darker tint, and the mind endeavours vainly to |iene- 
trate the future of a nvco so numerous that tho land 
will no longer hohl it, and which has sought a resting- 
place on tho surface of the waters.' 

' Tho traveller in the Celojtiiil Kinpiro, ri.>no<:ting on tho connt- 
l«u mj-riiuls of Inhabitants whose nuinlwn increase jrcar liy year 
with frightful rapidit r, ia :.inio>c ieraplc<1 to wonder that C'hinn 
shonld not experience oxv of those citcrininating '-'ourges \>y which 
providence arreata fron time to time tlie rapid locrenie of too fertile 
raocM. The ponulation of China luia heen the aubjcct of roach 
debate among European anthora, who had no moans of coming to 
exact conclusions. Tlie Cliincse stutistics are, nevertheless, kept 
with care, and in each province tho heads of families are required 
to inscribe their numlier in registers kept fur tho purpose, and tho 
total number are collected and publislicd. The method of regis- 
tration has varied much even in modern times ; numerous cloMet 
of non-ratcpaying individuils have lieen omitted from tho 
census, and heneo results the difTorence in the calculations of tlio 
Chincao population presented to us at different times. The fol- 
lowing account appears to bo ei|uu'<y authentic, though tho largest 
numter surpasses the smallest by i83,0OO,0OO: In 1743,according 
to Father Amiot, 150,260,475; in 1761, according to Father 
ilalleritein, 108,214,563; in 17'.)4, according to Lord Macartney, 
333,000,000. The moat recent census, taken under the Mantehu 
dyniutv, raiiet the total number up to 361,000,000. We lutve 
nc'v the information necessary to examine this calculation and 
decide with certainty; but wo do not doubt the correctness of the 
estimate, in spite of the enormous number registered. It is easy 
to form perfect opposite ideas of tho population of China, according 
to tho route by whicli you traverse it. If, for exomple, in tlie 
centre provinces you travel along llio roads, yon would be led to 
believe the country much less populous than it really is. Tho 
villages are few and far between, the waste lands so considerable 
that you might at times fancy yourself in the plains of Tartary. 
But traverse the same provinco by the canal or rivers, and tho 
aspect of the country is entirely changed. Often you pass high 
cities containing not leu than two or three millions of inhabitant* ; 
whilst smaller towns and great villages follow each other in 
almost uninterrupted succcauon. It is difficult to conceive where 
these nomberiees multitudes, whose mcro babitatkm seems to 



Hi)eaking of Wucliang, the lamo one of oar emiaaarics 
informed uh thnt " the river at this jdaco rcaembleg a 
great arm of the sea. Multitudes of onomious judIcs were 
moving rapidly down or slowly up this ' River Child of 
the Sen,' IIS tlio Chinese call it The wind was blowing 
from tlio south, which was favourably enough for us, 
ns wc only wanted a side wind, but it was extremely 
> iolcnt, and as the pasftage boats we found statione<l at 
I lie shore api)cared much too slight for stormy weather 
ill thcHO im]M.-tiioufl waters, we hesitated a littlo before 
embarking in them. The cxam|ile, however, of many 
other travellers who made no difficulty having re- 
iuisure<l us, wo entered a boat which soon carrieil us 
away with almost terrific rapidity. When wo were 
near the middle of the river, we met with a sqtmli that 
sent our boat so much on her side that her sails for a 
moment touch^l tho water. At length, after a iwssage 
of thrco-quartei-H of an hour, we arrived, without acci- 
dent, in tile port of Wuchang, where wo were detaiucd 
more thiin two hours o)iening a possago for ourselves 
through the prodigious mossof junkaintho ouchorage." 

Of tho country on tho river banks, he says — 
" Along the road we met groups of littlo Chine.'<e 
children, with large straw hats, leading goats, asses, or 
I'liormous butfulocs, tu feed on the grass that grows iu 
the ditches by the road side. You can hear tho 
]irattling of the little creatures quite far off, and see 
them ca|icring and jumping. Large trees arc on tho 
road side, and not Hcldom, it must be siud, swarms of 
mosqultocH, whose stings render an evening, already 
too hot, by no means moro supportable." 


IlAVlS'd now accomplished our object, in giving tho 
render some insight into the inside life of China— that 
is, the portion of tho country not immediately on tho 
Eca-boiird — we will proceed on our voyage. 

Tho six main busy provinces — which are tilmost 
iintioim — known out of the eighteen vast divisions of 
which China is constituted, are Kwon-twang, or " The 
Rn«t Plain," with 20,000,000 of population ; Fuh-kien, 
" Tho Consummotion of Happiness," with 15,000,000 ; 
Cheh-kiang, "Tho Country of tho Winding River" 
(Yaiig-tse-kinng), with 20,000,000; Kiang-fu, "The 
Country of tho Happy River " (tho Yellow River), with 
38,000,000; Shangtang, "East of the Mountains," 
with 29,000,000; and Pecheli, "The Supreme Province," 
with 29,000,000. It is to o]ien up a special trade with 
these provinces that wo demand a right of trading 
with the ])orts of Canton. Amoy, Ningpo, Shanghai, 
and Chiisan wo:'<) opened by the treaty of Nankin, and 
tlioso of New-cliuMg, Tang-chou, Tai-wan (tho island 
of Formosa), Chau-chou (Swatow), and Kiang-chou (or 
the Lilo of Hainan, at tho extreme point of China), 
by the treaty of Tien-tsin. To inspect some of these 
jiorts, and to get an insight into Chinese life and habits 
is tho object of our present run along the shore upwards 
fromHong-kong to thoGidf of Fe-ehe-li. Chinese nature, 
as you jioss along the coast, presents a cheerless and in- 
hospitablo aspect; occasionallyyouseeafishingTillagejust 
rise above the sterility and barrenness of the huge monn- 
tuin of yellow sand and surf-bea' ■& rocks ; then • battery 
very like a sand-heap, then a pagoda, then a convoy of 

cover ilio whole nirface of the land, can And meara of •nbriitenee ) 
amltho eatimate of 861,000,000 w«nM iMm ntlMf under than 
over the truth. 

trading junks at anchor in a rock-bound bay, hidden 
by three pyramidal hills ; that is Swatow, where 
there is a great trade in sugar, brought over from 
Formosa to be refined, and afterwards exported to 
various ports of China. As the frequent piracy perilled 
these valuable cargoes, it became customary for the 
Chinese merchants to hire foreign vessels, and hence, 
in spite of tho Chinese authorities, a very extensive 
trade lias spning up. Swatow is also tho centre of a 
Coolie emigration or exportation to Havnnna and 
Cnllao, and thero ure tales told hero that would make 
a slave captain shudder. The men of Swatow are fine 
sturdy fellows, most of them in turbans of dark blue 
nankeen, and the women wear picturesque dresses, all 
(>'' the gayest colours. The head dresses of tho young 
girls Are very pretty — their hair plaited in a long tail, 
which is wound round and round the head, terminating 
in a tassel behind. A round black silk or velvet band 
encircles the upjicr poi-t of the forehead, and has 
generally a gaudy jewel in front ; a fine flower jauntily 
placed on one side of tho head completes her head- 
dress. Others have the hair curiously worked up into 
shape. Handsome gold ornaments and flowers taste- 
fully placed give the head uf a pretty girl a fine 
appearance. Wo went to sec a play here, and arrived 
just as the drums banged and the cymbals clashed for 
a fighting scene, as they always do, to give effect to 
the blows. Tho dresses were capital, and tho wardrobe 
extensive. Tho heroines were played by men ; one in 
particubkr acted remarkably well, and the studied- 
attitudes, even to the position of the fingers, were 
admirable. In ono furious scene, where the heroine 
had been going through a terrific piece of fierce decla- 
mation, in a high falsetto, she threw herself (or rather 
himself), in tho height of injured innocence, into a 
chair, and hiding her face from the spectators, as in 
the deepest grief, quietly explled her quid, invisibly 
to them, but bringing the sublime much too near tho 
ridiculous for us who were at the side scenes. There 
is no uP'i attempting to describe a Chinese play. 
Grand dresses, marches, processions, kowtowing, fighting 
and quarrelling, are jumbled in inexpressible concision. 
The actors, in the absence of play-bills, cooPy walk 
forward and proclaim who they are, sometimes oven 
hold up a placaitl with the title on it ; make no diffi- 
culty about distance, pretend to get on a horse, no 
horse being on the stage, and then say : " I have now 
arrived at such a place." Most of their plays relate to 
oldChinese times, their costumes being almostin variably 
such as were used previous to tho Tartar invasion. 
Their travelling apparatus i." well arranged, being 
packed in gaudily ]>ainted boxes, which form seats 
behind the stage, and are, we believe, also fitted up for 
cooking, another as a dressing stand, for washing and 
painting their faces ; some of their faces ore most 
curiously painted to represent demons, or more often 
terrible creatures. From here to Kamoa, a literary 
island and a collegiate ciiy; which is famous for 
litle else than its den of opium smokers and opium 
dealers, who, at the base of the barren hilla on the 
aea shore, have established a trading station. Tho 
island bay, near the city, swarms with small craft, 
whose industrious owners, a hardy class, working naked, 
make us wonder why China wants a navy, and by no 
means feel astonished that with such a government she 
has such a piratc-nopulation on her sliores. From here to 
Amoy barren rocks and sharp blowing sand and nothing 
worth looking at, but the Chapel IsUnil, which the sea 



has tunnelled through. The first thing that Htrikos you 
M you land at Amoy, iNissing up what looki like a 
deep bay, but is only mode by anotlior Liluud, Kolungsu, 
is the spot where the English floot "blow out of 
the water"— the only Chinoiio floot that ever dared to 
face them. The town itaolf lookR liko a wooden 
Wopping, and has two long streets of oimju sho|>8, 
— cranky conconis, full of ugly-looking moat (you think 
of cannibals and dog-oatora when you see hucIi joints), 
and breiul that looks like honey-soap. The streets arc 
narrow, and the iwrpetual " Ah- ho" of tho palankeen 
bearers cavises fresh confusion every instant. Of course', 
the English live in good houses, Tho trade is mostly 
in teas and silks, but Amoy is not so well situated as 
its rival, Shanghai. Every one we met was smoking a 
pi[)e, not of opium, but of good honest tobacco, i 

Wo were not sorry to leave Amoy and forge along 
to the rooky mouth of the Min river on our way to 
Foo-ehow, the sea-port of Fuh-kicn, which sells us fifty 
millions of pounds weight of too, and takes only 
100,0002. of our goods, besides some million and a half 
of bullion away from us ; for, as for coin, the Chinese 
have nothing of it, so far as silver and gold are 

They say that Foo-chow or Fu-chu, is not a good 
place for teas, which are there, as 26 to 18 in price, 
compared with Fuu-chun, a place at some short distance 
above j but it has always been tho greatest trading- 
pilace of the two, and the Chinese must know best. 
We were compelled to set into a boat at the mouth of 
the river, for we had stul 25 miles to go up to the city. 
This Chinese boating is very pleasant ; imagine a 
gondola style of croft, thirty feet long by six broad, 
with the sails, if the wind blows fair, and ten oanmcn, 
if that fails ; caiTying out the contrary as usual, tlioy 
push, instead of pull, the oar, to the accompaniment of 
that singularly inharmoniotu cliant. It was a long 
and tedious pull, for the tide was against us, and the 
night had fUlen, and we could only sec tho dark tops 
of the mountains, and an occasional village light, and 
hear the hoarse gurgling of the murky waters, as tho 
tide rushod by our frail, gimcracky habitation. At 

last we rcai'h tlio Pagoda anchorage, where the opium 
ships aro lying, and row past the low bnd piddy 
plantations, near tho wheat-field shore, through the 
floating city nf jiinks, under tho beautiful bridge of 
200 arehcM, until we reach our landing-place, near tho 
Viceroy's \>a.\aco, where reigns a sepulchral stillness.' 

Up through lanes dismal in tho lantern's shade — up 
dirty, ragged, stune-fcncod streets — down in deeper 
arches than before, only to go up stone steps, ouo above 
tho other, an immense height, and then int<j a houre 
where English faces welcome us. Foo-ehow is a won- 
derful place, and has a Imlanco of trade to tho extent 
of a million and a half in gold and silver against us. 
We ordered cluiirs next morning, and set out to see 
tho city. The streets are narrow, and you go in 
Indian file, your bearers shouting all tho while to 
make way. Over tho bridge we went, which is twelve 
feet wide and about twelve thousand feet in length. 
The bridge path is narrowed by stalls to eight feet, and 
this is crowded. Twice wo were lifted and held up 
outside tho bridge, over tho para])et, while a Mandarin, 
with a grand corUge, passed by. The bridge ia old, 
but strong as petrified rock, and made of immense 
stones. Here were the |>eoplo, everywhere as usual, as 
busy as bees in a hive.* 

empire J 

to'uncco hu became nniremi thron)(1iout tlio 
women, childron, everybody imokes nlmoit without 

■ f -~.™-.,,., w,».^uv..j ■.UW»1H> lUU.WW ITlVillJUL 

„ lAer go about their daily bniinew, cultivate the ficlda, 
ride on boneback, snd write, coiutantly with tlio pipe in tlicir 
montbi. During their raeak, if tliey itop for a moment, it ii to 
■moke a pipei and if they wake in tho night, they are rare to 
amnio thenuelvei in the same way. It may be caiily auppowd, 
therefor^ that in a country containing three hundred milUoni of 
■mokera, without counting the tribes of Turtary nnd Thibet, who 
lay in their itooks in tho Chineae markctn, the culture of tobacco 
has become very important. Any one may grow it. Tliero is no 
** j' '""' *"""''• tobacco is tliat of Leno-tong, in Mantcliurin, 
andin the province of Tie-ehouen. The leave* are variondy pre- 
pared, nocording to the locality; In the eonth they cut them 
extremely fine ; In the north they rub them up cooreely, and put 
them in their pines. Snuff-taken are leaf nnmeroua than amokcra. 
The Mantcira INutars are, however, great in uaiug this "smoke 
for the noae," ai the Ohineae call it. Tlio Chincao carry muff, not 
in Doxea, hut in phials. 

• '.?t* ''!J"T ''*'"' "' *""" '"' 8°'*' ~'" "' t'"'' <"*■"• Silver 
in ahoea of varioua aites, generally about (Ifty tncla (16/. 
worth), and golden bars or loaf aro uaed where foreign money is 
not current. The banker puti h'lasUnip upon it, and the "touch" 
is thereby guaranteed. Any tampering with the quaUty is rare. 
In Canton foreign dollars are ao marked by the guaranteeing 

* J P*" ' original character of the coin la often obliterated i 
ond in the north, where Oarolns doUars, unstamped, are ure- 
Cnred, it used to be the custom to mark tbeni with tbt Uoker** 

' When tiiey ace Europeans spend hours in walking fur the mere 
sake of tho exerciae, the Cliipoao oak if it is not more coiiforraable 
to civilised i Jens to ait down iiuietly, to amoke, and drink tea, when 
you have iintliiiig else to do, or, atill better, to go to bed ut once. 
The idea of meeting to spend the greater port of the niglit in 
amusements and gaiety luis not yet presented itself to them. 
Tliey nro like our worthy ancestors before tlicy hit upon a way of 
prolon^ng the day till midnight, nnd tho night till noon. All 
the Chinese, even of tho luglicr class, go to b«l in time to get up 
at sunrise— New Vcnr's Day, and certnin family festivals eiccpted. 
On these days they do not allow thcinaclves n moment'a repose. 
In general, tliey follow the course of tlie heavenly bodies in their 
arrangrmcnts of dny and night. At these hours, which in the 
great cities of Europe are the most noisy nnd tumultuous, the 
cities of China ci^oy the most profound tranquillity, Kvery one 
has returned unto his family i all the shops are closed ; the boat- 
men, the mountebank, the public reader, have flnished their aittinga, 
and notliine liko buainesa if to be acen, ciccpt, perhapa, in a few 
theatres, »iiicli depend mostly on the working classes, who have 
only the night at their disposal, in which they ci\)oy tlio favouritt 
amusement of aecing a phiy. 

' Notldng atrikes the stranger's mind mora forcibly than the 
energetic, never-tiring industry of tho Cliinese. All aecin to be 
lutrd nt work— even tho lieggnrs perspire with their continual 
calls for casli. Each profession by itself, and every man in his 

filacc, are busy at work i many of the operatives do not raise their 
leada to aeo the chair of the " Weatem Devil." Go through a 
thickly-settled street, among the mechnnica at Paris, London, or 
New Vork, and everything you see done there you will And being 
executed in China, only with simpler utensils, and in a slower 
manner, but with greater perfection. The Chincao have little 
to learn from us; we cannot point to a practical discovery 
that experience hns not nircady taught them. Their dress is 
the most comfortable nnd cheapest; their boats suit nil their 
wants, and each ia best adapted for its own waters ; they hnve 
had water-tight partitiona for ages; they make most beau- 
tii\il silks with the simplest poaalble loom; their tools are less 
costly and more handy than ours; their saw requires (br less 
iron than ours, their bellows gives a constant draft of air, and 
is merely an oblong or cylindriail box with a piston worked in it. 
In their water-iniils fur grinding flour, there is no trouble or 
expense in keeping the machinery in order while at work ; to 
cncli pivot or axle a small Iiamlxio pipe constantly supplies a 
dropping of water, which prevents all henting from friction. In 
propelling their boats the powerful scull admits of a child doing 
ns much work os a man with us. If the Tyno keels or the 
Thames barges were fitted witli a long, bent, well bahinced Chinese 
seull, hung only on a small iron pivot, and with u rope on board 
to give extra pressure, one man would do the work of at least 
two with half the exertion. The Chineae avatom of agricultura 
combines all that wo have ouly juat reached by s loog ooum of 


Tlio pawiibrokcni nro moat gyHtoinalic iu tlinir doiil- 
iiigs, lUid Hqiii'C'/.u their ciistomurs with thu avitriciims 
IPoraoNoi'imci^ »( ./own, while the privutt! banking cstii- 
lillMhini'Mts nro cundiictoil uii t)io Knropcnn |)i'inei|i1('. 
Altiioiigli cDulien iu-o luissing to and fruni the banks 
witli tMnh, tht currency iiioHt in uhu for Hnudl aninunts 
in )iai)er, Higncd and couutcrHigncd witli rcuuirkable 
perluction and ingenuity.' 

The women of Fon-chow are by no ineaiiH iislianied of 
being seen. Tlicy have fnio Hturtiy tiguros, dicss tlieir 
hair prettily, and have a fine Jiealtiiy blunui on tlieir 
cheeks. Tlioy do most of thu carrying work, iiiul are 
remarkably neat ond clean. They wear little white 
a] irons, the folds of which are carefully jiuckered and 
|ilaited. They do not follow the Hiimll-foot fiusliion and 
the little toildling step of the Canton beUes, lint step 
out firm and free. A peasant woman of Foo-ohow will 
carry two cheats of tea, cacli weighing one hundred 
pounds, from the city t<i the river, and make light of 
it. The Tartar women (there is a Tartar fiuartcr here) 
wear their hair all drawn back 'rom tho forehead, and 
fastened in a knot behind with a sort of skewer stuck 
tliro\igli it, at tho end of which is a flower ; they wear 
inimeutionitblcH, appear to be stuck into wide louse 
atocrkings, generally very dirty, and shoes with amazingly 
thick felt soles oflcn down at the heels. 

You 8t!0 about OS much out of tho city as iu — tho 
s:ime shojis, tradesmen, and actiyc stir of everyday life.- 
Tho walls of tho city aro some tliirly feet in height, 
and expensively ornamented over the several gateways, 
all of which are composed of granite foundations, 
finishc:! off with bricks. These walls aro some eight 
miles iu circuraferenco, and there aro seven gates for 
entrance. Tho most prominent public buildings arc 
tho Treasury Department, and tho houses, (or yanwtis) 
of tho various oflicials; the Confucian Temple, des- 
troyed some timo since by fire ; tho Temples of tho 
" God of War," tho " GiKldess of Mercy," the residence 
of tho Viceroy, and the college, jail, &o. Tho Viceroy's 
jialaco hardly deserves tho name ; but is like oil their 
public residences, that seem built more for tinsel and 
show, than substantiality and comfort. The curiosity 
sho]is are full of ivory carving, wood work and tortoise- 
shell, bronze goods, and lacquered ware, for which the 


Foochow artists enjoy a special fame, 

■ciontific inquiry. We Imvo much to Icnrn from tliis people. Tho 
mud of tliclr rivers is collected— instend of Icing left to generate 
nmlarin— and is used for innnurc. They burn enrtli with tlieir 
dung-lieaps, nnd produce n rich mould. Th?y collect their niglit 
soil and apply it frcsli, instead of wasting the ammonia liy fcr- 
mentation; nnd, wlmt is more, they nlisolutcly grow acres of 
clover for no other purpose than manure. 

' The Chinese method of settling n comnierciul imiiic is decided 
nnd cfTeetunl. We give an example. At Foo-cliow bank-notes 
nro current, and there, as elsewhere, it sometimes happens that 
the bankers aro unable to meet their engagements. In 1855 
several banks were in this position, and as the people were heavy 
losers, they clamoured voi'iferonsly at the omccs, nnd even coin- 
racnced pulling down tho houses. Tlie mob was too strong for 
tho mandarins. On tho first day the soldiers, who should liavo 
been ready, could not be mustercil, but enough were assembled 
next day to clear tho streets, which they did eflcctually, by 
bebending those wlio were the largest holders of notes, and faking 
others prisoners ! The iMiheading was o|)enly performed in the 
public streets, without ;.inl, and caused great eonsteriiatiou ; but 
it stuppeil tlio run on tho banks. A useful lesson for Tlireudnccdlc- 

' Wliat an eye the Chincao have to business may be imagined 
from tlic fact that while tho English fleet were bombarding 
Canton, tlie sam]>ana or shap-lioat« were all day long ptDcccding 
from sliip to ship, nnd selling fruit nnd vegetables to tho sailora 
who were tiring their hoDwa. 

Tho British 
Consulate was once iin old monastery, and fniiu it is a 
beautiful prospiut of the town and smnniiidiiig 
eoiuitry. There are also tho Ihiddhist monastery of 
Cooshan, on a height 1,400 feet abovo the city. A 
whale's tooth — said to bo Ihuldlia's, and an old bonze, 
said to be ;)00 yeai's old, with nails four inches long, 
and tho Ningpo Teiiijile, with two elaliurately carved 
eolumiis of griuiiti', said to have cost .12,000 — a prodi- 
gious sum, considering the cheapness of Chinese work- 
manship. Coming back from thu I'eak over the 
monastery, which is l',i)00 feet above the town, we met 
with a gentleman travelling in n wheelbarrow! (»ca 
p, I'Ji). We afterwards found this to be by no means 
unusual; indeed, wluelbarrows are among the ordinary 
modes of transport for human beings in thu Cchstial 
Umpire. The niis.sionarics prefer them, on account of 
their eheajiness, to all other modes of con\eyanee, not- 
withstanding that they are very fatiguing. Travelling 
wlieelbairows are constantly to bo seen in the sti'ects 
of Shanghai andTicn-tsin. The wheel is in the centre, 
nnd the patient is seated on oni' side, and is counter- 
poised by his baggage on the other. Wlmt is still 
more curious and an ascertained fact, is that in some 
parts of China thiMc are wheelbarrows iiropelled by 
sails. The well-knowu traveller and missionary lfv\o 
declai'es to having seen one. When there is a good side 
wind, or it is blowing a gale from behind, the labours 
of tho wheeler are sii .alarly facilitated by such a 

Next day we camo down '''o river through a richly 
cultivated country, and resumed our coui-so along 
the coast of the most densely populated ])rovinee of 
China, past Wau-chim, where a tolerable trade in sea- 
salt and alum was got up lately, until wo sighted the 
littlo sacred i.sland of I'uto and tho Chusivii gi-oup ; 
Chusan is a large and beautiful inland, with noblo 
mounti'ns and fertile valleys sloping to tlie sea. You 
reach tho harbourof Tinglmi through narrow channels of 
rocky isict.s. It is a small place of 20,000 inhabitants. 
Tho por', is imp'egimble in good hands, and is a lino 
harbour of refugfv The iskad grows cotton (but not 
much), and the I'Hica iiivea, which produces a strong 
fibre capable of !,cing worked very fine. There is also 
a palm tree growing hi're, ♦'■om the bracts of which 
a strong fibre is obtained, which the people use to 
make hats and coats of for rainy weatluT. Thc^ gn rn 
tea shrub is everywhcro cultivated, and tho tir w 
tree is abundant, as well as the camphor i-e 

tho Chinese sho]ikcepers have adopted i' „. ■), 

as " Stultz, tailor, from London ;" " 1 lailor 

to the Anny and Navy ;" " Dobbs, gr • here aro 

a number of " tradesmen to her Majcst .1 we hcan' 

of one, Ching-Kang, charged into " John i iiig, tail 
to Her Mcst Gracious 1 njcsty Queen Vi loria A 
HLs Koyal Highness Prince Albert, by appointme ,." 
Below was a- single word, unlfimnio/alldetcriplions. 
Their language is a mixture of Portuguese, Malay, 
Bengalese, and Pigeon English. Most of tho in- 
habitants cam a living by making salt on tho shore. 
Tho possession of Chusan is a great protection to our 
trade with the north, and now that wo have it 
once more, we shall not leave it. It stands central to 
Ja|ian and Corea. Tho sickness of tho English troojw, 
while there, was attributable to their barracks being 
placed in a marsh, instead of ou tho hills above. In tho 
spring, Chusan is one of the most lieautiful islands in 
the world, and reminds us of England. Iu tho moruiiigs 


the grass sparkles with the dew, the air is cool and 
refreshing, the birds are singing in every bush, and 
flowers are hanging in graceful festoons from the trees 
and hedges. 

We resumed our voyage, and when we rose next mom- 
inc(, found ourselves in the shallow waters that noted 
the mouth of th: Yang-tse-kiang — a river 1,500 miles 
in navigable length — coming down here from the very 
backbone of Central Asia, and running through 600,000 
square miles of midland China. The first land we saw 
was the island of Woo-sing, which has been gradually 
formed from the debris of the " Kiver Child of the 
Ocean." Bhipping of every class were scudJing in and 
out, and at Woo-siug wore lying half-a-dozen opium 
ships — a visit to which was enough to give you a 
headache for a week. A floating lighthouse marks 
the entrance to the Wang-hoo river, seven miles up 
which lies Shanghai ; and with the tide in our favour, 
and a light breeze, we merrily worked our way, assisted 
by a crew of Chinese boatmen — nine of whom were ut 
the rudder — sailing in a puny-looking, bamboo-masted, 
latteen-sailed, square at both sides, and high in the 
middle, ronstnicted craft (a house boat), past the damp, 
swampy, Essex-looking coast, past the mountains far 
away from the river's bonks, till a missionary village, 
with its tiny church, a good, substantial residence, and 
a dozen more well-built houses, broke the monotony. 
Now we push past the large square mansions of the 
merchant residents at each corner, and land at the 
Custom House, in the Einglish port. 


Shakquai is the most northerly of the five ports at 
wliich foreigners are now permitted to trade with the 
Chinese. It is situated about a hundred miles in a 
north-west direction from tlio island of Chusan. The 
city stands on the bank of a fine river, about twelve 
miles from the point where it joins the celebrated Yang- 
tse-kiang, or " kiver Child of the Ocean." The Won-su 
river, as it is generally called by foreigners, is as wide 
at Shanghai as the Tliames at London iSridge. Its main 
channel is deep, and easily navigated, wlii'ii known, but 
the river abounds in long mud-banks, dangerous to 
large foreign vejsels, unles.s they happen to go up with 
a fair wind, and manage to get a good pilot on board 
at the entrance of the river. 

The city of Shanghai is surrounded with hi^h walls 
and ramparts, built upon the same plan as all (>ther 
Chinese fortifications of this kind, i ne circumfeience 
of the walls is about three and a half miles, and the 

Cter part of the inside is densely studded with 
les; the suburbs, itartioularly all along the side of 
the river, ore very extensive. Although the gates of 
the city are closed soon after ckrk, the |icoplo are 
allowed to nois through afterwords on the payment of 
a few " cash." When the gate is open to one a whole 
crowd are ready to rush through along with him, the 
first only paying the "cash." Such is the custom ; so 
that if n noor man comes to the gat4 ho has only to 

wait until one richer than himself arrives, when the 
foe being paid, they posa through together. Joss- 
houses ore met with in all directions, both in the city 
and stiburbs; at certat parti on the ramparts also 
those temples are built and crowded with idols, where 
the natives come to bum inrnnso, bow the knctt, and 
engage in the other ceremonies of heathen idol wonhip. 
Fortnne-tellon and jngglen are also in great request, 


and reap a rich harvest by working upon the credulitv 
of their countrymen. You meet these choractere in all 
the streets and public squares in Shanghai, and, what 
is very strange, the ting-iimgi or theatri< .-ils, of which 
the Chinese are particularly fond, are frequently exhi- 
bited in the temples. 

The streets are generally very narrow, and in the 
day time ore crowded with people actively engaged in 
business. The merchandise, which is the most striking 
to a stranger walking through the streets, is silk and 
embroidery, cotton and cotton good^, porcelain, ready- 
made clothes of all kinds beautifully lined with skins 
and fur, bamboo pipes, six feet long, and, nicely 
arranged in the shops, pictures, bronzes, and numerous 
curiosity shops for the sale of cirrcd bamboo orna- 
ments, old pieces of porcelain, and things of thiit kind, 
to which the Chinese attach great value. But articles 
of food fonn of course the most extensive trade of all ; 
and it is sometimes a difiicult matter to get through 
the street" for the immense quantities of fish, pork, 
fruit, and vegetables wliich crowd the stands in front 
of the sho)i8. Besides the mori common kinds of 
vegetables, the shepherd's pulse and a kind of trefoil 
clover are extensively used among the natives there, 
and rcolly these things, when properly cooksd, more 
particularly the latter, are not bad. Dining-rooms, 
tea-houses, and Inker's shops are met with at every 
step, from the jKior man who carries his kitchen or 
bakehouse upon his Imck, and beats upon a piece of 
bamboo to appiise the neighbourhood of his presence, 
and whose whole establishment u not worth a dollar, 
to the most extensive tavern or tea-garden crowde<i 
with hundreds of customers. For a few cash (1000 or 
1200, one dollar), a Chinese can dine in a sumptuous 
manner upon his rice, fish, vegetables, and tea ; and 
hence, some travellers believe that in no country in 
the world is there less real misciy and want than in 
China. The very beggars seem a kind of jolly crew, 
and are kindly treated by the inhabitants. 

Shanghai is by far the most important station for 
foreign trade on the coast of China, and is, conse- 
quently, attracting a large share of public attention. 
No other town (lossesses greater advantages; it is the 
greiit gate— the princii«l entrance, in fact— to the Chi- 
nese empire. In going np the river towards the town, 
o forest of masts meets the eye, oud shows at once that 
it is a place of vast native trade. Junks come here 
from all ])arts of the const, not only from the southern 
provinces, but also from Shnn-tung and Pc-che-li ; there 
ore, also, a considerable number, annually, from Singa- 
pore and the Malay IsUnds. Tlio convenience of 
inland transit is also unrivalled in any port of the world. 
The country being, as it were, the valley of the Yang- 
tse-kiang, is one vast plain, intersected by many bean- 
tiful riv'-ra, and these again joined and crossed by 
canals, ninny of them nenriy natural and othen stu- 
pendous works of art. Owing to the level nature of 
the country the tide ebbs and flows a great distance 
inland, thus assisting the natives in the transmission 
of their ex|iorts to Shanghai, or their iin|)orts to the 
most distant parts of the country. The |iortof Shang- 
hai swarms with boots of all sizes employed in this in- 
land traffic J and the traveller continually meets them, 
and gets a glim{Mie of their soils over the hind ot every 
step of his progress in the interior. Since the port has 
been openwl, these boots bring down lorge quantities of 
tea and silk, to supply the wants of our merchants who 
have established themselves here, and return loaded 




with tho manufiusturo!) of Enropo and America, which 
they have taken in exchange. Our plain cotton gon(k 
are most in demand amongst tho Chinese b<icau3e they 
can dye thom in their own peculiar style, and tit them 
for tho tastes of the jxiople. From what wo know 
of tho goDgraphiail nature of the country, there 
can bo no doubt that all tho green teas, and 
perhaps tho greatest iiortion of the black, can bo brought 
to Slianghai at less expense than they can bo taken to 
Caikton, or any of tho southern towns, except, ])crhapH, 
Ning-po ; and, as tho tea-men incur less risk in taking 
their money homo from the north, owing to the peace- 
able nature of the inhabitants, this will bo another 
very great inducement to bring tlicir toas to Shanghai. 
People generiilly Hup|>ose the bkick-tea districts to be 
nearer the port of Fu-chu-pu than cither Ning.po or 
Shanghai ; but it must bo recollected tlint very few of 
the black teis now imported to England are from the 
Bohea hills, as those teui are considered coarser, and 
much inferior in (pmlity to other kinds, which are from 
a very dilTnrcnt country much farther to tho north, and 
on the northern side of tho Qreat Mountain. The large 
silk districts of Northern China are close at huud: 
there can bo no doubt that a large pro|i<)rtion of tliat 
commodity, in a niw sUito, will be disposed of at 
Shanghai. Taking, therefore, all thaw facts into con- 
sideration, tho proximity of Shanghai and other largo 
towns, ILmg-chu, Su-chu, and the ancient capitid of 
Nankin : the largo native trade, tho convenience of 
inbnd transit by moans of rivers and canals ; the fact 
that teas and silks can bo brought hero more readily 
than to Canton ; and, lastly, viewing this place as an 
immonso mirt for our cotton manufactures, which we 
already know it to be — it is easily understood how it 
not only rivals Canton, but has bucomu a plaice of far 
greater iiupDrtauco, And, when it is iiddud that tho 
cliraato is healthy, tho natives peaceable, and foreign 
residents res|K)otod, and allowed to walk and ride all 
over the country to any distanco not exceeding n, day's 
jouniey, it will bo acknowlodgod that as a place to live 
at, it has nuiny advantages over its southern rival. 

As an agricultural country, tho plain of Shanghai It 
by far the richest which Is to bo seen in China, and :s, 
]>orlia|)s, unoiiualted by ai:y district of liko extent iu 
the world. It is ono vast beautiful garden. The hills 
nearest to Slianghai are distant about thirty miles. 
These have au isolated ajiiiciranco in tho extensive 
plain, and are not morothan 200 or 300 feot high. All 
tho rest of tho country is a v.kst level plain, without a 
mountain or a hill to break tlio monotony of tho viow. 
The soil is a rich deep loam, and ]iroduces heavy crops 
nf wheat, barley, rioo, and cotton, besides an imnienso 
([uantity of green vegoUtble crop.*, such aa cabbages, 
turnips, y.ims, carrots, egg-plants, cuoumbors, and other 
articles of that kind, which aro growu in tho vicinity 
of the city. Tho land, although kM, is generally 
higher than the valleys amongst the hills or tho 
plains round Ninj-pi, and, consequently, it is well 
ailaptoJ for the cultivation of cotton, which is, in fact, 
tho gtaple production of tho district Indeed, tlus is 
tlie groat Nankin cotton country, from whioh brge 
quantities of that article are geuendly sent in junks to 
tho north ami south of China, as well as tn tho neigh- 
bouring islands. Both tho wiiite kinil, and that called 
tho " jtrollow cotton," from which tho yollow nankeen 
oloth 1.'^ made, are producod in tho district. 

Tho soil of this district is not only remarkably fertile, 
but agrioultnro looius more advanced, and bears a greater 

resemblance to wlrnt it is at home. Farm-yards ure 
here to be met with, containing stacks regularly built 
u|> and thatched in tho same form and manner an we 
find tliem in England ; tho land too is ridged and 
furrowed the same way ; and were it not for plantations 
of, and the hu ^ tails and general costume of 
tho natives, a man might ulmoHt imagine himself on 
the banks of the Tlmmes. A verj' considerable |>ortion 
of the land in the vicinity of the town is occupied by 
the tombs of tho dead. In all directions large conical 
shaped mounds meet tho eye, overgrown with long 
grass, and in some instances planted with slirulM and 
flowers. The traveller here, as well as at Ningiio and 
Chusan, constantly meets with coffins placed on the 
surface of the ground out in the fields, carefully thatched 
over with straw or mats to preserve them from the 
weather. Sometimes, though rarely, when the relatives 
aro less careful than they (generally are, coflins arc met 
with broken or crumbling to ))ieccs with age, ex|ioeing 
tho remains of the dead. Coffins of children are met 
with everywhere, aro ruisc<l from the gi-oinid on a few 
wooden posts, and carefully thatched over to protect 
them from the weather, reminding the stranger ihat 
Kiinic parent, with feelings as tender and acute as his 
own, has been bereaved of a lovwl one, wliom he, 
perhajis, exiK-eted should clivcr and sup|Hirt him in 
his declining years, and whose remains lie now caivfully 
watches. Thoso in the higher ranks of life liave, 
generally, a family burial place at «. little distance 
from the town, planted with cypresses and pine trees, 
with a ttMUpli! and altar built to hold the josses or 
idols, and where the virioua religious ceremonies are 
INirfornied. A man with his family is stationed there 
to protect the place, and Ui bum candles and incense 
»n certain high days. Others, again, aro interred in 
what may lie called public cemeteries, several of which 
are to bt; met witli in the vicinity of Slianghai. These 
.".rr large buildings, each containing n certain number 
of siiacious halls or nNims, and having the coffins phice«l 
in rows aroimd tho sides. 

•Since £uro|ieans have established themselves along 
the coaBt of China, Shanghai is uniformly considered, 
of idl Kpot-, the pleasantcst as a residence. With a 
.society almost as nmnerous as IIong-Kong, there is 
much agreeable social intercimrso, owing, no doubt, in 
a gnat measure, to the fact that it is the ultima lltuU 
of civiliwvtion, and has not yet been forced into cxclti- 
sivencss by miscellnneous hordes makn,;^ it a house of 
call ; while, as a foreign connnunity <n a disUint laud, 
it is not subject to those political dissensions which so 
often distract our own colonies. There is, moreover, 
an .lir of substantial pnisiierity nljout Shangliai, which 
occasionally expands into magnificence, and displays 
itself iu inlntial residences, and an exponsivo style of 
living ; bui there is also, unhappily, a gloomy sido to 
the picture ; and there areycai-s when an unfortuiuitcly 
heavy venture in i.ilk, on the ])art nf the community, 
results in a cori-es|>onding reduction of crinoline. 

Situated on the flat bank of the river, ShanglMi 
owes none of its charms to the pictuntsque, but the 
handsome h<) which lino tho slioru, for a distanco of 
two miles, give it an imiM)sing appearance as approached 
from the sea. _ The English section nf tho town, though 
not confined exclusively to 'Dritish subjects, is the 
largest It lies between tho French anil Ainerioan; 
each of these dilferunt quarters is iuliabitcd by subjt-cta 
of other countries. The boundary of the French con- 
cession is tho city wall. Tho city is about thrao milM 



in circumference, and contains a population nf about 
300,000. Shanglini is chiefly cfleiiratwl for old thinn, 
inlaid copper, and other objects of " vcrtu," which it 
iniimrts from Su-chu, to meet the European demand. 
It has suflervd n good dail from the occiii>ation of the 
rebels, ami itfi nice famous tea-pinlcnH are now a maioi 
of grotesque rock-work and debris, but little frequented, 
and whicli in their Wst days must have bo<-u rather 
quaint than pretty. 

We will now take a chair, and proceed to inspcrt 
the town. We find the foreign settlement situstto on 
the river-bank. The buildings (or lumgt) are very 
large, and two storeys high, with upper and lower ver- 
andas, and each surrounded with its garden. Dehind 
them are the tea and silk warehousPH, or "go-downs," 
as they call them, some a hundrc<l and thirty feet in 
length by forty. The English niorcliants in China take 
pride in their elegant furniture, and choice )>ictures and 
engrnvingH. How wonderful is China t we kept on ex- 
claiming, as wo jostled in company with a learned doctor 
through the city. It took three miles to bring us to a 
gate, and all the way through a thickly-peopled diHtrict, 
passing countless men, women, and children, all hurry- 
ing on with loads of vegetables, baskets of fowls, and 
various bundles of teas, silk, A'c. In one street, wo 
went into a coffin-maker's manufuctory^-conins arc 
matters of compliment in China, they make presents 
of themahd keep them for years; niid a joss paiicr- 
inaker's, where we saw the paper shaken out on a 
■:eve (they have no machines), and the pulp made. The 
Cliincse methoil of making paper is the same as Koopa 
famous patent. Koop had been in China and Japan, 
and seen it made, and K<x)p really made |>aper out 
of detd boards,' In the canals hero you may see large 
quantities of Inmboo partially covered with mud so as 
to be pressed under water. These were int<nided to 
be made into pa|>er, after they had been soaktid for 
some time. The proce^ of making paper is carried 
out as follows I'^After lieing i'oake<l for some time, 
the bamboos are split up and saturated with lime and 
water until they have become quite soft. They are 
then beaten into a ]mlp iu mortars, or, where water- 
|)ower is at hand, as in the hilly districts, the beating 
or stamping procca is done % means ..!' stanqiers, 
which rise and fall as the cogs, which are placed on the 
axis of the water-wheel, revolve. When the mass ha« 
been reducetl to a fine pulpy substance, it is then 
taken to a furnace and well lioilctl until it has become 
quite white, aiitl is then miulo into |)a|)cr. The fine 
stulT is used for writing and drawing ))a|)ers, the 
common for brown, and for cutting up in pieces to 
be used by builders in their moi iar. 

Hero we come to rice and corn niillr<, and there you 
would full in with a whole row of blacksmitlis, car- 
penters, umbrella' makers, ropo nianufaetoriM!, iHwts, 
hIiocs, tailors, UNikliinders, now and then a barls-r, 
slukving with his rhiscl of a razor over a 
imstry-cook'a — cukes frizzling in the |>an. Kui-theron 
wo came to a lieuutifid striH't, wider than the rest — 
say ten or twelve feet— gaily ca|iariHoned with gaudy 
swinging signs of boui-ib or ixuteboard, coloured cotton 
or metallic signs, the several chuructem noting tlie 
luune and style of tbo firm stanuing out c<mspicuously, 
completely liue<l on lioth sides with wholesale and 
retail tradesmen, cloth goods or roady-nia<lo clothing, 
beans, peas, and rice in one shop, and caps and silks 
and olotlu in the next ;, pictures and prints, cook-shops 
and eating-houMt, curiosity-mongers, p«wubroken, 

banks, books, and barbers ; some polishing stone or- 
naments, some grinding com and rice, some kneading 
dough with the |iot swinging ready to receive it, while 
others were engaged in counting cash at some ex- 
change-house, smoking opium in an hotel, or drinking 
samshu in a pot-house, and an occasional beggar 
got up in the liest ])os8ible stylo with rags and vennin, 
sores and filth, |)eri<on expos<tl, and mud-balls stuck on 
his forehead, yelling at the top of his voice round 
some aristocratic tradesman's place for money, and the 
|Mior shopman daro not drive him away, for the pro- 
fessional beggar is like a fellowship porter, 
to beg by government, and you ran only got rid of 
him by giving him <oash.' They then go on to the 
next, and bcforo night, collect enough to buy some 
rice, drink a cup of samshu, ami then get drunk 
over their opium pi|ie. Piissing' Ahing this thickly- 
shopiietl strct^t, we dived down a small lane and into a 
biltliKig house, whore the ]x>or come at all hours and 
take a Uith for less then a tiirthing. Each liather has 
a little liox for his clothes, and an obsequious Nervant 
ti> help him to dress, anil, if he chooses, a cup of tea is 
near at hand. Home, only half dn-sscd, were lieing 
operated upon by a com doctor — and they uro at home 
in such science — others were urguing and talking wis- 
dom, and some singing wild anil passionate songs. We 
chin-chined out of the steam ns fust as poHsible, and 
next visite<l one of the opium dens (m« p. )2R,) which 
aro in eveiy street. Thcro wero alsiiit a dozen 
]ioor besotted creatures in difTerent stages of in- 
toxication, and some lifelessly stretched u|K>n the 
floor. About the room wero benches, and one or two 
couches, where, lying down, resting \ipon their elbows, 
with a little rush-light before them, they insert, with 
a long nordle, one of the little lialls into the end of 
their pipes and smoke away, letting the smoke dis- 
appear, usually, through the nostrils. The opium is 
handed to them in a little cup, about the size of a 
thimble, and they aro idlowcd to make themselves 
intoxicated for a farthing. 

Further on we came to the English AI issionorics' 
Churoh, built of stone. From here to the Chinaman's 
joss house, whoro we found a large hull, entered by a 
s|)aciouH court, in the middle of which was a large 
bronze cup, with the names uf those who had BubHcrilsHl 
to it engraved on its side — a iienny subscription monu- 
ment — a curious relio of two hundred years ago. The 
outside of the t4-m|ile is adorned with quaint designs of 
binls and animals; in the inside were great gilt wooden 
statues of Buddha, in his three forms, the ]>a8t, the 
presc^nt, and the future. Besides these wero other 
forms, larger than life ; youth and age, happiness and 
miwry, peace and war, the pregnant woman and 
tho new Isim bulw, laughter and sorrow, and 
numerous other emblems, capitally and vividly 
executed in wood. Opposite tho No. 1 god wero little 
sticks to bum homage, nud joss paiier to sot on firo ; — 
and that is their idea of worship. 

Again, we aro olf to the Court of Justice — a clean, 
dign'tieil room, with a Mandarin, whoso whole mien 
bore unmistidceable marks of authority, sitting in the 
seat oC the judge, with |)olicemen and assistants, officials 
and clerks on every side ; but the ]irisoners with chains 
about their legs, and arats tied behind them, woru 
waiting their trial and decision of the judge. One man 
was up in the criminal box, but the system of exami- 
imtiou was so cruel tluit we could not boar to witness 
it First, tho guard struck him fiercely, over the 



mouth w'i,h a bamboo official (taff, the poor wretch 
shrieking with pain ; the other priaonera all the while 
■tolid and indifferent Hpectatora, nut knowing who came 
next Ailcrwartlx, another kind of torture was resorted 
to, the guard making the criminal kueel down with his 
hands above his h(^, in a position which extorted 
yells of agtmy, the judge and the official all wearing a 
look of the utmost indifference. A. little further on there 
were two criminals with htrge l)olts about their necks, 
and the kaug (a largo sqiuiro piece uf plank) hung 
round thoir necks. The whole Heemed a furce — a mix- 
ture of brutal cruelty with refined barbarism. Below 
•re prisoners in bastinado — a jail — growling and 
howling in their crowded colla like boasbt, and clanking 
their chains. Wo will change the scene to a better phase 
of ChiaeHe life — their benevuleot institutions. Here 
you SMO the lame, the blind, attendants, nurses, doctors,' 
all arranged in tiio style of our own hospitals, every- 
thing furnished by the Imperial magnate ; the patients 
are numerous and kindly treated. We also visited the 
city charity-house, and a private charity-house for the 
distru-ssed poor ; also a foundling hospital, where a little 
drawer in the side of the bouse— directly facing the 
street,— opened on the ringing of a bell and took the 
baby, therein deposited, into a room where a nurse 
was always waiting with a blanket. As we entered, 
the nurses, each with u child in her ara^.i, rau away 
frightened. We did not take the children in our arms, 
for certain small, living reasons of great activity. The 
rooms are large, some of them Ailed with older children, 
and v/o saw they had baby-jniupors even in China. 
Then we left the foundlings, and walked through more 
streets, over flag-stou&f and bricks, made slip|iery with 
the constant tread of buity feet, and saw some temples, 
and |>art of the city whioh was burnt di> wn when the Im- 
perial troops drove the reliels out of Shanghai and mur- 
dered ami plundered the citizens they came to rescue. 
The rebels were not Tai-ping's men, but members of the 
Triad Society,— one of the secret conspiracies of China. 
I Tlioycame in junks from Fo-kien pv.i C'anton,and fought 
I well, frequently making sorties, md keeping up a g<M>d 
I tight, 200 or .300 .tgainst thousands of the Imperialists. 
Their fights being in skiruiish'n^' order, their retreats 
were curiously maimged— one young f>!lliiwin rod keep- 
ing on the right, iiud another in blue on tho left. 
These men kept moving on each Hank, tho rest kept 
up • fire from the centre. The ImperialiNts wasted 
tlieir shut on the two flank men, who appeared daringly 
at intervals waving their flags. Tlio rebel \miform 
was like tlrnt of the Qaribatdi volunteers — red, yellow, 
or blue blouses — fine gaudy colours, red turbans, or red 
lashes. All wore their hair in a tuft on the crown — 
no pigtails. Chin-ahLin, one of the leading chiefs, 
wore shoes, itookings, gloves, and boots of English 
fashion; and his men armed with musketit, Minids, 
horse-pistols, and revolvers. Ueganliug rifle balls, they 
wore dresses wiuldcd with floss-silk, for they said that 
while tho ball had a twist in it, it caught up the silk 
and fastened itself in the garment, Hut this they saiU 
only happened while the ball was revolving; at a long 

' The ChlmM hsv* long tdrntnUtereil urwiiio u « core fur fever 
sod asuo. The; have slirtvt opposed lilewlins in fever. They 
regsrd the Ikh h an iiiieot dlMue, (which it ii), and cure it by 
an ointmei>t that killi the inaeot. In akin diaeaan they are very 
aklUed. They eitract teeth without drawing themi but (bey 
have iDnnmerabls qoaekeriea in their praellM, and compound 
hMerogeneona madldnea that MntmUse eaeh other. 

range it was of no avail. The hwB In the city during 
their stay were those of the Triad Society — a itrong 
mixture of common sense and Lynch justice. The 
churches were respected, and the emperor's property 
untouched. They renounced idolatry and proclidmed 
the worship of the True Uod. The chief who ultimately 
took command was a Canton sugar broker, who had 
started the Triad Lodge at Shanghai ; another leader 
was a green-tea broker. The best fighting chief 
was a young groom, who had served in the British 
Consulate stables at Amoy and Foo-chow, They 
did as they pleased, and the people did not oppose 
them. Tho French picked a quarrel with him 
and attacked him, but were repulsed. At last the 
rebels surrendered to the French, who gave them np to 
Yeb, and the Imperialists broke into the town, which 
they rifled, beheading and mutilating 1500 men. 
Chin-ah-Lin cut his way through and made his way to 
Siam ; where he was last heard of as a favourite of the 
king. He was said to be leagued with a great pirate 
party of naval rebels, and was once the cause of saving 
a great many E^nglish lives, by betraying the plan of 
the Chinese admiral to have sailors engaged to work 
lorchas to Macao, and then seizing them near Kamoa 
and cutting off their heads for the reward I Fancy 
an English admiral smuggling the heads of our 
enemies in this fashion 1 The ruins of tlie burnt 
district covered many acres, and the wonder is, as the 
fire was started in so many {mints, that the whole city 
was not destroyed. We saw the walls where the French 
wasted their cannon balls ; it was like firing through a 
piero of mortar ; the temple was pierced through and 
through, completely riddled. The Chinese rclwls, 
stationed in buildings, even where tho walls were 
weakest, i>astcd paper over the holes made hy tho 
French cimnnn, and firt^d thiough them. A Company 
of French Marines were mowed down by shot they 
ciiuld not trace. 

We are now u|m)ii tho Bund, a broad embankment ; 
on one side the wide river, and on the other the Hongs, 
go-duwnx, or warehouses of tho Foreign merchants, 
with the great Chinese Custom House in fi-ont of all 
{lee p. 137). It iH here that the Englisli, French, and 
Americans |>ay or elect their own oflicerB to collect 
customs for tho Eni|)cror of Cliina, and hence Shanghai 
is the only port where the duty in really collected, every 
where else tho Chinese oflicials being bribed, and 
tho Qovemment cheated out of half Every hoiue cm- 
ploys a tea-taster and a silk-buyer, who makes the pur- 
clutsos on his individual judgment ; each is a regidar 
profession of itself, and req\iircs years of study. Some 
of their assistants make their fortunes. Tlie salaries ot 
clerks vary from .£150 to £800 |)cr annum — tho latter 
price for book-keepers of long experience. These sums 
are entirely exclusive of household expenses, which an 
paid by the firm, about XI 3 a month being allowed, 
which gives the elcrk good lodging*, a gixid table, n 
coolie, chair, and lioy 8<.Tvant Alt seem wall Mtisfied 

It is by no means disagreeable work to range 
over the gardens, by which all the warehouaea are 
B'irrounded, and watch the Chinamen for houH pre- 
paring the sdk for inH|>eotion, and rattan, mark; 
and armngo the tea for shipment, — a moat in- 
teresting sight, — done so rapidly and ingeniounly, at 
a trifling expense, never making a mistako in de< 
livering, for the delivering is a sucoeasion o( cheoka, — 
first at the dour — then at the gat«,— again at the 


large boat— and now then at the ship, a small stick 
left for every package.' 

"Fire !" Out we rush, for a fire is everywhere a 
matter of pleasurable excitement, when not in your 
own house or your neighbour's. How will the Chinese 
manage it ? Here comev a fire-engine, (a regular Braid- 
wood, the "Water Dmgon,") and the old mob with it, 
just as you would see in Fleot Street Tlie Tnra-tum, 
a drum, beaten by the night-wutchers, is heard loud all 
over the neighbourhood, and everyone rushes up with a 
bucket, and there are tubs and cisterns of water pro- 
vided for the uurpoee. Next come the guard — for 
without them the thieves would gut the house, and 
pull it down, and carry away even the materials. How- 
ever, there goes the roof, and all is over, burnt up u 
quickly as a bamboo chair, and to-morrow it will be half 
built lip again, and in a week, painted afresh, and 
John Chinaman selling his wares, and turning over 
his cash as brisk as ever. The Chinese have a regular 
Fire Brigade, with engines and uniform, paid for by 
the public, and looked after by the Mayor and Town 
Council, who are r^uUrly elected in Chinese wardmotes, 
and are answerable to the State for the taxes in their 
district, as are also all the Mayors of the villages. 
This proves that the division into hundreds and 
'•things was by no means a Baxon or Qerman invention, 
OS our historians teach us. 

Let us enter the Kaopar, or theatre of literary 
examinations,' in short, the "Institution" of the city. 


I There they are, all the students ananged at long tables, 
and all with their papers, and the best man is to have 
the highest honours, and to serve the State. Is it so, 
does the best man win always t and is the best book- 
man the best to serve the State. Sir John Bowring 
says no ; but the present story of China does not give 
great encouragement to the competitive system. What 
is this disturbance! 'A crupper bachelor' detected I 
Some |)oor scholar has taken the name of a rich young 
man who wishes to pass, and a rival has denounced him ; 
we do the same sometimes at our own Horse Guards. 
But what are they reading and writing and talking 
about } What do they learn } Chemistry 1— No. Math- 
ematics 1 — No. Itomc 1 — No. Languages t — No : — 
The four Classic Books and the five Sacred Books.' 


■ MsnnfiictDrins indoitrjr, like eTOTjrtliing clie in China, it in a 
•tata of decay, anu viaibly declining fhnn day to day. Hon* im- 
portant aacnti ooonected witli it are loat, and tlia moat akilful 
workmen would now be incapable of prodocing the periketkn and 
flniih n much admired in tlie worka of past age*. Thi* was not 
always tlie coie, hue >^ it referubia to the diaorganiaitlon of all 
thingi nrder the HantcUb j(Oveniment. In fanner liniea an im- 
pulte wat given to geniot and induttrjr. Ad Arab trareller in 
the ninth century telli ut tliey, even then, nine indnttrial 
exhibitiont. "The Cbinete," he lajrt, "are of all the ores- 
turet of God thota wlio have mott tklll in the hind in 
all that conoemt the acta of detign and fkbrication, and <br 
every kind of work ; they are not in tkit retpect lurpaaaed by 
any nation. In China, when a man bat mada anything which no 
one ebe wouM be able to make, he earriet It to the governor, 
demanding a reoompente for the progreta he hat made in the art. 
The governor immediately ordera the article to be pkcod at the 
door of hit palace, and keeps it there for a yeari if in the ooune 
of tliat time no one lindt a ihult In it, he rewtidt the artiat, and 
takes him into hit aervice i but If any real defect can be pointed 
out in the work, It ir tout hack, and no reward given to the maker. 
Ono day a young inaii brought a piece of nlk itulT, ok which 
wat rcpreaented an tar of com, with a iparrow perching on it. 
No one, on teeing it, could doubt that It waa a real ear uf corn, 
and that a iparrow wat really tlttin^ on it. The ttulT remained 
br tome time in the pUca of exhlLitlMi ; at latt a humpbacked 
man came and bcgau to eriticiie the perfbrmaaoe. Uo waa imme- 
dhtely admitted to Uie governor of the town, and the artitt at 
the Hime time wat tent Tor. There they atked the humpbacked 
caviller what he liad to ulject toi and ha taid, 'Everybody 
knowi very well that a tinrrow could not perch upon an ear of 
com without making it bAnd; now tlia artitt hat represented it 
quite ttraight, and yet he kaa ihown a iparrow perched upon it.' 
The o b t en ation wu oanudnrvd jntt, anil the artitt ncelveil no 
reward. Tlie purpite of tlio Chlneae in all thit it to exerciae tlie 
talentt of the artitt, and tu furce tliem to reflect maturely upor 
what they undertake, and to devote the ntmott poeilble care to 
the workt that inua IVam their haiidt." 

* Tlie literary e«amiiMtiMntnre,likeeverythln|relie, degenerating 
tiid tinklng to ilway. They liavo no kmgar dia grave, comet, 
impartial diameter tliat wat doubthita Impmted on them at tlia 
time of their inttitutkm. The ootruptlan that tpreadt every- 
where in China bat ftmnd its way amoog both exomlnert and 
examined. The rules that ought to be obetrved In tba txarolna- 
tions are extremely atringMt, with a view to ptavent say kind of 
firnud, and diiaover the true merit of tha esndidalai but by 

oartoin flnancbd mathodt they are n mtralited. A rich man can 
always And out beforehand the tulgeott propoied for the variont 
impetitiont; and what is mon», even the lullVagn of the judge 
era told to the highait bidder. By the by, in China, at In 
KnglMid, any man, bowtver ignorsBt, it perfectly at liberty to 
tat bimtelf up at a tchoolmatter. 

* The Sechon, or four Booki^ containt Itt, the " Grand Studyt" 
a kind oftreatite on poUtica and moralt, competed iVom the oon- 
eba text of ConAioiut by one of hit ditciidiie, and tba grand 
principle inculcated in it It lelf-improvement There are tevenpre- 
ceptt and tan cbaptei* of commentaiy. 2ndly, the " Invincible 
Onitre i " a treatito on tlie conduct of wite men in life, edited by 
a diiciple of Confuciut, according to inilructiont received fhiin 
one who wat of tha number himielf. The lyttem of monlt con- 
tained in thit bonk It bated on tha principle that virtue it about 
at an equal dUtaoca firom two extremct — an harrooniout centre^ — 
Ching-po being the louree of the true, the beautiful, and the good I 
Srdly, " Fhiloaophical Convanationi ; " a collection of maximi^ 
and reooUectlontof dlacounet of Conftuiui with hit pupili,— among 
many very wite things we learn that the great Conniciui wat at 
odd inhit wayt at wite men utually are in general. The X«a-^n at it 
it oalled, informing at that the matter, in introducing hit suetti, 
kept hit trmt ttretched out like the wingt of a bird i that he 
wmdd never est meat Uut wat not cut in a itralght linej tliat if 
tha teat on which ha uaed to tit down wat not rtguhu'ly phued be 
wonll not take it i and that be would point to nothing with hit 
Bngen. 4th and latt, •■ The Book of Jlindut," or Meng-tiia, tha 
Sorntet of tha Pkto of Confuciut. He treati, layt a Chlneea 
writer, on the virtuet of douettic Ufa and the order of aiSiini the 
dutlM of tnpcrion, from the tovarcisn to tha lowett magittiatai 
the caret of ituden It, hibouren^ tradera, and workmen i the caret 
ofthaphyiical world j of tha htavent atd the earth j birtU, ilth, 
baattt, Intedi, andflowert) alto hit ditconnei with great men i hit 
initruolion to hit pupiU ; and hit expltnatkuit of booki contained 

After Ihete come " Tba Five Sacred Bodu," or" Kingt." " The 
Book of Changea "—an nnintelllgibia treatito on Uivinationt, 
(bonded on combinatlooa of M lima, ibund In atortoiae't back, by 
Fou-bl, tlie Ibunder of Cliineta dviliiation. CoiiAiciut edited the 
book, but made U no catler to compreliend, and 14G0 treatitei in 
expknation of it that are in tba Imperial library liave only made 
the matter wone. 2ndly, " The Hook of Uittory ; " the ipecche* 
of the Emperors of the different dynattlH, at Mr at tlie eighth 
century belbro our en--precioui documeiitt to Cliincte hiitorlml 
writart. Srdly. Tha " Book of Songt i" a collection, alio of tha 
win Confbc'iut, of nr%tural and " ofllcial" longtfrom the eighteenth 
to tha third century beforo our eta— of tome uie at regtrdt 
ancient mtnnen. 4thly, The " Book of Kitea;" flmgmenta of 
letioot in etiquette and politcncit. Btlily. Tba " Book of Spring 
and Autumn i" to entitled it havinjr been commenced in the 
former teaion, by Conlbeiui, and flnithed in thn hitter — a kind 
of country biitory of tha little kingdom in which that great man 
wat bom — a raoord and a picture Si ancient cuatomi. 

The Emperor oan only chooaa hit dvil agontt from the letlerrd 
daaa. Every Chinete mty preeent himtelf to ha examined fbr the 
third literary degree, ana having attained thit roar become candi- 
date for tha tecond, which openi to him ofldal employment. There 
are no nobility except the eroperor'a relatione, wlm wear yelhnv 
girdlee, but tfir military roandarint give themielvee great lirt. 
Tiia corporation of lettered men constitute a privileged chit. 
Tha number of haehehirt (tha third degree of liierature) It vary 
oondderaUe i but, for want of reto n reea, peenniaiy at well at 
intallaatnal, there art very Ikw who attain to tha bfghar degrees 


Forty miles from Shanglmi, on the main land, twelve 
miles from the sca-nliorc, and up the river Yung, is 
Ningpo, a city of 350,000 inhabitants. Its gi-cator 


staple being timber, it has a largo convoying and car- 
rying trade. So infested is the coast with pinicy, that 
the 6,000 junks between hero and Foo-chow puy 


£70,000 annually for convoy money, and, in many 
instances, the pirates thcraselvo.s safely convoy, or 
bargain fur safe conduct. The boat-bridge at Niiigpu, 

where two fine rivorsi join, Im a rcnmrkablo stnicturo. 
The piles are simply boats moorod iit «qniil distances, 
and on these the up|>cr wooduii work of the bridge ie 


'.jiiilt, so that tht whole risos and falls with the tide ; 
by this means there is H\iQicicnt room under the 
bridge to allow fishing and passage-boats to |)ass. The 

whick At tlicin for |mblic ofllcci. TIuxo wlio iirc in easy I'ircuin- 
ttmnoM, bowever, may at Icait enjoy tlio iiicnmimrublo liappiiicM 
of weinf; * gilt bnll in their capt. Ilicy am fonil of pnblic ccrc- 
uioniula, |»nuleii, unci otwinblici in nlilcli tlioy niny iliaplny their 
prctcniioni. Poor literary Rraduatca, wlio have no public office, 
form in tlio empire i rlim a|wrt. Tn orcnpy theniMilvc* with 
iniluttry, commerce, or iigrit'ulturo would bo much bonuith tlieir 
dignity, ttomctimc* tlicy bcoomo MlHwinuuton, one of whuni 

city is snrronnded with high walls, and contains three 
fine streets. There in n fiiio ptt<;i)dn, tlie " Temple of 
the Heavenly Win<l8." The winter here is govere, 

nmy Iw necn in every villiigo— fur nowhere i* priuinry ctlunition 
%i> much cneournftcd an in China — a ndnry, for a lehoohiiiuter, 
being iupplic<l by founAitinn of hind. Other* become inbiiltem 
offi(Tra in thctriimnnUi othenmere odvanturem, li.ingin viirioun 
ways on the public. I.Aw»iiU nre n (rmnd ronourec for them. 
They foment diiiputiii, and ftNtiat fur unnill rtminnenition in utlling 
them. Xhey uro the iigcnla of iiecrct nocii'tieii, nnd the Roitaton 
in time of revolution, by proclaniationi, plocnnU, nud pampnlcto. 

UlU I, 



M that the clothes in the ibopa aro Koen lined with 
Bkina. They have no fireti, but put on more clothes as 
tho-cold increases ; bo that the unpecling of a Ningpo- 
man on a warm day is something like that of the grave- 
digger in Hamlet; the ladies, however, carry little 
brass baskets of charcoal There are excellent silk 
shops and warehouses, and beautiful embroidered goods 
— aprons, shawls, work-bags, &o., made up in the English 
style, cotton-printing intliomoHt Miniple block form, n>po- 
niaking, from the piilra and Chinese hemp; curiosity- 
shops and shops for furniture, all of Chinese form, with 
proHsos of inlaid work, illustrating the manners and 
customs of the ]>eoplo, abound. > The banks here aro 
great establishments and largely connected throughout 
the country ; in fact it is to this place that the wealth- 
iest Chinese raerclumts seem to retire. The gardens of 
the Mandarins are very pretty and unique, and are 
celebrated for their dwarf trees. Home of these are 
only a few inches high, yet preserve all the character- 
istic of the large trees. This is done by grafting, by 
confining the roots, withholding water, bending the 
branches, and other ways. They twist the main stem 
in a zigzag form, which checks the flow of the sap and 
encourages the growth of branches ; they next starve the 
tree with a little soil only, and barely water enough to 
keep it olive. The strong growing shoots are also nippetl 
oflT, until nature at last becomes exhausted and makes 
no further eflbi't. From Ningpo, wo sailed down the 
Yung and over tt Chusan, whence we again started 
for the uppermoit northern district of the Oulf of 

> It onglit not to bs omitttd tbst Ningpo U celebrated for 
Iwving produeed tumt of tba iblest lehoUn in Chins ) snd name- 
roui triumphal srchn^ in honour of tliose of lier sons who have 
carried off the highest hon /on at competitivx eiaminstioni, ipsa 
tlie principal tirceU. The book-iliopt of Ningpo sro wortliy of 
iUbIgh literary repataUon) and indeetl the iliop* of over/ lUs- 
tcription an superior to than at in; oilier of the ports. At tlmt 
populirljr known a« Fortnom and Huon*', oiqnuite tea can bv 
lipped, while Torioui deliesta oonKrvcs are luuided round, and 
pipe* of mild tobsceo aro imolced at intervals. 

' We ought not to quit Ningpo without one memorial — 
one thing to nuke it remembered, with *U it* beauty, its trsde, 
and it* greatn***. " At Ningpo," *ay* Mr. Winmv* Cooke, " I 
I* ,u the bouehold of Mr*. McOowsn, the bdy ofHr. McOowan, 
the Ameriosn Medical Mi**lonary, a young girl with large feet 
and a cbeerflil s*peet, doing duty a* a nunery moid. This girl 
had been reeened ftom death by etarrstion. Mrs. HcQowan told 
me tlwt it was by no meani an nncomuion dreunutance to find, 
under the walls, bodies of Influit* half-devoured by dogi. A very 
•lioeking incident of this kind hod ocourred a few weeks before. 
One night the little girl, whom I luve alraody mentioned, 
come up to Mn. McOowan, and told Iter that she heard the 

grunting of doge and the ftiint cry of a child Jut ovtiido the 

{ioiden gate. The benevolent lady immedbitely aroae, and. ^ng 
orth with a kntem and lome of the houao coolin, wai quickly 
guided to the ipot. It was a dreadhil spectacle. An infant, 
wrapped in a ooane cloth, was lurrounded by a pock of pariah 
dogib who were tearing at the cloth and already gnawing the 
fletli. The baby was sUU sllvs. While the men beat off tlie dogi, 
Mrs. McOowau took the little creature iu ber arms and ran with 
it to tlie houu. It was too bte. Tlie iqusltd tiny thing opened its 
eyes Slid seemed totnr to cling to her, and, aa she imagined, imiled 
upon ber, and died." We will aUo let Mr. Wingror* Owlie tell the 
story of the Uaby Tower of Shanghai. Wo confeM we had hoped 
to have thought otlierwiie of it tlian we did until we ssw it, snd 
(hen— "Tell me, Vice-Connil Harvey, whst means that more 
than uiual pestilential itcsm which aecins to radtste from that 
decaying pepper-bos-ihaped tower." "That ii the Uil» Tower." 

"The r I laid Inquiringly. "Tlie Baby Tower. Look 

through that rent in the itono-wurk— not too cloie,or the stream 
ot cmvia may kill you. You lee a mound ofwiqis of bamboo- 
straw. It Mcms to move, but it is only the crawling of the 
worms. SoBNtlsMS a tiny lag or ana, or a little fleihlesi 


Fbom the Amherst Rocks that lie at the entrance of 
the Yang-tse-kiang river, we made a run of SCO miles, 
over waters rendered shallow by the depositsof the Yellow 
River — soon to bo htnd won from the sea by Cbinexo 
industry, — until wo rounded Shan-tung point, the 
nearest extremity of the Oulf of Po-cho-li, and entered 
the Yellow Sea, after a run of COO miles. The coklucwi 
of the atmosphere told us now thiit wo were advancing 
into higher latitudes. After rounding the Cn|)c wo 
[Msacd the harliour of Chu-foo and the largo walled 
town ofTang-chun, one of tlie ports to be o|ieni'il by 
the new treaty, thus giving us the trade of the Uulf. 
Entering into the Gulf through a barrier, as it were, of 
small islands, the Miatao — within which, and all up the 
bay to the entrance of the Pciho river, are to be xi'cn 
junks in myriads, bearing corn as tribute to feed tlio 
capital— on our left lies the delicious pixivinco of 
Shan-tung, the native country of Confucius, with 
lofty mountains and wooded valleys, in a long pictu- 
resque panorama. This province alone, not larger 
than England, Scotland, and Wales, contains thirty 
millions of inhabitants. It was the sixth day from our 
departure before we entered the mouth of the I'cilio 
river, at the top of the Oulf, ])ast the Taku Forts, that 
have causcti so much commotion in the world, and are 
HO utterly unformidiible, except for the mud all about 
them. Thence we screwed up forty miles of twisting 
river, through mud villages, fleets of junks in mud 
docks, between mud banks, to Tien-tsin, or the " City 
of Felicity," which we were very happy to see. 

The first osiiect of Tien-tsin, as approached from tlio 
east, is most remarkable. Einormous stocks of snit, 
numbering from two to three hundred, lino the banks 
of the river for some hundreds of yards below the towu. 
These stacks vary in length from two hundred to six 
hundred feet, and average about a hundred in breadth ; 
they are twenty or thirty feet in height, shaped liko 
the rounded top of a carrier's waggon, and covered with 
matting or thatched with millet straw — the salt being 
stacked in bags. Passing these, a bridgp of boats im 
attained, which connects one of the suburbs with the 

The river flows between banks ten or twelve feet 
high, and densely ]x>pulated ; the mud houses nre 
packed closely on cither side, and their occu|mnts still 
more compactly. A long straight roach extends fnini 
below the bridge of boats to the ]X]int of the junction 
of the river and the grand canal, which enters the IVi- 
ho at right angles from the southward, and here termi- 
nates its extended course of about COO miles. 

Not far from this point is n picturesque line of biiilil- 
ings, abreast of which the allied Admirals were mooi-vd 
(see p. 153). Their fragile and somewhat fantastical 
construction suggestc<l the notion of a summer imlnco. 
The allied embassies wore informed that lis h\icIi it hnd, 
in fiict, served the emperor, Kien-luug, in honour of 

bone protrudes from the ttniw. The Tower is not on full 
now SI I have seen It; they must Imvo clmrod it out rocviitl^." 
" Is this a cemetery, or a sUughtcr-lioiiso P " " Ilio Cliliirao nuy 
it is only atomb. Coffins are dear, and the poawiitry arc poi>r. 
Wlisn a child die* the paient* wrap it round with tumbno, timnv 
it in at that window and all U done. Wlicn the tower is full tlio 
proper authorities burn the heap, and spread the oahcs over the 
land." Than is ■» inquiry— no check, llie parent has nowcr to 
kill or aav*. This Siby-tower is a terrible instilutiun. It stand* 
there, doaa to th* wall* of a crowded city— aa luUusive iuvitatlua 
to InBinttcide. 



which happy oyent it hiwl been inrMted by Imperial 
piitpiit with the title of "The Tttmple of Supremo Feli- 
city," uiiilcr which auipicioiu dunignation it won now 
about to Rorvo iw their nliode. TIh'Jt found, when they 
iitiioil witliiii thi^ waIIm which onohmo<l their future resi- 
■Icnco, tliiit it WON not Itclied hy ita oxtoriml ai«|)oct. Am 
i:4 gnicriilly the ciwo in Cliina, it WTved tlio double 
|)iir])osi! Ill' II t«m|ilo nnd n ]>alnco, though it had not 
iicGii honoured with tiiu lMi|i«rial prcsoncuainco tho om- 
|H'ror Kicn-Iung hod inade it liis tumpornry at)odo. 

Upon tho top of tho woll, which was only ii<'])arated 
from the edge of tho river bunk by a narrow pathway, 
were two largo apartments of light and gn\ccful con- 
xtruction, surrounded by vonindahs, elaborately carved, 
iu wiiivh di!|i«ndcd mnnxtcr horn lanterns, gaudily 
painted, as transparent as ground glass, and decorated 
witli innumerable taxxels and silken hangingH. The 
Chinese liavo carried tho art of fabricating these lan- 
terns to groat itorfection. They first soften tho horn 
by thfl application of a high degree of moist heat, and 
then extend it into thin luminio of any shape, either 
flat or globular. The walls of these moms wore com- 
posed of paper lostod u|>on the wooden trellis work : 
the sliding paneln into which it waa divided wore made 
to answer the purpose of windows. When they wore 
shut, however, the paper was so transparent that there 
was plenty of light, and on a sunny day the glaro Mrai 
unpleasant Theae two buildings were thirty or forty 
, yards apart, and connocteiJ by a verandah which run 
I along the top of tho wall, and terminated in two quaint 
little kiosks, their upturned roof^i supported by carved 
p.ists. These apartments were appropriatml by Baron 
(iro.4 nnd r>ird Kl);in; that occupied by tho latter being 
|H.>ri-hed upon an artificial mound laid out in true Chi- 
nese tostn, and ascended by ste|)s of omamcntid rock- 
work. OverlmnglMg the river, they comnWud an ex- 
tensive and ever interesting view ; below tliem, a dozen 
Eii}{lish and French gim-boats, some of them moored 
witliin pleasant conversational distance, imparted a sa- 
tisfactory sense of security to the position. (.Sfec p. 153.) 
Not a single native craft, except nn occasfonal ferry 
lioat, rippled tho surface of the stream or tvjxxsotl upon 
iu waters. 

Tho ]Krsonnrt of tho two missions were accommodated 
in the temple and other buildings, allenclosed within onn 
outer wall; ai>artition-wall,howovor,dividodtho English 
from their allies. Tho latter occupied a number of do- 
tidied 8umMior-hous<-s, dotted about a garden. As to 
the members of tho English embassy, they established 
themselves in the inmost recesses of tho temple, their 
beilnioms furnished with sacred jugs and bronzes, in 
which smuulderetl eternal fire (untd they caino and 
allowed it to go out), their slumliers presided over by 
grim deities with enormous stomachs, or many-armed 
goddesses, with heods encircled in a blazo of golden, or 
rather biiiss, llamc. The (lerfumc of incouso still clung 
to those soci'cd purlieus. Much and devoutly did 
they wish it had been tho only odour to which their 
nostrils were subjected ! 

Horvauts with a white Irndge, emblem of an armistice, 
attached to their coatx, waited assiduously upon them, 
per])otually proHcntiiig them with little cups of tea; 
indeed, for the fii-st few davs, a man was always walking 
aliout with a t«a-pot roatiy at tho shortest notice to 
refresh tlin thirsty soul. Tho tables with which 
iliey were supplic<l were anlidly oonatructod and woll 
carved, s'liuir* in shapes, as Chinese tables always are; 
a red cloth, eUboratoly embroidered, lerTed a* a table- 

cloth, and foiling to thn groand in front, concealed the 
legs of the table. Tho high-backed, uncomfortable 
chairs were limil-xrly decorated, gorgeous enough to 
look upon, but very ilisogn^able to use. Borne nr<>ctcd 
their mosquito curtains over s(|uare woo<ien ottomans, 
others slept upon a brick platform, gcoorally used in 
China, and which, in cold weather, is heatcil by fires 
fnmi beneath, after the niRiinor of an oven, nn un- 
healthy stylo of bod place at all times, for in summer 
tho damp is apt to strike through tho bricks, and in 
winter they aro not dry, but hooted, a semi-baking 
process which must be more or less prejudicial. 

In front of tho tomple was a squaro courtyard, 
partially shaded by tho spreading ai-ms of on old tree; 
tho English, however, thought nature required a little 
assistance, so tho whole court was matted in, which 
greatly added to tho picturesque oflect, and was of 
practical utility in reducing tho temiionituro. A 
raiac<l flag passage intersivtcd this court, and on each 
side of it was a quaint little kiosk, the roof 8e|ia- 
rateil by four carved pillai-s, also elaborately carved, 
brilliantly coloured, and fumiountcd with dragons' 
heads, rampant Hsh, and other devices. In one of 
these a marble slab was erected vertically upon an 
elevated platfonn, and was covered with Chinese cha- 
racters, alleged to have been traced by tho hnnd of the 
Emperor Kien-lung, and to embody a high moral 

The building on the opposite side of the courtyard 
was formid into tho guard-house, tho guard being 
usually conqioscd of engineers and marines, and main- 
taining upwards of a hundred men. - Attached to this 
buihling were tho servants' offices, nnd behind them 
stables. The establishment vas thus very complete ; 
and it was not without a feeling of regret that they raw 
it dismantled, ])reparotory to its restoration for the 
rites of Paganism, when, after having occupied it for 
u|)wards of a month, they looked upon it for the Inst 

As to tho Russian and American Embassies, they 
had some difficulty in erecting a houeo on shore; the 
proprietor (doubtless a goo<l deal puzzled as to tho 
relations of might and right in his view of the slate of 
matters generally,) made a novel proposition, iu the 
shape of an otfer of 6,000 dollars if tlicy would not rent 
it Tills, however, was declined, tho difficulty some- 
how or other overcome, and a handsome rent for tho 
short s]>aco of one month was ultimately pressed u|)on 
tho reluctant owner. To judge from the ap]x>arancc ot 
tho mansion, ho was a rich man. Mr. Iteed lived iu 
a cliarming retreat, with a Levantine air about it ; a 
courtyard with flowers and fountains, and ])onds full 
of gold fish, was surrounded by c(x>l airy apartments 
with paper walls, and vorandalis and balconies over- 
hanging tho river. Count Pontiatino lived next door 
— a strip of intervening building which was impregna- 
ble fi-om without, and consecrated to the use of the 
female portion of tho Chinese owner's establishment, 
alone separating him from his colleague. This resi- 
dence was on tho right bank of the river, and within 
view of tho yamun of the Allies, though distant from 
it about half a mile. Ere long tho flags of the four 
resDfxitive nations, waving proudly in tho breeze, signi- 
fied to the Chinese world of Tien-tsin the distinctive 
abodes of the chiefs of tho four barbarian hordes who 
had thus boldly located themselves in their city. 

In a country which almunded with horses and roods^ 
it was not to b« supposed tlwt ponons of an exploratory 


Umdencv were to be utiaSc<l with |)0(leRtriun cxciir- 
Binns ; tiie members of t)i<- emljawy, tbi-rt* fons sent in a 
requisition for a cci-tiiiii iiiinibrr of stvcds, and, ait<-r 
sonio delay, were fiiiiiiHiifd with what a|>|it^arvd the 
Hcum of the HtiiblcN of Tien-tsin. Tliexu were indig- 
nantly rejected, and thoy ultimately obtiiint-d nix very 
rfH|)octable (lonicH, and hIx verr unuomfortable Chint-st- 
saddles, very Imixl and angular, and garnished with 
extensive draiM-ry, and an awkwani bolstcr-Hhaiied 

Iirotulieranco iu front. To these uncouth contrivances, 
lowever, they ultinutely became accuxtonu-d, and they 
had minutely explored the country round Tien-tsiu 
within a radiuH of about mx miles before they h'ft it. 
One day (lie mcniberH of the embassy were making 
trial of their ]MinieM and of the road to Pekin for the 
fintt time, when a coring, fireccde<l by a cloud of dust, 
indicated the iiiinroach "f xonio grand jiereouages, 
Prctiently appeared runnem with rods of office, corrc- 
R|ionding with Javelin men ; these cleared the way and 
forced the |ieople to the right and left ; theu followed 
two stately ehairs, each lionie by eight stalwart bearers, 
containing two of the most elevated dignitaries in the 
realm. The common |ico)ilo at once brought thcm- 
Hclves up to the attitiulc "attention," the hantis l)cing 
pressed on the outside of the thigh, and the body 
maintained erect and niotionless. They could scaixcly 
make out the features of the inmates through the 
small window of the chair, across which was stretched 
fine gauze, but though In all ])rolHibility they were 
the first barbarians the Chinese oflicials had ever set 
eyes u|M>n, they gazed with all the imiierturliubility of 
Chinese dignity ii>'|ias8ively in front of them, tlicir 
countenances manifested neither curiosity, alarm, sur- 
prise, or any emotion whatever. 

Immediately behind m'os a dense and d\isty crowd 
of footmen and horsemen, evidently coming otf a 
jouiiiey, and though many of them were handsomely 
apparelled, and were doubtless oliiciala of some rank, 
they looked worn and travel-stained. A number of excel- 
lent, well-built,covered baggage waggons, drawn by four 
or six large fat mules, completed the procession, which 
was evidently one not of display but of serious earnest. 
In contemplating the population of Tien-tsin with a 
practically commercial eye, the problem u not whether 
they want clothes, but whether they have money 
enough to buy 'hem. Ap|>earancc8 certainly fully 
bore out every CI i.neae merchant's aMsertion as to the 
poverty of *^' i >wn. In no part of the world can be 
witnessed a more squalid, diseased population than 
tlukt which seems rather to infest than inhabit the 
suburbs of the city. Filth, nakedness, and disease are 
their ]irovailing characteristics. When the embassies 
were ^here, the banks of the river swarmed with men 
who lived entirely on the garbage and offal that 
was flung from the ships, or swept up by the tide 
from the city. There was an eddy just in front of the 
yamun, in which dead cats, ^c , used to gyrate, and 
into which stark naked figures were constantly plunging, 
in search of some delicate morsel. Their clothing gene- 
rally consists of a piece of mat or tatt<>red sacking, 
which they wear, not round their waist, but thrown 
negUgontly over their shoulders : it is difficidt to divine 
for what purpose, os decency is ionored, and, in the 
month of June, warmth is not a aesideratum. Cuta- 
neous diseases of the most loathsome character meet the 
eye in the course of the shortest walk ; and objects so 
frightfVil that their vitality seems a mockery of 
exbtence, shocks the coarsest sensibilities. 


U|Mm several ocrasions yott might see some wretched 
sufferer dying at his post of mendicancy. One old 
woman, noticed by those connected with the embassy, 
in |iarticular, used to lie motionless on a mat, in the 
centre of the road, a diseased skeleton. 8he had just 
strength enough to clutch at cash that was flung to 
her. One day this strength seemed to have failed ; on 
looking closer, she wiui found to lie dead. A few hours 
after, her place knew her no more: she had been 
can-ied awii\ uid cost upon a dung- heap! liiding in 
the outskiii < of the city one day, a man was seen 
carrying another on his back. At 6rst it was thought 
that the burden was a cor]i«e; but on approaching 
nearer, a certain flexibility of llic legs, as they trailed 
in the dust behind, showed that this was one of the 
city scavengers who prowl the streets for dying beggars, 
and when they find one in whom life is almost e:>tinct, 
they bear him ofl° to some vuburban Aceldama, and 
fling him from their shouldi^rs, a premature least for 
crows and vultures. Certainly, if the imagination of 
the Chinaman who nunicd this cityTien-tsin ("heavenly 
felicity") could fonn no higher idea of an abo<le of bliss, 
it is ditticuit to conceive what must have been his 
notion of the opposite extreme. 

As if in ironical allusion to the misery which the 
living scrni to endure, almost the only pretty fpots 
near Tien-tun are the burial iiluccs.' 'J hey are nearly 
the only localities honoured with trees, and consist 
genenilly of a Fniisre, with an area of about a quarter 
of un acre, iucK .-<(d by a mud-bunk and ditch, eo as to 
present exactly the ii)'|Karance ofatmall earthwork 
or tabia. £ach number of a family \«ho reports 
within this inclosure is |ilaccd bcnrntha conical mound 
of earth, about the rizc and rlin| ' of a bell-tent. A 
thick grove of trees, genenilly wjHow and cyprets, 
surrounds the cemeteiy, ond givis n moI and refichhing 
aspect to the place. One of thecc buiiul-platcs is of 
so great nn extent, and contained so many graves, (hot 
the mtmlicrs of the cmbussy «hen here actually avoided 
it for some dajv, feeling certain that it was an in- 
trenched rnmp, iM they had heard of the existence of 
one in the ncigbbouihood, Ihc real camp they dis- 
covered a few days after, from the summit of a tpecies 
of martello tower, to the top of which they climbid 
for pur]iose of inspection. 

The yamun of the Knglith was situated on a penin- 
sula foimed by a deep bend of the river, which doubled 
back so as almost to convert it into an island. Upon 
one side of it, the mud houces of the Miburb wetc 
built against the yanuin wall, but to the left and reur 
were gardens, scattered houses, and waste land. The 
engineers occupied a ttmple within musket-shot, and 
next door to them, " Casemo Fran^ais," painted in 
large white letters, indicated (he quarters of the 
" Marine Fran^ise." Just jircvious to (heir departure, 
there was an allied force of nearly six hundred men 
quartered in different buildings upon this little penin- 

' Tho cfninlry is covered with gravci, niii> in mmiy jiIncM 
ttlwiit Sliaiigluii the colBin nrc openly cipMcd In the flclil*. Ihcy 
arc even kept in the liou«c« (the colflni beirg of a groat lliirkncfs 
mid filled with quicklime) till a propitioui doy urrivei for the 
bnriiil. Money ii MTcd mid put by to jirocuro coffini. A traveller 
tells m, " I «aw, in ■ little cottage near Shanghai, an old cob- 
webbed coHin in the comer i I a»ked a young lad why it was 
there ? he quietly pointed with hia thumb over his ihoulder to hit 
pmndmother, tUiiding clom by, and (aid it waa for her ! She 
waa very old, and was nearly wearing out tho cofflrn before ibo 
waa put into It." 



(iiIa, which WOK capable of being rendered dufonniblo, 
if noccMuiiiy, \>y itri cnrthworic thrown across the narMW 
i»tliiiiii.i, HI) that thoy wore fortunate both in rcwpoct to 
thu accDiniiiiMlntiDii anil load6 of their position. 

riiiuiiig tiio iMthiniiH, and riding pninllcl to the 
(iriiiid (Jamil, n bridge of boats is Soon reached, which 
thu lVI<iii riHul crosiH!!t to thu city ; turning shnrp to 
thu rii,'lit, this rii:ul soon emerges from the suburb, and 
crossing two cunnln, tributary to th«< I'l-iho, by sub- 
Htantiiil bridgus, onu of which is ornameutcd with a 
haiidiiimo b.dustradc of curved marble, readies the 
NVonhci, or salt river, a little above its junction with 
the IViho. It is conveyed across this iinixtrtant stream 
by a bridijo of boats, and tiiivorsing the peninsula 
formed by the two, follows the right bank of the Peiho 
for as many miles us our explorations nt that time 

'Die tiirlhcst point wo reached was the large village 
of I'utsang,' abo\it seven miles from Tien-tsm by the 
road, and interesting as the point at which Mr. Ward, 
the American Envoy, and his suite, stniclc the Peiho 
on their way to Pekin, from which, according to report, 
it is not above firtv-tivu miles distant in a straight 
line. The country through which we passed presented 
bU thu appiBiranco of being subject to annual inunda- 
tions ; d<!ep ditches intersected it in varioiu directions, 
for the (lurposo of carrying off thu water ; and the 
Pukin road was raised tifteen or twenty feet above itti 
level, the small country roads which crossed it being 
all bridjru'l over. The high road was [mved in places, 
and abi.ut t venty feet in breadth. The villages which 
dotted the hindsoapo in every direction were also built 
uiion r.iiscd mounds, which completed their resem- 
blancu to the mud towns of Egypt. 

Duritig the lirst portion of our stay at Tien-tsin, the country extending between the Urand Canal and 
the Peiho was one Viist field of ripening wheat, fur as 
eye could roach ; and, uuiatorrupted by fence or en- 
closure, the yellow corn rose and fell to the breeze in 
gently rolling waves. Dotted over its surface, the 
m:ists and sails of numerous junks are visible, looking 
us though they traversed a golden sea. These are na- 
vigating the minor canals. On an unusually clear day, 
we distinguished the irregular outline of some far-off 
hills in the dim distance. Winding through this fertile 
plain, the courses of the Grand Canal and the Peiho 
are markeii by the groves of trees which adorn their 
banks, and surround ancestral gravis. Some of the 
villages also rejoice in clumps of trees, but generally 
thoy look like brown jiatohes, stuck upon a green 

Ere wo left Tien-tsin, thu aspect of the country 
was entirely changed, for the harvest was over. Most 
of the com wiks cut with the sickle, but grain of certiain 
descriptions was plucked out by the roots ; then it was 
collected into the thrashing-grounds, to be trampled out 
by oxen, and v ■ iinowed >ipon breezy days, when carts, 
concealed by mountains of straw, and drawn by mixed 
teams of horses, mules, and oxen, creaked heavily over 
the soft land, and gleaners sokttered themselves far and 
wide through the fields, and the whole population was 
out in the bright suushine, looking cheerful and happy 
as thoy gathered in the blessed fruits of their labour 
and toil. In the mellow hour of evening, when the 
whole western sky was a blaze of red, and the sun was 

* Hie Bccnc of tlio flnt victory in the l*t« invuion of China by 
the Engliih nnJ French furcet. 

Imthed in the glowing rutleotiun of it« fiery tints, it 
was pluasiint to ride among the roa|)eni of fieu-tsin, 
and forget, in the picture of content and plenty before 
thorn, the objects wo had just witnessed of m Jcry 
and starvation. 

Although the country roimd Tien-tsin is a dead level, 
it is not dt-Htitiitu oi \ lii-i.iy. If the Pekin road IciuIn 
through nothing but a corn-field, that which foMows thu 
banks of thu (Inuiil Canal, in a southerly direction, con< 
ducts you for niilus between kitvhen-gitrilonH so uxipii- 
sitoly tended that, in this rrN|icct at all I'ventu, the 
environs of Tion-tsin are a pattern to those of Ix>ndon. 
Fences of the neatest and most tasteful construction 
enclose little areas of ground, irrigated by a network of 
miimto canals,iliviili'd into lieds, devoid ofweod or pebble. 
Qroens of every description, gourds, egg-plants, leeks 
and onions, sweet potutiM>s, lieuns and peas, are plantc<l 
out and manured, or trained, ns the case may Im-, with 
the utmost care. InterH|H.>rsod with the kitchen-gnrdcns 
are vineyards, orchards, and fruit- ganlcns, containing 
apricots, apples and pears, of a coarse description, and 
vines trained in trellices as in the north of Italy. This 
is one of thu ]ileasant08t rides, aa it is fur the most part 
shaded by trees, and the wintHngs of the canal, with 
the river-life upon it, add to its picturestiue interest. 
It is an immeuHe relief, in all our rural rambles, not to 
bo si:Qed nt every turn with the filthy manure-con - 
trivance:< of the south. In this rcs|)ect the horticulture 
and agricnlture of the north ore carried on under much 
pleiu<ant«r conditions. Explorations in a westerly 
direction were uninteresting ; the country is an im- 
mense graveyard — not a collection of private cemete- 
ries, such as nro seen upon the banks of the Peiho and 
Grand Canal, but a plain, crowded with conical tumuli, 
destitute of grass or trees, and extensive enough to 
have contained the whole defunct popubtion ofrien-tsin, 
since the original founding of that " heavenly s|K>t" 

A very considerable suburb, connected with the city 
by a bridge of boats, is situated upon the opposite side 
of the Peiho. Passing through it is a singular piece of 
lundscaiie. Hen; are salt-|)ans, with the salt stacked in 
large tumuli, like gigantic graves. Interspersed with 
them arc small tumuli and deep pits; and ponds of 
water, with narrow ridges between them; and more 
salt stacked in bags, and roofed in with millet straw ; 
and huge stacks of wheat straw collected for purposes 
of fuel ; and mud huts, like Irish cabins of the meanest 
description, cncU.i^ed by fences of millet straw, which 
is thick and strong enocgii for the purpose; and there 
are brick-kilns, which look like circular forts, and a 
circular fort which looks like u brick-kiln. Altogether 
it is the mldcst collection of big moiuids and little 
mounds, and heaps, and stacks, Kud pits, and stagnant 
ponds, and hovels, and forts, and Lrick-kilns, and fences, 
and waste land, that can bo easil r imagined. A high 
road leads through it, and into a close, populout 
village beyond, and out of that ii:to the illimitable 
stepix!. There was no waving com here ; a' weakly 
vetch aud unhealthy-looking young plants of IndUn 
corn were struggling to maintain a miserable existence, 
in a soil so thin and friable, that the united efforts of 
two men and a donkey or two donkeys were sufficient 
to drag a plough through it. It seems to be of quite 
another character from that on the right bank of the 
river. Beyond the vetch-fields, the steppe produces 
nothing but a short diy grass, across which we could 
scamper in every direction, with the chance of putting 
up a hare, and riding after him across the country. 


It ri'uiindi uh of lomo parta of tlio «tcp|M« of 8outli<>rn 
ltii:wia. BomctiiueH tlio nionotony of tliiM mciio ia iin- 
lirukon by a living object ; >uim'itimeti a vloiul of diiMt 
Would betoken thu appr''^ich o'.' country cariM, and a 
RUcceiMiion of huge creaking vchicica would roll jxiat, 
loRfled with fuel, and drawn by a mixed train ; winie- 
timcf a hone, a i>ony, a mule, a donkey, and two oxen, 
in one cart. An ox and the horse Nerved as whcclen, 
in front of them were the other ox, the mule, and the 
|x>ny, wliile the donkey leads the way in solitary 

Tien-tsin itself, at the time, presented nothing re- 
markable, but our lively allies ferreted out snine 
caricatures there. One represented an English officer 
on horseback, with a white umbrella and a cigar in 
his mouth. His hat and dress were irresistibly ludi- 
crous. Another depicted a grotesquely accoutred 
merchant exchanging a bag of money for a hedgehog. 
In a commercial point of view we may remark that 
I'ien-tsin will, if o|)oned to the commerce of the West, 
present a marvellous market for British manufitctiircs 
wherewith to clothe all the hordes of Tartary, but it 
can afford little in exchange save furs, which are 
abundant, good, and cheap. 

We were here enabled to corroborate n highly im- 
fiortant fact; that is, the destruction of the Imperial 
Canal by the floods of the Yellow River, which, 
driving the great annual supplies of rice and other 
necessities to navigikte from the Yung-tse-kiang by 
the Quif of Pe-che-li, placoM the capital at the mercy of 
any European power. Wo have thus discovered the 
weak {mint of the Colossus, and England will not 
forget it. In fact, the jMiint is already hit, and the 
supply of grain by the sen-board being cut otf from 
I'ekin, that city han no alternative lietweon ])eacn with 
Great firitain, or starvation : for oven Hhould the 
Emperor at any time carry out his threat and i^'tiru to 
Mookden, his further ca])ital in Mantchuria, it would 
only be to depose himself— as the millions of Pekin 
would, none the less, bo starvctl into surrender, and 
in his absence China would then learn to be able to 
go on without its Tartar Emperor. 


Hi; who should ask the nse of certain high square 
towers erected on the Imperial road, through the grnt 
Wall fh>m Pekin towards Ping-ton-luen, will lie told 
that they served as signals of war, by means of fire- 
works combined in n i>artic\diir nwnner ; and that so 
long ago as 780 a c, the Emperor Yeou-Wang, the 
tliirteenth of the Tcheou dynasty, yielding to the absurd 
solicitations of his wife one night, ordered these signals 
jf alarm to be made. The empress wanted, at once, to 
amuse herself at the ex|N)nse of the soldiers, and to 
ascertain, at the same time, whether these fireworks would 
really bring up the troops to the succour of the capital 
As the signals i>asscd on to the provinces, the govcmors 
deN|>atohod the military mandarins and their forces to 
Pekin. When the soldiers learned, on their arrival, 
that they had been called together for the capricious 
amusement of a woman, they retired home full of in- 
dignation. Shortly afterwards the Tartars made an 
irruption into the empire, and advanced with rapidity 
to the very walls of the capital. This time the emperor 
gave the alarm in grave earnest ; but, throughout the 
province, not a man stirred, thinking the empress was 
again amusing henel£ The conaoquence was, as vre 


have seen, that the Tartars ontenxl Pekin, and the 
Im|icrial family was massacred. 

t)n leaving Tien-tsin, wo resolved, before quitting 
the g lit of Pe-che-li, to make an excursion to this Great 
Wall of China, which was said to have its origin on the 
coast at the entrance of the Gulf of Lca-tung. We 
accordingly emiwrked nt seven in the morning on 
board the steamer. The object of our search wos »aid 
to 1)0 only Home thirty or forty leagues distant ; but 
evening came, and land was only visible in the horizon, 
so we were obliged to come to anchor in the open sea. 
The next moniing, however, we neared the coast, and 
were soon enabled to make out the Great M'all, which 
presented the ap|iearance, as seen from the sea, of a 
succession of towers and curtains rising up iVom a 
pagoda, which constitutes the starting-|ioiiit on the 
shore. The scene was the most picturvHque that can 
be possibly imagined ; aluiig the const, a vast plain 
extends, covered with ]sisture and a luxuriant vegeta- 
tion, with numerous villages cniboiinmed in trees, 
while beyond, lofty mountains rose one above another, 
some rocky and precipitous, others clad with trees to 
their very summits, luid amidst all, (he Great Wall 
issuing forth from the sea, with alternating pngodiui 
and Itastions, clomb up the stcepeHi acclivities, and 
stretched across woo<led and precipi>.ous crests alike. 
At the foot of the Wall, on the Chinese side, are the 
white tents of two camps of Tartar horsemen, whoso 
steeds are quietly |Muituring in the fields iii-ound. 

On the side of f'hiiin, the Great Wall looks like a 
mera earthwork crowned with battlements of brick, 
but in a very dilapidated condition, Mid broken down 
in places. On the side of Mantchurin, on the contrary, 
the Great Wall is faced with bricks reposing on a foun- 
dation of stone. Tlio Wall is protected by square 
towers at the distance of two arrow-sliots from one 
another, so that the enemy should always bo within 
bearing. It descends into the sea in two jiarallel 
jetties, and the water is so deep that large ships con 
anchor at a distance of a couple of miles. 

Our party landed, and had an interview with a 
mandarin, who was moimted on a white horse, and 
accomiMnied by two mounted officers. Having ex- 
plaine<l to him the ]iacifio objects of our visit, he gave 
us permission to land. This, however, was not hi 
easily acconiplishe<l when iierniission was gninte<l, for 
tliesea ran very high, and tlio boats could not approach 
the shore, so we had to be bonie n|K)u the shoulders of 
three naked sailors. 8ome of the bearers, unable to 
withstand the violence of the waves, were thrown down 
and coxt their burthens into the water. Finally, after 
many misadventures, our party gathered together on 
the shore, and fonnd that we niiistercil only a couple of 
guns which had not been in the water; but, nothing 
daunted, wo made our way directly towards the Great 
Wall. We had to cross several streams of water 
on the road, and to take a circuitous and inland 
direction to avoid marshy spots. As we neared 
the wall we saw the Tartars liecoming very fidgetty, 
getting on their horses, and galloping to and fro. 
Gradually they formed themselves into three bwlieH, 
one of which {losted itself in front of the camp, inter- 
cepting the way to the Great Wall ; a second took a 
direction to the left; while a third, composed ol 
cavalry with white and gilde<l globules, rode forth to 
meet us. When we got up, they inquired whence wo 
came, and where we were going, adding, that they 
oould not let na go along further, that the Commander- 


in-cliief was abgont, find thv'<y coulJ lot tako upon 
thk-nRclvvu tlio rcs|ioi<Hibility of allowing us t<j 
(irocccd. A prolonged Ocgotiution hod it lat>t a sue- 
ccHsful tormiimtiou, and fot -x nioniunt wo tlio'ight tliat 
wo would liiivo reached tho '^Jrcat Vail ; but we Imd 
(icarccly gono a fi-w hundred yaiiU, ^vh'jn wo were 
intorccpted by another jiarty of hoi'Hcrojn, who dc.'larcd 
that we should proceed no fiirther. 

With two rifles nnd our revolver!*, and three 
hundred Tartar horsemen, we felt it ta bo our 
duty to avoid a quarrel, unci ntill more so any actual 
lighting for tho mere puqmso of gratifying an innocent 
curioaity. So, nftir having taken a few sitetche.s, wo 
purchaied sundry funs from the Tartar cavaliers, and 
astonished the crowd of ChincKu who surrounded tlu^ni 
by tho distribution of brandy and tiio loan of our bino- 
cular glltSHCS. 

Thcio Tartiu" liorNemen hail neither bows nor arrows, 
but all of ilU'ii: carried matchlocks xu.spcnded beiii'id 
them. Their jiowder wjia very coarw, but besides Iwills 
they had also bits of lead in their cartouch.a Ixixes. 
Their hoi-ses were Kinall, generally white or piebald, 
and of an essentially priiiiitivo nice. These cavalici-s 
carried tlioir pipes and fiuia in their great Ixxits, and all 
had a ring of jade fur stringing bows.' 

Bi'foro leaving this neighbourlKxHl we made an 
excursion to the other siili) of tho Oreat Wall, opposite 
to the plains of Mantchuria, which presented that 
brilliant verdure which is oidy met witli in countries 
Ik long time covered with snow and suddenly vivitieil 
liy a brilliant sun. The Great Wall hei-e detached itself 
like a long dark line from this admirable vegetation, 
ard could be seen from this point issuing forth from 
the sea and ascendini; the mountain sides, to cross their 
very summits in all its grandeur, and thence to stretch 
Bway, f'lr some six hundretl leagues, across the wild 
regions which extend to the confines of Mongolia 
(«M p. I II) 

After having contemplated tlii., magnificent H|>ectaclo 
to onr fill, we took our departure, and ma<le the liest of 
our way back to our old c|uarters, with tlio ninmory oi 
u pleasant tii]> to the most ])icturesipio it|iot in all 
Chiiiiu The soundings obluineil sl]Owe<l that there 
was evcrywiiere plenty <if water to enable the largest 
shijis to iiavij,'iito the (iiilf of I'e-che li in perfect safety 
ur iiir iis to the Leu-tung.- 


Ome of our objects in visiting this side of the wall, 

' " Probj n'l IIoMC," n dvtnclnnciit of Sikh nivftlry, roiiimnniliHl 
by Kiiglish olIliH'rs of tlio Imlimi uriny, rcxlo ilnwii lliciio Tiirliir 
cnTnlrv.nnil scntton'd tlicin like slii'i'p In tliu recent Kliurt cuiM|i:ii);ii. 

a This Oreat Wall, wiileli Hcpnrutos Cliiim frotii Turtary, id tliu 
most remarkiiblo nrcliitrcturiil iiionuinent nf t'liiiiii, wliicji, with 
it« windings, Ik luppijixHl to extent', over i,500 niileM. It it imuhlhI 
through vulleys iiiu! ovit luutiiitnins idike, und is carrictl over 
streams liy incnns of arches. 'Xlic building of it is snid to hiivo 
been eommcneed n.c. 215, to prevent the inviisloii of tho Tartsm, 
snd it was pnihahly the work of sevend generations. Since the 
contpiest of ('hln.i l>y tho Mnnlehii!>, ni.. the foundation of n 
Tartar dynasty nnd nnny. Its ]iur|Hi!U's linvo been obsolete. 
MiiUj exaggerations au to the Bolidity of (his wall liavo beeoine 
onrrcnt, nnd it lias even Ik-cu ealeulaled that the nmterinls of 
which it is composed would be sulllclent to ereet all the dwelling 
houses bi England nnd Scotiaml. It npiiears, however, from I lie 
detached notes of late travellcri<, tint it is for, the most part a mere 
earth wall faced in parts with brick and stone, and having ijnnl- 
rangular towers, at short distnnces.nt the more im|K)rtnnt|iointK. 
At to its breadth being such as to |)crniit six horsemen to riile 
abreast of it, that, it would npjicnr, must also bo understood only 
of particular [mnts, most open to access, and not to apply to tho 
wluile of the mountainous and diveruiflcd country over which the 
wall is carried. 

Our judimcnt, after personkl liupcction, Ii, that Its height 

was to lake in an emissary, who liad been cntnisted to 
cross the country, und pass into I'ekin by hind. This 
wo Biifely eflccted, and received from him the following 
account of his progress. " Disguised from head to foot, 
in full costume, with red trinkets, satin boots, nnd spco- 
tiicles of largo siz*,' wo crossed the barjiar, at Shanghai, 
and descended into our Isiat. After filtecn days' sail 
from biiat to boat, from riv r to river, from cumil to 
canal, from lake to lake, we {lasscd tho Kiang, and 
arrived at tho banks of tho Yellow liivcr, at Iloai-iignn- 
fu. On the borders of tho Yellow IJiver carriage 
Itunsit commences. We journeyed for four days along 
its buidts from Uoai-ngan to I'esu-tchu. This river 
rolled nluiig enormous blocks of ice, and the |in8sagc 
was iliiK^i rous. It is as wide as the Ithono at Avignon. 
Its waters are muddy and yellnvvish. llciioe its name i>f 
lloang-ho. Yellow Itivcr. In Europe you have bridges 
over your rivers, tho Khone, tho Thames, the Rhine, 
ibc, and where you have aot bridges, you have ferries. 
The Chinese have not availed themselves of these con- 
veniences. Hero thei-o are certainly many bridges of 
wood and stone, with arches well struck, and extremely 
well constructed ; but in all these cases they ai-e thrown 
across watercourses, or small streams which ai-o often 
forda'i'ic, and the channels of whieli are dry except in 
tho season of heavy niins. If the bridge is built on » 
ii>ck it may be, in some degree, permanent ; if not, 
however, cracks will soon begin to appear, the arches, 
placed on a Isid foundation, will totter, and on the 
occasion of a heavy Hood the bridge will lie entirely 
swept away. As to ferries, the Chincso have not 
even an idea of them ; they tako olf tho horses, and place 
two |ilaiiks from a boat to the water's edge, otio for 
each wheel. The sailors then put themselves in linrness, 
and by degi"ees draw tho carriage on board ; but tho 
greatest diUictilty is to get the cattle into tho boat. 

nnd breadth are not equal in every ]il«cci nor, indeed, is it nerct- 
sary they should. When mrried over sleep rucks, where no Ixirso 
Clin i>asa, it is nlKiut fitXcn or tncniy feet high, snd broad in 
pmiKirtion i but wliilu ruining thrjiigh n valley or crossing a 
river, there you seo a strong wnl' alx>ut thirty feet high, villi 
square towers, at the distance o'. a Isiw-siiot from one another, 
and embrasures at iipial ilistiuicts. The tjp of the wall is flat, 
mill )iaved with broad IVee stone; and 'vheio it rises over a rock or 
any eminence, you ascend by ii tine eiu/ stone stnir. 

The bridges over rivers nnd torrents are exceedingly nent, being 
1-otli well contrived and execuli-d. 'I'licy have two stories nf arches, 
one above the other, to alford Kunicient )Hi&sa^e for the Auteis on 
sudden rains or IIikkIs. "This surprising piece of viurk," says 
a traveller, "if not tijc greatest, may lie Jnally riK.'koned among 
the wonders of the world. And the emperor, who pliinncil unit 
cotnpleteil it, dcser\'es lame an mueli s'lperiur to him who built 
the liinious Kgy|>tian pyramids, as a performance of real use exceia 
a work cf vonity." 

Mesides tho main wall, there iirc nt jilores senii-circnlar walls. 
These are more purticnhirly met nith nt the places least fortified 
by nature, nnd at the open pusses of the mountains, ns more 
particularly at the pass of Kii pe kn, or Con-iw-koo. These are 
strongly liuill of the mine inateriiils and architecture ns the long 
wall in the niuio neighlHiurbrxHl, that is to say, of brick on a 
foundation of large bhH'ks of sf|uiire stones laid in inortiir, nnd arc 
of\cn of coiiiiidernble e;. cut, soiiietimea on one side of the innin 
wnll, and souietiines on the oilier. In these nails are stixiiig 
gates, eoiist.intly defended by a nunieruiis guard. 

' Most Euro|H'nii», win ii they wish to disguise themselvci in 
t'hinn, nni coinpolletl to wear spcctiieleH to hide the length, height, 
and proniinenco of their noses. The Chhieso, as n nation, liavo 
small turn-up i.oses. Hence tlicy Iwlieved that Mr. Oiitilaff, who 
bad a small nose, nnd spoke C'hineso, must '.lave been the son uf a 
Cliincfe father who hod cmigrnted to Oermnny, 



Tliey lire nimlo to jiinip in from tlio ImmIc. T!ii« is 
vtVuctcil by piilliiig tlii;m befm-c, |niHliing thorn fmiii 
bt'liiiid, niid (itrikiiij? tbcm im i\w Imunchvii. Tho boal8, 
us they biivc v•^ '<."el, reneiiibbi oblong luboa, with tho 
bottom flat ■ii"! Utthi rimitilcd olF. 

In the |iroviiici f Kinng-iiiUi' thebetlof tho Yellow 
Ilivcr is iiMieli higher than the siirfueo of tho country 
thn''i«h which it nins; its wiitei-s ;ire confined by tho 
eiiibiii>!Ement.'< for rond.^ which iirc iimdo on each Hide of 
it; but, unfortunately, wlicn tho heavy iloodncomc on, it 
fiw|uently orenks through these banks, which nrc oden 
badly eon.strucled tlirough the Hclfish cupidity of tlio 
'•ontractom ; then the towns of entire districts are iii- 
uudutod by most awful IIooiIh. Towards the north of 

' KiniiK nan i>' I'.ivideil into two ilttiiartoipnta, Kinngau ami 
KianK ai; Nankiu ia tiia chief town of tbo former, Nan-ohanjr «f 
the Utter. 

' The modu of cuHivatinK tho rio« (ilant variea conaidcrably, 
acoordiuit ti> tho cliinato and loud oircumatanoca. The fullow' 
iiig ia the uiHthod i'in|>loycd amunc the C'hineae, who i?iiltivut<! 
it tu a very K'eat cxttiiit in tho ni. -anil anil «iiithern parta nf 
their tlmuinicina, ihi. low Rruumla nf which an annually thKxKil 
by tho Kiaiif ud the Yellow rivera. Thi-ae extensive innncU' 
tiona aie nocaMuiMri by the licavy raina that fall neur the auurccn 
of thcto rivcp*. wuKh liave their miikui in the Hiinalsyan chain 
of mountain!. Wben the waleni have receded, the earth la 
covered with a thick coatini! of nlimc and mud, whicli fertUizet 
the itrountl a< perfectly oa tho richeut manure. The eround ia 
then carefully harrowed, and thia operobon ia aevrrai times 
repeated uobl it ia well worked. In tbe ine>intimo tho rice 
intended fur aced baa baen aoaked in water, in whioh • quantity 
of luanure ku iMea attfred ; tbia Ima funrarded ita growth ao 
much, icat the jorag planta appear above tbe grouatd in two 

this river the cuiintry a.ssunic« a new upjwirunee alto- 
gether. The jvalni-lrer-, the bamboo, and tbe ri> e-ljeld»,' 
arc excliaiiged lor ininiense trnctH of corn and millet. 
W'c! are now in the luidat of the piainn of Hh«n-tung, 
and feel no more tlie damp atmoxphere of Kiang-nau, 
nor do we bii/atlie lietieath its cloddy sky. }lere we 
liave ;i dry anil latlier piercing cold, and a pure and 
cloudless heaven, iiml thrniighout the whole jouniey 
cliiudx of dust that '.oirly ihokc us; whe'i the wind is 
high and "tormy, '.nnienae whirlwinds rii<'> into tiie oir, 
and again i»air <'iown a deluge of ijand at an inerediblo 
distaiii'i', as fur otl" all Sutcbuen, and even furtlicr. 
Ihiring tlu passage of thesi! ■Jind-eloud.'' in Mongolia, 
it in son.c tiincn necessarv to light the )oiii])s in tho 
middle (if the day: so nuich is the light of llie sun 
obwiu'il, and the air darlencd. 

Wo eros.sfd, at a Chin so |>ace I'liat is to say with 
idow and heavy stops), the pLu... of Hbantung. £v«ry- 

ilayi after they have lioen deposited m tho earth. Aa «oi>n oa 
the youu|{ plants have reached tho height of six or 'icreo inuhcs, 
tiiey are pulled up, the ^0{i8 are cut olT. the roota carefully 
Hashed, and the whole planted out in rows a'l'Mit a foot asunder. 
The lirst criii, foi they obtain two in the courae of the year, is 
harvested alijut May or ,)unc, and the iiecond in October or 
.Viivomhir. The aiuklo employed for the purpoao of reaping 
i<ii« lice ia, Uke 'he European in.lrumont, beiii into the form 
iH a hook; but i \e edge, inat- id of being smooth, ia notched 
like that of .- M' '. Tho chief food of tho t'hiiwao consiste of 
this ONiM a(raiii, prepared in varioua ways. Tin/ use no spoons 
at their laeat^ and it is cucxius to iiotior the dexterity with 
which two email akewom calleit fAe;* lUdii are employed lit jatk 
the riuv into theli Kumtha; a kind of «1a« tl »l*o prtparad lium 
tin' urain by ferinantAlion. 


viiliigcH, composed of 


whoro tlinro wprr populov. 

wretohcil liovcls, liiiilt of straw,' luiil plasturcd over 
with iiitid, ill tlio niidHt of wliick grow plantations of 
willow ami poplar trivs. 

Formerly somo of tlieso Nmall Immlets were sur- 
mounted with u rampart of mud, and enclosed with 
gates, fonuod, no doul)t, durinp the civil war ; at 
Jjrescut the ruins of these fortiticiitions alone remain. 
Numerous pngoda.s relieve somewhat the imiformity of 
the lamlscapo but as they all resemble one another so 
n\uch, the eye soon becomes fatigued by a new s|)ocies 
of monotony. You are already acipiainted with these 
pagodas ; they tower some feet above the ordinory 
liouBes ; thi'ir summits ar<! decorated with dragons, 
baboons, and wreaths, all modelled in plaster. In the 
far end of the sanctuary ther<; is a huge enormous gilt 
idol, installed on a throm^ upon a i-uis<d ))latforra. Its 
form is monstrous — a stitf black beard, thin like that 
of the Ohinnse, and very long. Hows down from its ears 
anil its chin ; a broad-ilat nose, small eyes sunken in 
the forehead, covered with thick eyelids, and gtutfed 
with soui" transpanmt gum : a large paunch, which is 
in China a distinguished mark of gentility, and tiually, 
enormous ears, which hang down to its very shoulders. 
Such are the characteristics of the idol. Here large ears 
denote a great mind, and tlm UbiiMwe all believe that 
their emperor lias long and very largo cars. At the 
feet of the principal g<Ml are arranged, in a semicircle, 
a crowd of minor divinities, with nd, black, blue, and 
green faces, who rival one another in ugliness, grotesipie 
appeai-ance, and horrible asp<wt. 

On our loft we liad tlie Imperial Canal, Yan-Leang- 
ho. This canal is large, and v<,'ry beautiful in somo 
places. Wo ascended it in Kiangnan, and Yang- 
tcheou n.s far as the lloaingan, on the Yellow River, for 
forty leagues. All throughout it seemed luagniKcent. 
f^'i'ith of Kiang we also ascended it ; it is sometimes 
^ ly narrow and shallow.^ We have been stranded 
tiere on a shoal. This was near Teu-kiang ; there 
Wert- in sll two hundred Junks stranded thcro. Wo 
often ('r'.MUied this canal in Shan-tung. It apiMiarod 
to us scarcely uuvigable, and, in fact, whenever there 
is a drought it becomes iinpnurticable ; o|)en the sluices 
as V"" nay, the boats Make little 
leujjue ji r day. Hence, this year, the sca-jiniks alono 
have conveyed rice <o provision the co\intry from 
I'ekin to Tion tsiii. It is eni)neous to say (as a cele- 
br.iteil geographer iiiui advanced, on the authority of a 

le:ir I Russian, who was himself deceived by somo 

vaunting Chines*'), that stone quays line its banks, 
and that on each side there is a long row of houses 
from oiii' end to the other of its conmo. 

On tlie 4 th of February we reached Shan-tang. 
This was the first day of the Chinese year. In China, 
on New year's ilay, all travelling and somo works are 
suiponded. Knc\i one thinks of making the best cheer 
poMiblo, playing at dice and cards, and thus ruining 

' Tlio Chinoac cottages gmcrnlly src wrotrhcd buildings of 
nnul unit stonr, with dani]) oiirthon floors, Bcnrccly fit for eattlcto 
•loop in, nnd rtminil ona of wlint Kcotch cottages wcro n few yean 
n;^.) j l>;iJ fitting, loose, croaking Aitrnt, iKipcr wiiulowi, dirty nnd 
torn ; ducks, gceso, fowU, dog*, and pigs ni tlio house and at Iho 
d.Hirii, npparontly claiming and obtaining i'(|niil rights with tlio 
iiiinnte«. Cliildr?ii, puniTeliildren, and scvernr degn3«s beyond, 
III' huddled toother, witli tlicir shsvod heads, long tails, mil 
itvango ctifltuino, iu comic groups within. 

' Its aouthcrlv tsrmioation ii tt Hwang-Chow, in the Chu- 

himself Others, or tho majority, spend their time ia 
firing off a succession of crackers ; all wear their 
l)est attire. The women ornament theii- heads with 
an luiditional pmfusion of llowers. The houses, for 
once in the year, arc dusted and swept somewhat care- 
fidly ; the furniture rublied ; the papers forming tha 
windows, which for so nntny months have fallen into 
tatttrs, a»r at length renewed. Stri|(s of red |>aper, 
(lasted together, are stuck everywhere on the posts, the 
pillars, tho jambs of the doors, the walls, the chimney- 
])ioces, the con nters, the sidelH)ards, the shafts of t he car- 
riages, and oven on the stable doors. Un each of these 
8tri|iH are written in large cliaract<-rs a gnat number 
of .sentences ; some of these ore moral Mmtences, many 
are epicurean, and the majority su|>erstitious. The 
houscliold gods are greete<l ; the dragon conjured to 
piss by the house, anil entrcat«'d to discover some 
great vein of wealth ; and, in short, that the lioiiiw 
may Ijo complettdy tilleil, from top to bottom, with 
\ery yellow pild, Hoang-Kin, and ]irecious stones, 
I Kin-yu-man-tang.-'* 

On the 10th we entered the province of Pe-che-li, 
after tee days' journey ; we felt scorched, as it were, 
in a plain of .sand, which whirled about with the winiL 
Tills notified our ap|iroach to Pekin. Wo ma<le our 
way into this eity at noon : our guide, whom we had 
hired at an adjacent Christian oommunity, took to 
flight ; such arc tho Chinese in (loiiit of eoumge. On 
the approach of the custom-house ottieoi's we got out of 
our carriage. "Are you mandarins ) " said they to iia. 
" Whence <lo yon come I where an ymi going ? " " We 
are going eiutt anil west." " But what is your (iocii[(a- 
tion i What business are you ei-gagcd in t" " iMyoq 
suppose, then, we have no business I At all events 
why do yoti wait I examine our carriage " Wi ^lipficd 
them 200 sapecs (IG to 20 lialf-iicnuieK), iben got in 
again and entered tlio town. 

We expect<'d to mwt some remarkable building^ 
some road well laid out, that air of comfort which is 
noticeable on ajipmaching our large fiwb« Rut. on 
the contrary, wi^ know nothing throughout the whole 
of China poorer or meaner tlinii the outlets of the capi- 
tal. Wo looked on all i-ides ; we eoiild not iM'rceivo 
moro than half a either pnloco or country hou<e, nor even a single grtjve, 
The inhabitivnts (d° the hamlets niiii villages clo nut 
seem to us more comfortable or more refined in their 
tastes than the rest of the Hmpire. Wc ndvaiic<-<l at a 
slow pace, the sand half way iqi the horses' legs. There, 
as everywhere else in countries, the roads are | 
completely in nits, and no one thinks of rejiuiriiig 
them : every individual extricates him.self as best ho 
can. The mandarins have scarcely any other occujia- I 
lion than to extort from the jieople. 

* Wlien Uvm is a want ormin, the Mni.darin onlen a fast far 
the Dragon of Water, nnd as n lii«t risonrce, llioy carry •Ixuii hia . 
image in procrasion, and hum impcr to his honour. When tho 
dragon is obstinate, nnd the wpiitluT continues dry, he is 1)eatcn ' 
nnd torn to pieces. It is rcliitc'd thnt under Kia-King (he fiOh 
Kni|)Cror of the .Vliintclni Tsrtiir dynasty, a long drought had 
deaolntod several provinces of the north, hut ns, notwithatinding 
numerous proceaaitais, tlie driigon jHTsiitted in not sending rain, 
tho indignant EmtXTor launched 'jgiiinst him a thundering e<Iict, 
nnd condemned him to |H<rpotunl exile on the hoidirs ortiic river 
Xsi, in tho province of Togot. Tlic sentence wns oiKSit in Ijo 
executed, nnd the criiiiinal (pnpcr image) w:ii proceeding with 
traichiiig resignation to cross the deserts of Tnrtary, nnd nnderfo 
his punishment on the Ixirdcrs of Turkistiin, wluii the snpren.c 
council of i'ekin went in a hmly to implore his pardon, and liia 
Imperial Majesty ^.'vokcd tho sentence and reinstated tho dragon 
Id kii poaition ou oonditioiu of belter eonduct for the (UtnrS) 




chiirchep. All tlmw clccnmtiong arc well cxecnted, 
;in<l wrouj»ht in jOiistcr. Tlio crosH, wliich 8nrmnunt8 
till' priiK'ipnl front, is nixty ffPt from tlin ground. 

8onn) ftntiiorn Imvc csti'niiti'il tlic pojiiiliition of 
Pckin lit tliroo niillionn ; others at two ; otliorg Ofpiin 
at lifted liundrcil tli "is'inil, iiml somi' even nt a million. 
IVkin is in point of fart iiljout fifty-two lyH in circum- 
ftTcncc, or nli'iut six li'aj,'ni'S, of livi> tliousnml nii'titifi, 
or twenty-four kilometres (about eit'litopu miles En- 
glisli). It in of nn irregular quadrilateral shape, np- 
pronehiiig to that of a trapezium, and is eoni|Hised l-( 
four large diHtricts : nuniely, that of the Chinese town, 
Oay-lo-telicnj;. whieli forms, as it weii>, tlio Imsc of the 
tra|ie7.ium ; that of Iho fai-tiir town, or Men-tcheng ; 
that of the imjierial town, or Ifoang leheiig ; and that 
of the palaee, or Tso-kin-tclieng. This palace, which 
is nothing more than a long string of houses and rourt- 
yards, together with a few gardens, is surrounded hy a 
wide ditch filled with water, which is sunk on tho 
outside and at tho foot of the boundary wall. It ia 
aliout half i league (or a iniln and a half Knglisli) in 
circumfeiince. Tin' Tien than, where the Knipcror 
repairs to sacrifice to tho lieavens, is ahmo greater 
than the ))alaeo, Tho great court-leaiscs of the empire, 
and several large pagodas besides, occvipy a very ron- 
hiderablo sjKiee. I'lio shops are in goncrid nniulmbited. 
Kvcry cveiiihg the Bhopkcf]K>n<, with tho exception of 
tho watchmen, rutnrn to their families, who inhabit 
somo mori' retired neighbourhoral, wheiv, pro|s-rly 
speaking, they aro domiciled. It is tnie, that in theso 
Chinese Ixmses thu families aro crowded all together ; 
father, mother, children, daughters-in-law, and tho 
grand-daughters. Notwithstanding this tho houses 
aro only one story high. Kroni nil theso consiilenitions 
it may eaiiily 1h! eoiichidcd that those who reckon tho 
l)opulii 'in of I'ekiu at about a million como nearest 
to tho truth ; while, with resjioct to tho suburbs, it is 
ipiile a mistake to su^'iposo that their jiopulation is so 
great as has been stated. Wo have gone thfiugh many 
of them, auKuig others that of tho south, which con- 
tains the largest number uf inhabitants, and we found 
it consisted of a single street, hardly a quarter of a 
league (or two-thirds of an English mile) in !• ngth. 

Tho commerre of I'ekin is far from being in pro- 
portion to til. capital of so large an emi>ire. It iTceives 
its silks from th« midland t'AMl^ especially those of 
Kiang-uan, Kou-tchciu, Han^^trljinu, and even Hu- 
tchiien. Shnnsi sii^iplies it \^ith its felts and i's ifii 
manufactiM'is ; iSliaii;,'-tung and tho southern proMixeg 
III tho Tartar to .vn (iVTiiM-tcheng), tho i i-oss is still theirlinrn9;Cinton,Slian-tungaiidNing iwlheirprintid 
ptniiding that WAS raised on the pinnacle of an eilifiee lMioks,il.'c. ; ina word, I'ekin inqiortsniostofthe aiticles 
now in mills, fnrmerly the cath'rlral, or the I'or- . ofeonsuinptioii in tlirir niaiiufactin°ed andfinished state, 
tugucse church. years ago, wlien this cliun h Liltlo is made there except objects of luxury, rind 
was clost'd, and its adjoining buililings, tho bishop's articles which are of little importance in tlio ordinary 
houso and the seminary, were lU-itroyed, the Km)ieror j use of life. However this may be, still tho trade of 
wished this cross to be pulled down with theiu ; I'ekin is eonsideralilo; but consists of a jirovision and 
but it is said that he hesitated to give the oidir, fearing stonigc trade. It is an immense magazine, into which 
chastisement and vengeance fmm tho fiod of the thu rich productions of eighteen province.* flow, in order 
Cliristians. It therefore remains hi ill standing. lobe thonco carried bcyonilthoCj real Wall, and hawked 

There is a Chuich of tho Ii.imaculHto Conception, at I to the principal stations and hordes of Manlehu- 
Pckin, of tolerable size, capable of containing from ! Tait.ary and Mongolia, such as Moukdcn, CJhirin, 

Tsi-tsi-kar, Ila-ta, 8an-tso-ta, Lama-niiao, itc. 

On the yrilh of February wo passed tho Great Wall. 
Wo arrived at Chang hai-koan, the custom-houso of 
which is stated to be tho most vigorous of any in tho 
empire. Itiit happily for us it isalways easy to manage 
niattcrs with the Chinese police. With tho exjiondi- 
'n 1 worth about two sluUiLiKs, wo secured 

We entcrcil by tho southern gate, and tmversed the 
Chinese Uiwn, t )ay-lo-tclieng, from south to north. 
First comes a spaciou.4 ipiarter, almost descrU'cl ; some 
cabins are scattered hero and there amongst a great 
numl)cr of small fieldn and kitchon-gardens, where not 
a walk, not a tree, combines ornament with tillage. 
After a transit of ten minutes we reached the inhabited 
(juarters, iie.xt at the town, Man-tcheng. Its 
ramparts aro higher and Istler built than of the 
Chincso town : they are of brick. The gates ore tlirei,' 
stories high, an<l the walls forty feet high. We tiii- 
versed, ono after another, the sln-ets of this immenso 
city, often blocked up by long rows of carriages, which 
cross ono another in oil directions, by can> Is, muh-s, and 
porters. What an uproar ! Pekiii is, however, much 
su|)erior to all the ('hinese towns wo have ever met 
with. Two great streets are principally remarkable ; 
one is in the Chiiic.s<i [lart of the town, and the other 
at tho Tartar end of it. Both of these are --ixty feet 
wide ; they run from ono eiul of the town to the other. 
It is here, esiwcially, that tho Chinese lavishly display 
decorations on the fronts of their shops, in the shajs- 
of largo gihhsl external ornaments, enilH'llished with a 
thousand pieces of »<Mil|ituro. At each side ''f the 
shop is its sign, which consists of a strong broad board 
covered with varnish, on which gilded characters arc- 
iminted or cut. It is set u^i on its end, and is kept in 
its |K>sltion by two bhs'ks of .sculptured granite, and 
stands about forty or fifty feet high ; near it aro jioles 
painted i > d, and surmount^'d with a gililed heart tui nod 
u|iHide down. This confusion of sigii-lHie.rds and poles 
pnsciits a singular and truly novel apiiearance. liesldcs 
these two streets, we have obseneil a few others laid 
out in straight liiu-s, but not quite so wide, although 
rather handsome As to the others, they are not 
worth mention. ( ertaiu parts of tho town aro ])aved 
with flag-stones ; but they are uneven and worn into 
hold, for want of being properly attended to, and 
therefore atlbrd nn extremely iiusafo way for i ui riage.s. 
Almost cverywhen" tliei-e is a Mack mire, whiih, during 
tho dry setwon, blinds (he pitssi is-by, ami fills the shops 
with dust ; anil during the rainy weather, what mud I 
and, consi'quently, what ruts 1 Hero tho ))opulati<iii 
arn continually pcnimbulatiiig tho streets, and jiaddliiig 
about uiiiler the gilded fronts whifli ornament the 
Hho|>s, and doors, and windows, that admit the light 
through oihnl jiajMr. In all Pckin we did not 
mo one single pane of Aft/r sunset complete 
darkness prevails, and tlie streets are entirely descried. 

twelve to firteen hundi-ed jiersons. It is built in the 
form of a Latin itoss. It dois not belong to any order 
of architecture, and has nothing of the lance-shaped 
gothic stylo about it. Its entranco is very elegantly 
adorned with festoons and mouldiM!,',s, cut in ndief, in 
tho midst of which the holy name of Jesus stands 
SOUspicuous. It is built in thu stylo of thu I'ortugucse 




onr little oamngo by meanit of the innkeeper, who 
liiinKlf got it through the cugtom-hnuHC. Towards 
oveiiing, when it wiu dark, we parsed this famous 
niniimrt, n league further to the wrst, by onu of t)ioHo 
nunicrouN brvachcs which afforj sucli an cuxy pawuigu. 
Thix wall is crumbling, just like the Chinvso oin]iiro, 
and is decaying with ago. On a former ocojision, wlicn 
wp oiTiveil from Su-tchuu, we cleared the Ciiiucsc fron- 
tier without noticing any vestige of tliis stnitendoiiii 
work. In iKiint of fact, the wall does m >t exi^t in many 
])laccK; unuoubtcilly not in the most ilcsertiMl locali- 
ties. Hero it sct-ms to bo thirty feet liigli. Its luiHtions 
are distant from one another ; ami irregular battlemcntH 
crown its summit, which ix from eight to ten feet broad. 
It is built of brick, or nitlier it consiHts of a mass, or 
long embankment constructed of mud, and faced at 
each side with a continiuiUM range of bricks forming a 
I'l-ontogo for it. This wall, which is unavailable in 
reference to utility, engineering, and architecture, ix, if 
viewed in itself, a gigantic work ; hence its erection 
exhausted the resources of the cmiiirc, and ruined tho 
Henselcss Che-hoaiig, who reigned, if we may believe the 
Kaiig-kien, or Chinese Annals, about the time of tho 
.Maccabees. He cituM-d all tho books he could find, 
tlin)Ughont tho extetit of his empire, to bo burned ; and 
in order, as it were, to eternise his name, raised this 
inglorious wall. Tho work was finishetl in five years, 
from linn-tcheou, the capital of Kan-son, us tar as 
< 'hang-hai-k(H>n, where it terminates, a lino of four 
hundred leagues. The workmen employed, but never 
|iaid, were innnmorable ; a great many |ierished, some 
of starvation, others of fatigue and cold. At length, 
at a later i>criod, tho stupid and ferocious C'ho-hoang 
was assassinated in a most awful manner. 

Wo went round tho Uulf of Loa-tong, or Phou-hay, 
This sea of Lea-tong, about forty leagues in breadth, 
in not uavigaMo during the winter. The inner iHind 
of the gidf to tho north is entirely frozen, and the 
margin almost always congealed for many leagues 
fmin tho shore. Wo wandered over tho icy solitudes. 
Tlipy consist of huge icebergs ]iiled up like occumu- 
latetl clilfs, and prcseutingat a distance the appearance 
of an immense plain, scattered over with ruins. This 
wa, however, lies in tho same latitude as Naples. Tho 
coasts east and west are thickly inhabited. At tho end of 
the gulf there are meadows allotted for the jnisturage of 
tho imjieriul cavalry. They extend very far northward, 
al<mg the banks of tho Leiio, nearly to Moukdon, the 
capital of Shin-King, in Mantchurio. The Emi)cror of 
t/'liina fancies he hus in his broad meadows of Mantclui- 
Tartary and Mongolia more than a hundred thousand 
horses; but very far from it. The mandarins here 
cultivate the best land for their own profit, and leave 
the marsheii imi-eclaimed. On the 4th of March, wo 
at last reached the village of Yang-koan (Sun Hotel), 
situated three leagues from the sea, not far from the 
town of Kay-tclii?ou. From Kay-tcheou, to the other 
side of the Amoor, where is tho Hussian frontier, there 
lies a distance of five hundred le.-igues (about loSS 
miles English), of which two htmdrcd ami lifty (about 
776 m.>es) are frequented by fierce and savage tribco. 

Hero our duties terminated, and w<' awaited the 
intelligence of tho arrival of certain ajjpiiinted vessels, 
either for our own return or in atlvance of the exjmdi- 
tion, in furtherauce of which our imjuiriis had been 

Near Shanghai is tho J lait college of Ze-ka-Wei. 
It has about one hundred ^lupils, who work thirteen 

hours in tho day. They oro described m being ex- 
ceedingly apt, diligent, and ponevering. The Romanist 
mission of Kiang-min numbers 40 missionaries, and, 
it is said, about 80,000 converts. Tho seminary of 
Tong-ka-Ton contains '26 Chinese students in theology, 
and there are also 304 schools, where liOOO children 
are educated by Christian masters. There is also tho 
" Sainto-Enfanco," at which 47C7 children, aliandoned 
by their parents, were sheltered in tho year 1857 alone. 
Theso are afterwards put out to school, or in families, 
iir they are taught a trade. Service is performed at 
tho cathedral at Tong-ka-Ton, by a choir with tails and 
turned-up shoes ; tho organ is of bainboi', and tho 
preaching in Chinese. Them) Chinvso choristers also 
wore hats borrowed fnnu tho fashion of tho ancient 
dynitstias, for nothing is so disrespectful as to rvnmin 
uncpvered in China. The Lazarists have removed 
from Macao to Shanghai. This order h;is also u collego 
and convent at Ningpo. That China may now be 
pronounced unequivocally an open country, wo believu 
to bo certain. Tho ]irincipal trading towns on her 
ciKtst, the largest islanils at the mouth of her rivers, 
are now ])r>inounccd itcccssiblo to tho trade of the world, 
from the extreme cast along her three thousand miles 
of coast, >ip to tho north, and oven to Pckin itsttlf. 

Of what importance is this tnulc, and of how much 
greater importanc it was to tho trade of England 
that some chaM;'<] should have been otfectcd in tho 
method of carrying on commerce with China, can 
bo estimated from the fact that the legitimate ex|iorta 
of Shanghai alone, during 1859, were X11.95U,000, 
against an imiM>rt of only i!G,713,C27 sterling, a 
lialanco against us of five and a quarter millions, 
and Shanghai n'presents only one-third of tho 
Euro|)cau trade with China. Tho customs dues paid 
by Europeans into this port alone, amounted, in 18t>9, 
to XI,310,792 sterling. 


Tiifc great central Empire of Oiina is com|x)sed of 
numerous countries lying beyond itself, which jNiy 
tribute to it in acknowledgment of a sovereignty but 
seldom and ver}' lightly exercised. These are &Ion- 
golia,' Mantchuria, Thibet, and tho Corca,' (to each of 

' I'lio <|iiantitv of ctittla tliut poiin dowo into China from tlio 
vast |iruirle> of MongoliAn 'i'nrtary, ii dcacribetl ni bviiig very 
grent. Tlio number of ihcop [AsaiiiK tlic gnte in tlio great wall, 
tlmt ii nearest to Pclcin, alone, ii entimiitcd at twenty flvo milliima 
annuiilly. Tlio total number annually onlcring China may thui 
b« catimateU at fVoin siity to >i>ty.tlvo mllliona. Ucnte tliccp am 
nlmoat fubulou^Jy cheap in tliu northern piovincea, but tbey are 
rarely met with aoulli of tho Yang-tic-kiang ; tho provincci 
Imyoml, boingcovcrcd with rice, have no poaturngea wherewith to 
feed thorn. Wo may now obtain, by this meant, an equal supply 
of wool from China on tliia aide of Asia, that wo are ateking from 
the plaina of the Indus on the other. 

' The Corean Peninsula is n trihu'ary kingdom of Chins, and 
sends, every year, an cmlmsay -.n IVkin. Hut the authority of the 
Celestial Kmpiro over this jioflple is purely noiniuAl ; no Chinvso 
is permitted to rcKido in Coreii, nor n Corean in tho Chineso 
territory. So slittht is the feeling of connci'tion between the 
conntrios that ihu Kussian Admiral I'ontiatin was at ono 
time obliged to interfere on Ixihalf of the shipwrecked crow of a 
Chinosc Junk, whom tho Coreans were about to massacre, Tho 
rivers in this country mil over beds of gold. Tho existence of 
three gold ininus is well known, two of which arc not worked, 
because tho work len, as the natives tell us, art driven sway by 
evil genii ; in reality, however, by the Mandarins, w) "« r«rtlcilar 
ideas of |x>litical economy lead them to infer that those who hnnt 
for gold arc not likely tu sow thu earth tliey dig np. Tlis 

wbich wo have been closely approximftting from the 
Gulf of Ixao-tHng) the Loo-Choo IhIch, TonkinR, Cww- 
bny;ia, and Cochin Chinii, to tho hitter of which we 
nov ]iarticuhirly aildrcsB omiucIvi-h. 

The joint expedition of a Fiiinch ami SpnniHli force 
to Cochin-China, (Icfipiitchctl, in 1858, to avenge the 
cniel ninrJer of two Cutholiu miHgionnrieH, twelve 
native prieiit!', ami thirteen niitivo Chrislinnii, bcHiilos 
tho ileittruvtion of the convents and chiiivhes of tli4i 
Christian coininuiiitr, resnltcd in the cnptnrn of tlie 
tracing town and )iorl at tho mouth of tho river 
Sa'igon, tho dcHtniction of its forts and tho taking 
poRiesaion of tho adjacent district of Touinne, the 
i>xpc<lition terminating its campaign hy a gallant vic- 
tory over 8000 Cochin-Chinese, wIid were driven out 
of a strong line of fortifications at tlu! point of the 
bayon(-t by less than 1,000 Kui-opcau troopH. 

At tho southern extremity of AkIa, and parallel 
with India, ]iroper1y so called, lies a vast peninaulu, 
extending from the 19th to tho 100th degree of east 
longitude, and fi-oin tho tropic of Cancer to the Equa 
lor. Bounded on tho north by China, Til)et, Bootan, 
and Bengal, and on the other three Htdcs by tho sea, 
it is almost encircled by the Andaman IslanUs, Suina- 
t.-a, Borneo, and the Philippines. Whilsi. ito <ndcnt<'.l 
shores aro rounded towuiils the east, it forms almost a 
straight line in the west, terminating in the ]>eninHulu 
of Malacca to tho south. A chain of mountains, con- 
nected with tho Hin>ah)ya range, reache>i from tho 
frontiers of China to the Straits of Singsipore, dividing 
the coimtry into two parts, and giving rise to rivc:"n, 
which flow from their sides to the right and left. The 
8ong-ka, Me-kon, or May-kong, and Ale-nam, or May- 
nam, discharge themselves into tho sea of China; 
wAilst the Suloucn, the Irawati'll, and Brahma-iwotra, 
flow into the Bay of Bengal. 

Tho population of this vast country nmounti to only 
twenty-five millions, a con.sequenco of tho insiilnbrity 
of tho country. Nuniei-ous tribes, having their origin 
in Upper India,>read tho northern provinces, 
but have been as yet iinicccssiblo to tho curiosity of 
travellers. Tho southern shores are covered with colo- 
nies of Malays, a warlike jK'ople, who have also overnm 
the neighbouring islands. Two distant nations, how- 
ever, divide between them the empire of the ]ieninaiila. 
The Assam and tho Burman empire betoken, by pre- 
servation of castes and name, their Indian nationality 
and proximity ; whilst tho .Vnnaniite empire, wliith is 
on the frontiers of China, is tributary to that country, 
and borrows from it its military and civil constitutioi,, 
its worahip of Coniuoius, it.s language of monosyllables, 
and its writing the exjiression of words, not idea-s. It 
i8,ther»"fort, denoiuirated justly an ludo-Cliineso Peuin- 
su'ia. Buddhism, tho reformed religion of lirahminism, 
reigns, however, alike over both empires, from tho 
b«»ik» .••f tho Iniwaddi !o those of the Song-ka; a rcli- 
K«,Hk which has for iigos siibjectoil one-third oj'llu human 
"oce to tho same mmiil ami ii.tellectui-,1 servitude, and 
now first coiiftsmted with the law of Christ, in its 
purity and simplicity. 

I« LW?. when Fmncis Xavier first led forth Chris- 
tiaaAy in afl its majesty, to i roselytise and 
SBwhich tho sword had conquered, a bishopric 

Rtmiftn rMm of tho pront tumtlicrn lictul of tho Anionr, niul her 
jKiWiWioii uf the rivor Siiiipiri, or Swinf^firt, ns well ns other 
lUINtfiits ul' the AniGor, bring her in terrible proximity to the 
Oimus, whose independence is gerioutly mcnacsd, 


was established at Molucca, to follow vp snoh spiritual 
instructions aa had cept in since \!>2\, when the Por- 
tuguese navigators first reached these shores. Into the 
history of tho Church 'tioro our limits forbid us to enter. 
We may, however, briefiy notice that tho territory was 
divided i-ito five vicarates-apostolio of Ava and Pegn, 
Siam, Ciwhin-C'hina, western nod eastern Tong-king. 
This wil'. sV.ow the state of Christiiinity in Indo-China 
under tho Bcinnn Catholic Church. 

In tho kingdom of Annam, bordering on China, the 
Word of Qn<l, fii-st heard in lCi7, Wiw n-sponded to by 
200,000 conversions. RIM. do la Motho Lamltcrt and 
Palla, st^nt to gittheriu this harvest, Inundcd, to supply 
a nucciBsion of fcllow-laliourerN, tho Hoeiety of Foreign 
Missions in Paris, so many of whoso brethren have 
sineo nobly won tho blixsly j'nlm of martynlonj in 
distant lu.'ds. Calm and |K'i'sccution siuxeedcd ?ach 
other in their usunl course, until the bishop of Adraii 
was called to the nmncils of tho King of Aniiam, and 
entrusted with tho education of the heir to ilii' throne. 
All seemed fraught with the brightest Christian hopv, 
until the ascent of tho tyrant Minh-Meng to ths' throne 
brought with it creel pei'secntiou ; for, like Diocletian, 
he declurcd his purpose of rootiii)/ out the very name of 

A worthy missionary of olden times — one of tho 
fii-st in tho kingdom — Borri, a Milanese, of the So- 
ciety of Jesus, des<-ri)H>s Cochin -China as " a land 
as to its climate and seastms of thi! year habitable, 
cm account of the fniitfulness of its soil, alxaind- 
ii'g in provisions, fruit, biiils and beasts, and the 
sea in choice and delicious fish; and .iiost liealtliy, 
becansn of tl ■ excellent temperature of the air, inso- 
much that these peoole do not yet know what the 
])lague is. It is rich in gold, silver, silk, eolumba, anil 
other things of gieat value, fit for trade on account of 
the i)orts and resort of all nations ; pcaceabl;: beeause 
of their loving, geiierou.s, and ;<weet disposition ; anil 
lastly secure, not <iiily by tho valour and bni\ery of the 
Cochin -( ', accounted such by other countries, 
and their store of anus and ^kill in mannging them ; 
biit even by nature, which has inclosed it on the one 
siilo by the sea, and on the other by the i-ocky alps and 
uncouth niountiiins of tho Kcmoi.'. This is that ])art 
of the earth calle<l Cochin-China, v liich wants nothing 
to make it a part of heaven, but that God should 
send thither a great many of his angels — so St. John 
Clirysostom calls apostolical men, and preachers of tho 


Cochin-China is, like China, divided into a number 
of provinces, but these may be giouiied into three great 
divisions; the north or high CochinCliina, whoso capi- 
tal, Huali, is tho royal city; tho central, in which is 
situated the fine port of Touraiie, or Touranno of tho 
Fwiich, and now occupied by that jiower, Viut by the 
natives known simply as llan or Tur-han ; and the 
city of Fai-l'u, which was for a long time tho com- 
mercial centre of the country. The wars which deso- 
lated Cochin-China at the latter part of the laat century 
destroyed tho city in great jwirt, although it still con- 
tjiins a considerable Chinese population in addition to 
the natives, and who carry on a tolerably active com- 
mercial intercoui'so with tho mother country. This 
district ia alike ]iictures(iuo and fertile, and at tho same 
time leas unwholesome than some others, from its being 

Further to the south is tho port of Kua-gin, in a. 
region of crumMtug brick towers — relics of a onoe 


powerful JynMty, known m that of Sihiuimi. This, 
agnin, is foll-iwuil by tl^o port of Nhutrftiig or IJiiilioii, 
<li.-]ii>Hod ill a liiiul of niiipliithoutro, with plniitntioiiH of 
nrccii, bfU'l iHit, groves of mulK'rry, and ficltla of rico. 
A r»^' oHicer constructutl a Htrunglioltl at thin 
point, which sustmncd two siogcH: one in 1703, and 
another in 1793. 'fho older cuj/.tal of tlvp .Siamjicso 
or Ivijvs wfti gituatod in tho soiitliorn part of Ceiitnil 
Coclu'ii-Ohina, r» ri'gion which produces ebony, nnd tlio 
otill mora valuable Ki-nam or hceMted englo-wood. 
These Biam|)080 had onco conimerciul rolatiuns with 
the nations >.<f tho extreme Kaat, oud t.c are told of 
one of tho J& ein|icrcs'8 wedding i\ daughter of 
tho King of Siisnipft, in tlio fiftocntli century; but tho 
few tlittt romuiu in tho ))re8cnt day dwoU awity in tho 
mountain rbceHscii. 

Liistly, wa have tlio Bouthern portion of Cochin- 
China, wliicli coinprisog a part o," Jani'iogia, formerly 
known m Dug-nai, tho field of Acfi; but now desig- 
nated Saignn. Thin dintrict is in rt'aiity constituted 
by tho di^lta of tho great tivor May-K"ng, end it ond 
its capital havo passed .iway into tho havds of tho 
French. Tliat branch of tho May-Kong upon wliich 
tho port and town of Baigon is built, cim be navigated 
by the largest luorchantmeii for a dist'tnce of sixty 
miles from its mo\itii. 

The n\omory of a groat \tciet ntluchcs itself in this 
river. Camoens was returning from his oxilo iit Mucao, 
in 15G1; lio was on his way to enjoy, in ilie bnsom 
of his family, a fortuiio winch ho had cououered by his 
industry, when a frightful tempest arose, um! tlio ship 
that bore liiiu was straudi-'d and bii>'.,eu up. Ife iievor 
tholess Sixved himself, and with liiiii the maMUseripl of 
the "Lusiad." "I».ik at tlio river Meioin," ho says 

that could havo licon dorlveit from tho ox|iedition were 
frustrated by a native revolution. 

Although so little visited by Euroiieans, and it 
appears to lio very doubtful (although 8|ianish mission- 
aries from tho I'liilippines wrote iu 159G of Laos oh 
a rich and ])owerful country, and as if they know it 
]H'rsonally) if tho missionaries really did visit it, Laos 
is known in actual times to be a dependent, prostrat<>d, 
miserable country, to which Coclun-China professes to 
1)0 a mother and Siam a father ! * The father, indeed, 
iiitlicts sometimes a little parental chastisement, ai in, 
1828, when tho king of Laos, having omitted to send 
tho tree of gold — emblem of vassal tenure — to Bankok, 
an army of twenty thousand men was scut to put I^os 
Co the fire and sword — ii savage mission which is said 
to have been carried out to the letter, the king him- 
self having been made prisoner, and conduct<-d to 
Itankok in an iron cage, whore he was subjected to 
the most atrocious tortures that oriental ingenuity 
could devise. 

Elc]>hants, rhinoceroses, tigers, monkeys, boars, and 
<Ieor, the latter of very large size, ore niet with in these 
countries. The elephant is a very fine animal, similar 
to the one of Bengal. The liest come frum Cambogia, 
and our Chinese authority, before quoted, says that 
there are 5,000 kept for the purpose of war. Certain 
it is, that amongst the Cochin-Chinese tho elejdiaiit is a 
most useful and indefatigable servant. The horses ant 
Hinull but agile ; assos and mules are also common, 
Tlie number of tamo cattle, such as bulFalocs and cows, 
is sniii to be very great. Tho bulfalo is a largo animal 
iu Cunibogin, but it dwindles down in Cochin-China to 
a HUiall rcddish-bi' beast without a hump. Strange 
to suj", the natives, like many other people of tlie 

proolaimi'd sovor*it;n of rivei-s, as it Hows through j extreme east, do not pirtuke of tho flesh of buffaloes 
the plains of t'ainl>o|i;iu. One diiy, in the midst (■! itr j or cows, and actually abhor milk ! 

repose, it leocived oii its hospitable ba.iks verses 
moistened with tho ocean's waves, and jiiescived from 
a grievous and miserable wreck, when struck by on 
unjust decree, ho to whoso sonorlms lyre mnro glory 
and renown aro accorded than hupjiiness, found hiniself 
cast aw.iy amidst privi ' 'iis and dangers innumerable." 
(Lusiad, X. 127.) 

In K)43 a Dutch embassy went up this river, under 
the uufortuuato lle^^eiuertos, who wius assitssinated with 
M his fcillowvrs, at tlie moment when he was al)out to 

Cochin-Cliiiia is the indigenous country of tho do- 
mestic fowl. It would hardly be thought that the 
tnll, long-legged species — tho furor of a moment in this 
country — was the progenitor of our own diminutive 
race. The rearing of high-bi-ed varieties of fowls is a 
passicm also with the Cochin-Chinese, and the cruel 
spectacle of a cock-fight constitutes one of their 
national pastimes. AVild ducks cover tho lakes and 
mai-shcs, and even the rico inundations, at certain 
seasons of the year, and tame ducks are reared iu 

V; introduced to an audience with the king. The two ! incredible nuiiil«'rs. A large white goose, of a difl'erent 

ships that brought them wei-o then seized and tho 
crew, nia-ssiurc J . 

Two . '.ii-s before that tho ontorprising Van Diemen, 
who had founded the Dutch fn>tory at Tonquiii, and 
under whole auspices it was that tlio iinfi'itunate at- 
tempt was madi' to win over the murderous King of 
Cambogia to eomnu'ii^ial intercom rounioatiim, had 
om«mii-ed ail exploratory txiiedition up ''io May I'.oiig 
^ the kingdom of Laos. The ]iart_\ mveeiled in 
aucondiiig in boivts is far as to Winii yun which wn.s 
at that tiiiio thtt Koyal City. They I'omid the nver 
to bo wido in plaei"<, but in otlurs, on tho <•. •auarv, 
to be narrow, ami ohstructeil by rlK'k^ TWy had 
oftou, indeed, to cftect portages, and renew tjv naviga- 
tion at a higher point ViVlng<ii and towm* »ii>rv met 

with oil the bankf l thr r.' 
the fashion of tttr country 
seven wo.'ks on their joum. 
\infavourablv received, albeit 

!'■(.! ^ ■■ . . "^te 

1 • ..ijethi-r, 
L u<- ,-^Jli'>v^..^_y was n, t 
«11 tho \travagantly 
exclnsi', e and vain observances of sn oi <ntal!. ; 
ism were as usual .idhered to , but all the advantages 

breed from that. ;'cn in China, is reared at Saigon. 

Fish abound in tho lakes and rivers, as also on the 
coast The fi^:lleries ou the latter, csjioeially, are very 
l)r(Hliictive, and tho fish are of tho rarist and most 
delirious kinds. A great nuinlx'r of hands are cmjiloyed 
carrying from the Ma-eoast lo all parts of tho 
kingdom, as well as what are engaged in the fisheries 
tliem.selves. Tin- (orhin-Chineso use a kind offauce 
which they call lialac'iiani, made of ■<alt fish maceiiitcd 
and steeped iu water. This is a sharji liquor, not 
unlike mustard, and serves more especially to r< nder 
tho or<liiinry boiled ri . palatable. Tho islands also 
abounil in the edible ih^i.h of the sidangan swallow 

The ixipulation of < '■'. liin-Cliina is coniiK«<eil o<' ftnii 
li^tiiiit rues: (hi- Annamite, t!ie CamW'jiai. ««■ 
UamlHigians, the .SIiam|M'se, or ChampcM), «• Loy^ i.rJ 
tho Moys. The Annamite race eon.stilutds tho eh«'f 
{lopHlation of 'i'omiuin and CochinUhina. The inhabi- 
tanti of th'se two countries, although frequently at war, 
.11 tb«' Si . o language, are goierrM».l ' v tie same 
i-i tvH.aiid are controlled by the sauio habits .md manners. 






The C'uiiibogiang cull tlieutaclvog Kuminor, or Kooniioii; 
they N|)enk a tliflbn<nt lun({im({0 from that of iii<igliboiir- 
iug imtioni, but they remimblo the Staiiioto mora than 
any other poonht in thuir ii|)poiiranci<, thnit- lawM and 
roliglim, and their state of oivilixation. Tli« latter U 
of ancient iliito : thoy uaej to aend aroboHsadum to 
China in th» year GIO. Conitantly at war with Uiiini 
on the one Hide, and Coohin-China on tliu other, they 
appear to have iittiiinud tho zenith of their |>ower in 
the tenth century. In tho twelflli, they Hiilijt'ctod the 
bttvr country. Kublai Khan invaded thciii in 1206, 
but tho ({I'eat Tartar conqueror apjiearod to luivo con- 
tented hinmulf with an acknowludgment nf HubniiHiiiDn. 
in 1717, tho tSianicse invaded tho country, and tlie 
Bovereign, obliged tu aook thu asNiHtunco of tlio Cuchin- 
Chineio, fell into tho |>ower of bin auxiliaries, Froiu 
that tin<o to the present, this fertile and |iopulous, but 
unfurtunato rnuntry, hits been thu consUkut seat of 

Wo may now iwcrt to tho good Bishop of Adran and 
his royal charge, with whom ho took refuge iu Itunkok, 
when, tho king of Siam falling in love with tlio Histcr 
of Qia-8<uig, quarrels ensued, which led to tlio exiles 
ouco more regaining tho proto<tiou of tlioir islauvl. 
Tho Bishop of Adniu conceived in this extremity that 
Franco might derive advantages liy coming to the 
succour of tho Imnishcd monarch. Filled with this 
idea, ho sailed for EuraiMS, iu pom|mny with the king's 
eldest son, a boy of six or seven yearn of ago. The 
bishop was well received at the court of Lo\iis XVI., 
his projects were countenanced, and it was resolved to 
send 8hi|M and men to ro-ostablish the king on his 
tlinmu, on tho condition of a large ceK»ion of teiritory 
til tho French, and thu furnishing of a contingent of 
l!o,()00 nii^n, to ciiablu Franei> to hold poHsnssiou of 
lu^r new iicipiisitioiiH. 

Luckily fi.r Oia-Bong, thi.s projected a-uistance, 
which would liavo maile Oochin-China a French pro- 
vince, was never carried out. The bishop arrived at 
Pondicherry with instructions to tho Count do Conway, 
govcrnorgenural of tho French establishment in India, 
to supply tho nocessaty forces. Dut Madame do Vieune, 
mistress of tho onrt, taking otfonco at the bishop's 
manners towards her, prevailed n|M)n him not to net 
in conformity with his instrnctious, and the bishop 
was obliged to join the king at Saigon, where he hiul 
by that time succeeiled in establishing himself with 
some fourtcou or (ifteen adveuturors, among whom 
wore several English and Irish otlieers. Tliesci men 
orgauished an army, created a fleet, and were in great 
jsirt the moans of restoring this monarch to tho thmno 
of hki ancestors, and of adiling to it the ritther and 
more populous country of Tnnquin. Tho king al«j 
began with the same assistance many improvements. 
Ho ost'iblishod a manufactory of saltpetre, oi>cnud roads 
of communication, and encouraged cultivation. Ho 
distributed his land foreos into regular regiments, and 
established military schofils, in which otticors were 
instructed by Europeans. He also formed a fleet, 
consisting of three hundred largo gun-boats or row 
galleys, five luggow, and a frigat*!, on tho niinlel of a 
European vessel. Ho also undertook, with tho osaist- 
ance of the bishop, to reform tho system of jurispru- 
dence ; but although ho openly declared his great 
veneration for the Christian religion, ho adhered to 
tho ancient religion of his own country. In 1809, 
baking advantage of dissensions which ])revailod in 
Cambogia, Qia-Song, partly by force of arms and 

|Mrtly by intri r in, acquired the most valuable |mrt of 
that country, and thus established one of tho most 
extensive and (wst organi«o<l power* in the nxtremo 
east The fortifications and arsenals at lluah and 
Saigon excito tho admiration of strangers to thu present 

tiia-Song, who haa been compared to Potcr tho 
O real and to our Alfnxl, di<-d in 1810, at sixty-thro« 
years of age. He was tho first who bore the title of 
em|>ei-or. He was succeeded by his son, Minh-Mengh, 
who ])ossess«d some of the militjiry qualities of hia 
father, but, insWad of t(derating tho Uoman Catholic 
missionaries, as the former hud done, ho wa'< all the 
tiniu of his reign their bitterest f>Mi an<l direst «. iniy, 
8o they dubbed him tho Nero of Coohin-C'liina. This 
system of persecution was |iersevei-cd in by the suo- 
cessor of Alinh-Mengh, Thien-Iri, and Tu-Duk, tlio 
nresent sovereign; but it s<'ems, as iu most other 
instances, to have only served to augment tho real 
of the missionaries, and to iiirrense the iiumU'r of 

Tho political system of tho Cochin-C'hina govern- 
ment is like that of all countries iM'yond tho Oanges, 
one of extreme caution and aversion to any intimate 
connection with neighbouring poweiu The sove- 
reignty is desiM>tie, and yet it assumes to Iw |>atriareliiil 
and uiteruul. Tho whole empire is ailministeivd as 
one family, and the bamlsH) is tho chief instrument 
employed to keep all |Nirtics in order!' There is no 
nobility, save that conferred by functions. Tiie civil 
and military oflicci-s are, like the mandarins in China, 
divided into ten classes. The first two a.ssist in tho 
king's council. There are thus only two sociul classes, 
tho peo|)le and thu mandarins. Kaeh ]a-ovinoe is 
ruled by ono military and two civil mandarins, who 
am ex|H'cted to act in concert. Km-h jirovince is 
divided into tlii-ee kuyens or de|)artmcnts, each kuyrn 
into four foes or districts, and each foe into a certain 
numljer of villages, whoso magistrates, elected by tho 
)M<asants, have to collect tho taxes. Thu fiystem is, at 
all events, simple, and ought to bo efliinent. Uut it 
is damaged by mischievous laws, as, for example, thu 
servituilo of every malo after ho is of ago. Every 
adult bo a soldier, or a sailor, a workman in the 
ai'stuials, publiO roads, or a nmuduiiu's servant. 

Tho military jMiwer is said to 1m) upheld by a ifiyal 
guard of forty i-cgiinents of COO men, with their 
oflieera, elephants, and waggon train. Of the 800 
elephants that belong to tjiu army, 130 are always 
stati(m(!d in tho capital. Thcru arc, in addition to 
these royal troops, five legions, each of five regiments, 
and provincial militia, tho nuiul)cr of which varies 
greatly. The viccroyalty of Saigon, for example, has 
sixteen regiments. Thoro is no cavalry. The men 
aro short of stature, but robust, active, accustomed to 
fatigue, easy to instruct, and obedient 

The Cochin-Chinese are low in stt\ture (averaging 
about five feet three inches), with a round head and 
face, low foi-uhcad, littlo brown round eyes, not so much 

' Tlie extent to wliicli the butinado syitem is ciirrini on in 
Cncliin-Cliiiia is positively ridiculoua. rnrciits lioiitiiinda tliiir 
children, hnabsncls their wives, officers llicir soldiers, gcnernls 
tlicir officers. Tho Prime Minister having granted a Ihrcwell 
Rudienco to Mr. Crawford's mission, he liad the whole troop of 
royal comedians bitstinndoed in Ids presence, becnuso ho was not 
satisffed with their |ierfarmnnec ! Kvt'rjwlierc, and nt nil tini rs, 
the bamboo is in requisition, and is appealed to to settle every 



1.0 If"^ i 






fit m^ m' 

•« 140 II1II2.0 


U 111.6 

^^ -^' 











(71&) 072-4503 






curved as the Chinese, small nose, large mouth, promi- 
nent lips, and considerable exjianse of the lower part 
of tlio face. All the manifestiitionsof low intelligence, 
good nature, and frankness, which pre-eminently dis- 
tinguishes tlieni from the Chinese, the Sian.ese, and the 
JIalays. Tlie prevalent tint ls yellowish, and of the 
liair, which is long and coai-se, black ; the beard is 
spare, yot it is culti'.'ated with extreme care. The 
Cochin-Chinese are a naturally quiet, iuoft'ensive jieople, 
given to talking, joking, and laughing. But on the 
other hand, whethor as the results of despotism, or of 
climate, or of the two united, they are servile, deceitful, 
ignorant, dirty, and totally indifferent in matters of 
religion. In the pin-suits of industry and commerce, 
however, they stand next after the Hindoos, the 
Chinese, and the Japanese. Their inferiority is parti- 
cularly manifest in their agi-icultv:'c, whish, better in 
Saigon and Tonquiu, is at its lowest ebb in Cochin- 
China : witness the j)oor harvests of rice. They are 
more successful with their sugar and cotton plantations. 
They manufacture excellent cotton cloths, but neither 
dye nor print them. Their silks, we have before seen, 
are inferior to those of the Chinese. Tonquin was 
once as celebrated for its lacquer and other varni.slied 
wc.ks, as Japan is in our day. These works exhibit 
nuich taste, and arc adorned with gold and mother-of- 
pearl, of which they obtain a very line description 
from a species of mya. The art of melting and 
founding has been long known to them ; but although 
the gun and cannon foundries have much improved of 
late, they still depend upon foreign countries for firo- 
arnis and side arms, as well as for other first-class works 
in metal. It is the same with other branches of 
industry ; the Annamite nvco appear never to get 
beyond the rudiments, although, like the Chinese, they 
are proficient in the arts of imitation. 

The Cochin-Chinese, not being allowed to quit their 
own country on any plea whatsoever, the consequence 
of so absurd, so rest ictive, and so inhuman a law, is 
that external commerce is entirely in the hands 
of strangers. Naturally hardy, vigorou.s, active, and 
docile, were it not for this, the Cochin-Chinese would 
])robably become first rate navig.itors. The trade of 
the interior is mainly carried on by the rivei"3 and the 
Eca coast. From Huah, the capital, to Tonquin, there 
is a water communication by eauols and laguues, which 
are not marked iu our maps. External commerce 
is mainly directed towards China, Sium, and the 
Jiritish ports in the Straits of Malacca and Singajiore. 
Kokho, or Cacliao, is the chief for commerce with 
China, which is estimated as represented by 116 junks, 
or some 20,000 tons. Some fitly junks, navigated by 
Chinese, suffice to keep up the commercial relations 
with Siam. Far greater commercial activity exists, 
however, in respect to Singaiwre — a commerce which 
has had its origin in t) j force of circumstances. The 
olden commerce of tin Dutch, Portuguese, and English, 
with Tonquin and Cochin-China, has lieen long closed, 
when the hitter made attempts in 1778 tore-open com- 
mercial relations. In 1804, new measui-es were taken 
under the Marquis Wellesley, but they failed, in con- 
sequence of the sujiremacy of French interests. These 
interests, however, declined so mpidly in their turn, 
that the French themselves were obliged to have 
recoui-so to exti-aordinary measures in 1815 and 1817. 
At that epoch Captain A. de Kci-gariou reclaimed the 
c(!ssi()n of a small territory, in virtue of the treaty of 
1787, in order to enable France to establish a settle- 

ment. The proposal, however, gave umbrage to tlio 
Cochin-Chinese monarch. He would not even enter 
upon a discussion of the subject; and he and his 
successor gave so little encouragement to the French, 
that they gave up for a long time making any further 
attempts at establishing commercial relations, or insist- 
ing upon the fulfilment of a one-sided ti-eaty. Craw- 
ford's mission took ])lace in 1822, and he obtained 
freedom of commerce in the rivere, and at the ports 
of Saigon, Hon, or Tuan, and also in the bays of Fay- 
foo and Huah, besides other advantages, all of which 
were, however, lost to us by French interference. The 
consequence was, that Singapore was declared a free 
port, and it soon attracted the main ])ortion of the 
commerce of all the surrounding countries. Above 
forty junks now visit yearly the jiort 
of Singa))ore and the British ))Ossessions within the 
Straits of Malacca. There are also some slight com- 
mercial relations with Macao and Batavia. It is also 
sup[x>sed that the inland trade between the Cochin- 
Chinese dominions and China is considerable. In this 
intercourse Cochin-China receives manufactured silks, 
English broadcloths, and Bengal opium, with the 
copper, spelter, and lead of Yunan, and return cotton, 
areca nuts, vaniish, dye stuffs, and a variety of native 

The Cochin-Chinese have not been so long separated 
from China but that they still preserve many of the 
customs of the latter country. This is more parti- 
cularly observable in their marriages, and funeral and 
other processions, and ceremonies. They have also the 
same superstitions, consulting omclcs, and making 
ott'erings to idols. They eat the same food and pi-actise 
the same modes of preparing it. They have the same 
games and public amusements, the same fireworks, the 
same ui.isical instruments, the same cock and quail 
tights. Although the language differs, the writing is the 
same. But then again, there are great differences in 
dress, in the manner of wearing the hair, in their 
liveliness and garrulity, and still more so in their treat- 
ment of the fair sex. Women in Cochin-China aro 
not only housekeepers, but also merchants and agri- 
culturists; nay, they even navigate their boats and 
junks. In fact, owing to all the men being recruited 
as soldiers, as is, to a certain extent, the case iu France, 
the women have everything to do. Strange that the 
French should have met with their counterparts in thu 
remote East ! Barrow long ago remarked tliat the 
Cochin -Chinese were as fond of talking as the French ; 
they aro also as fond of dancing ; their religion and 
morality arc pretty nearly upon a par ; the men are 
all soldiers, and the women have to perform the more 
serious duties of life. Nowhere are women less scru- 
])ulous, and men more indifferent to the honour of 
their wives and daughters, it is said, than at Turan. 
If the females are of easy virtue they are not always 
captivating, They are of lively disiwsitiou, but the 
features are coarse and the skin yellow. The teeth 
are discoloured by betel- chewing. The jxiorer classes 
only wear a chemise of coarse cloth, brown or blue, that 
comes down to the thighs, with wide drawers of black 
nankeen. They wear neither shoes nor stockings, and 
their feet are just the revei-se of the ostrich feet of the 
Chineso : " ficminis plantas adeo parvas, ut Btmthopodes 
appellentur," as old Eudosius has it, they aro largo and 
flat. The better classes of females wear two or three 
shifts of different coloui-s. They gather together their 
long bhick hair in a knot at the top of the head, or 


sometimes they let it float in long tresses behind 
iintil it reaches the ground. The men are as badly 
dre.ssed as the women, contenting themselves witli a 
jacket and wide trowsers, a kerchief doing duty as a 
turban, or a broad brimmed Malay or other hat cover- 
ing the, while the wretched hovels of bamboo 
keep the general poverty of the inhabitants in coun- 

Turan is, in the present day, a mere assemblage of 
villages, and these are comjjosed of huts of bamboo, 
or mud coarsely thatched. The ruins of edifices of a 
better claa.s attest that it lias not always been in so 
fallen a condition. Now-a-days the best houses are of 
wood or sun-dried bricks. The walls arc crumbling to 
niin. Plantations of sugar and of tobacco are to bo 
seen between the huts. The celebrated French navi- 
gator, Admiral Laplace, gives a graphic description of 
the bay of Turan: "The right side on entering," ho 
says, " is flanked by an amphitheatre of mountains 
which, heaped the one over the other, appear in their 
gloomy majesty to rise from the shore to the heavens, 
and their sharp-pointed summits, whitened by tiro snow 
and rain, are lost in the clouds during a great part of 
the year. The flanks of these enormous masses ai-o 
clad with dense forests, as ancient as the world, and 
the iwssession of which is disputed by elephants, tigers, 
and boars. Wild bcoats often await the tr.aveller on 
the rocky and sinuous pathway, which, crossing the crest 
of the mountai.i range, which constitutes the natural 
barrier between the two provinces, leads from Turan 
to Huah-fu. This road, the only one that exists between 
Pai-foo and the capital, is protected at the top of the 
pass by a wall and gateway, which is carefully guarded. 
Not even a native can cross this barrier without a 
passjwrt, which indicates to the mandarin, or officer in 
command, his name, condition, and object of his journey, 
certified by the authorities of the town or vil. ige to 
which ho belongs. 

The road, as it descends to the foot of the mountains 
on the T\iran side, passes at first through several miser- 
able villages, situated on the barren and rocky side of 
that portion of the bay; it then traverses treeless 
plains, the seat, however, of extensive rice-fields and 


other cultivation, and, finally, it reaches Turan, a mass 
of jKX)r huts constructed of mud and straw, congregated 
on the marshy and boggy soil which lies at the bottom 
of the bay, and the mouth of a small river, more 
efficiently defended by mud-bankR, that leave only a 


narrow and shallow passage between them, than by 
two forts, upon which floats the yellow standard of the 
sovereign of Cochin-China, ai.d which is torn into 
tatters at each miny season. The right bank of Mie 
river is less liable to inundations than the left, and 
it is only separated from the sea by a very narrow 
isthmus, on which vegetation is supplanted by moving 
downs of sand. This isthmus unites the peninsula 
that forms the eastern side of the bay to the continent, 
protecting the former from the winds, and giving origin 
toan excellent harbour. Although of irregular form, this 
pcniasiiia is more or less like a star, the rays of which 
diverge from a group of rugged mountains, clothed 
with dense forests from the shore up to the summits. 

It is in vain that the traveller's eye .seeks, in this 
wild country, for the delightful scenes upon which it 
loves to dwell — those villages whose white cottages 
secra to hide themselves behind the woods, those im- 
posing mansions which, rising on the slope of hills, 
dominate over the sea, and announce to the weary 
sailor that he is about soon to find friends and good 
cheer, in the indulgence of which he may be enabled to 
drown for a moment the memory of home. " To what- 
ever side wo direct our looks wo could perceive nothing 
but gloomy forests or miserable villages, inhabited by 
a race of men whoso language and manners were alike 
stmngc to us." 

We must, however, on to the events which 
have led to the interference of France, and have been 
the cause of hostilities on the part of that power with 
the Emperor of CochinChina. In the month of 
November, 1841, the agent of the French govemincnt, 
employed on an extraordinary mission to the Chinese 
seas— M. Dubois do Jacigny — being at IManilla, 
thought proper, in concert with the consul-general of 
France, to send M. de Chouski, one of the gentlemen 
attached to the mission, to Macao, A p.a.ssage was 
aci:ordingly obtained for the French diplomatist on 
board of the British steamer, Medusa, which had 
touched at Manilla for coals, and intended to complete 
its freight at Slariveles in the Philippines. 

The Medusa, however, encountered such violent 
contrary winds, and was so baflled by the ciuTcnts, as 
to bo nigh perishing on the coast of Hainan on the 
l.jth of November, and was glad, having exhausted all 
her coal, and having nothing but dangei-s to struggle 
against all along the coast of Cochin-China, to seek 
shelter, on the night of the 1 8th, in the bay of Camrauh, 
or, as the French write it, Camniigue. 

The population, hearing a gun fired, hastened down 
to the beach, and great was their surprise when they 
saw the Europeans disembark ; but they received them 
with the utmost courtesy, and the delight and ad- 
miration th(!y felt for the new comers was still i'urthcr 
increased the next morning, when, the steam having 
been got up by means of wood obtained from tlio 
natives, the vessel was put in motion, Nothing of the 
kind had over been seen before, and it seemed to them 
as if a miracle had been enacted. There were only two 
villages in this bay, and these were inhabited by 

This accidental contact of a French diplomatist on 
board an English steamer with Cochin-China, was the 
primary cause of the attention of the Fn-nch govern- 
ment liaving been once more directed in our own times 
to these interesting regions. It was ascertained during 
the stay of the Medusa, that there was an oi>cning for 
a most lucrative commerce, Pi-ovisious of the value of 



twenty Spanish piastres were obtained for a coloured 
shift iind a few metal Luttons. But it was also felt 
that this was an accidental circumstance ; and, in the 
case of a regular commercial intercourse being entered 
into, the Cochin-Chinese government, faithful to its 
ancient system of cxclusiveness, would levy such 
exorbitant custom duties, as virtually to exclude 
all profit. " It is evident, therefore," argued the 
French, " that it is only by the fear which would 
be inspired l)y some military demonstration, that 
the concessions whi( ' would be indLspensable to the 
establishment of an ilvantageous commerce could be 
wrung from the Cochia-Chinese. The smallest expe- 
dition, conducted with wisdom and firmness, would 
fulfil this object ; the aid promised by the treaty of 
1787 was to be composed of five Em-opean regiments, 
two Indian regiments, and twenty ships of war and 
transports, — all that was thought requisite to conquer 
the whole empire of Annam. The government is 
weak, it is poor, and pomjMJus ; the oocui)atiou of 
certain points on the coast would sufiice to assure to us 
die greatest influence in all_ these determinations." 
As a further stimulus to this somewhat obscure pro- 
posid of ensuring certain "determinations," and in 
which we are left in doubt whether an advantageous 
commerce by the foundation of permanent settlements, 
or the subjection of the whole empire is meant, the 
treaty of 1787, it was observed, remained in force, 
although France had so grievously failed in fulfilling 
her portion of the treaty. By this treaty, signed ot 
Versailles, on the 28th of November, 1787, the follow- 
ing territorial ceu.sions were acceded to — viz., the ports 
and territoiy of Hau-san (Turan), and t)ie islands of 
Fui-foo and Fai-wan, in return for the proposed assist- 
ance to re-establish the deix>sed monarch on his throne ; 
but OS the assistance was never given, and the king 
regained his throne without it, it is no longer wanted, 
and it could only be by some strange perversion of 
international logic that it could be urged in the present 
day that the Cochin-Chinese should be made by force 
of arms to fulfil their portion of the treaty. By so acting, 
France would place herself in the {wsition of a man 
who had volunteered to ship a cargo for half the pro- 
duce, and who, unable to fulfil his engagement, still 
claimed his half when the cargo had been brought to 
jxirt in another bottom, or of a man who had pro]x>8ed 
to exchange a honse for a bit of land, and the house 
being in the meantime burnt down, he still laid claim 
to the land. 

We have seen that Admiral Laplace visited the Bay 
of Turan in 1 83 1. lie was at that time captain in 
command of La Favorite, and he is reproached with 
having gone almost to an extreme in the prudence 
observed in his relations with the Cor'Jn-Chinese. 
The corvette L' Alanine visited the same post in 1844 
in a quite diflfei-eut mood. According to the version 
given by the French them.selves, the corvette had no 
sooner approached oflf the mouth of the river Fai-foo, 
than there was a manifest agitation among the red- 
coated soldiei-s who constituted the garrison of Turan. 
Each seized his halbei-t or rusty musket, to oppose a 
further advance; and when the boats put off, regard- 
loss of the menacing nspcct of the military, and, push- 
ing beyond the customary landing-place, mado for the 
liver itself, great was the consternation at such an 
nvcrt act of disregard to the rules of the empire, 
which carefully excluded all outside barbarians. Three 
boats loaded with soldiers put off after the expedition, 

whilst the red coats and halberts of the soldiers were 
seen making their way through the rice-fields on both 
banks of the river. The native boats, manned with 
skilful rowers, soon overtook the French, but it was in 
vain that the police officer on board intimated that his 
head would pay for their temerity in infringing the 
emperor's commands ; they contented themselves with 
offei'ing him a consolatory cigar, and continued their 
jirogress upwards to what they designated as the laud 
of marvels. This wa.s, however, but the forerunner of 
more deplorable incidents. 

After the departure of Admiral Cecille, the com- 
mand of the French division in the Chinese Seas de- 
volved upon Commodore Lopierre, commanding the 
frigate La Gloire. News having been received at 
Macao in April, 1847, which led to apprehensions for 
the personal safety of Monseigneiir Lefevre, vicar- 
apostolic in Cochin-China, who was said to have been 
placed in arrest by the authorities, but who had, in 
reality, escaped in a native junk, and had arrived safe 
in Java, the corvette La Victorieuse was expedited to 
Turan with a letter from Commodore Lapien-e for the 
Cochin-Chinese government, asking, or rather exacting, 
in the name of the King of the French, not only that 
the bishop should be set at liberty, but that freedom 
of worship for all classes should be established through- 
out the empiic 

It was not lon^' before the frigate La Gloire joined 
La Victorieuse, which it found lying off Turan, watched 
by five Cochii-Chinese war-junks. The commodore 
was much annoyed upon hearing that the commander 
of La Vidoriettse had not succeeded in getting the 
mandarins to forward the letter of which he was the 
beaix'r to their sovereign, and on finding, further, that 
both he and his officers were the objects of an insulting 
sv ''vuillance, which hud been can'ied so far, that one 
of Jie officers who had gone on shore had been obliged 
to use violence before he could make his way through 
the soldiers. This state of things so irritated the 
commodore, that he gave orders that the mandarins 
who came on board should be received with great 
coolness, and he made known that he himself would 
only confer with a high dignitary of the Coiirt of 
Huah. At the same time, in order to impart activity 
to the negotiations, the French took possession of the 
sails of the Cochin-Chinese war-junks, promising to 
restore them when the difficulties that had arisen 
should be smoothed over ! Two days having elapsed, 
the commander of Za Victorieuse yraa received on shore 
by the chief mandarin of the province. He was ac- 
companied by ten officers and fifty men. The object 
of the demonstration, and the precise nature of \he 
demands made in the letter, were explained at this 
meeting. The mandarin, after some difficulties, ac- 
cepted the letter, and promised to forward it to Huah, 
but he did not disguise how much he was displeased 
at the embargo placed upon the imperial war-junks. 

During the time that this interview was being held, 
a great movement was observed to be taking place 
among the Annamite ti-oops from the frigate. They 
seemed to be amving fi-om all sides, and the commo- 
dore became apprehensive, or, according to another 
version, ascertained that there was an intention to 
massacre all the French at the interview. It is even 
said that the plan of attack was formed on board the 
war-junk on which they had placed the sails of the 
other junks. The Cochm-Chinese were also observed 
to be arming six gun-boats. 



Whereupon Commodore Lapien-e immediately de- 
spatched an aid-de-camp oa shore to warn the authorities 
that, on the event of one single gun-boat leaving the 
river, the French ships would at once open fire. 

The aid-de-camp found the Cochin-Chinese busy 
knocking d^wn the houses that masked their land- 
batteries, and, notwithstanding the warning given, two 
armed boats got out of the river under cover of night. 
On the 13th of April, at eleven o'clock a.m., the signal 
to engage was given from the Commodore's ship, and 
the frigate La Gloire and the corvette La Viclorieuse 
opened fire upon the poor Cochin-Chinese war-junks, to 
the shouts of " Ftti« U roi !" Half an hour afterwards 
one of the war-junks was fired by a shell, and blew up 
with its whole crew. A few minutes more, and 
another went to the bottom ; finally, at the expiration 
of about an hour, the three others, one of which was on 
the point of foundering, were fired by the boats of the 
French ships. The Cochin-Chinese fleet was that day 
annihilated. " Un millier de Cochin-Chinois avaient 
perdu la vie dans cette lutte indgale," says our French 

The forts of Turan were carried by assault on the 1st 
of September, 1858, by a force of less than two 
thousand men, of whom half were French and the 
other half Spaniards and Tagal soldiurs, from Lu^on. 
A Frenchman thus descnbcs the scene : On entering the 
fort of the observatory, we were much surprised at 
finding the Annamite artillerymen, quietly seated at 
their guns, their arms crossed. If they had fled, their 
heads would just simply have been cut off; if they had 
prolonged the defence, they would have fatigued them- 
selves uselesfsly; so, being in doubt, they abstained, 
and allowed themselves to be cut to pieces, with the 
most incredible apathy. (We hope, for the sake of 
humanity, that this has been hastily and thoughtlessly 
penned, and only represents some sad and exceptional 
ca.te.) That is their duty and it is understood by 
the soldiers of Tu Duk, and in this respect they have 
none to compare with them, save their friends, the 
Chinese. Many of these brave fellows had no uniform, 
they were in rags, like all the inhabitants of the comitry. 
Most were armed with muskets, with flints, manufac- 
tored at St. Etienne, which astonished us greatly. I 
found several little pear-shaped grenades, full of 
powder, on the ground, but I cannot aflinn if this 
is a regular weapon of war in the Cochin-Chinese 
army. In the meantime, the east fort was blown up, 
and the next day it was the turn of the west fort. If 
these works were jioorly defended, they were, on the 
other hand, marvellously armed. I saw magnificent 
bronze guns, and the west fort, contained besides, a 
jmrk of field artillery ; pretty pieces of and of 9, like 
our own, only mounted on immense wheels, like the 
American buggies. 

We were definitely established on shoi-e the same 
day, waiting for the Annamite army, if it took it into 
its head to appear. But it did not come. It was 
tremendously hot; hotter, I think, than I ever felt it, 
It was a furnace. Two or three of my men jwrished 
from fatigue and the heat of tlio huu. Nothing however 
could have been more beautiful, than this bay of Turan, 
cut out in the shape of a crescent, with its two moun- 
tain capes prolonged into the ocean ; whilst our two 
squadrons at anchor, the coming to and fro of the 
embarkations, the varietl uniform of our infantry, of our 
marines, and of the colonial troopers of the Philippines, 
and the flags of the two nations floating above the 

ruined forts, reminded one of the activity of Europe 
coming at last to nhake the secular lethargy of the old 

I will spare you the narrative of our daily petty 
combats, of our prodigies of settling, our pleasures and 
our miseries, generally a pouring rain, for the diy 
season does not set in till December, to relate to you 
our expedition to Saigon some two hundred leagues 
(five hundred m le^ to the south. 

If you cast your eyes on the njap and follow the 
course of the rirer of Cambogia, which is called the 
M£-khom (May-kiang, or May-kong), you will remark 
at its mouth a multitude of branches, making their 
way across an infinite number of alluvial plains of 
various sizes, something thai I can only compare to 
the delta of the Ganges or to T)utch Zealand. Of 
those alluvia some are supplit'd by this immense river, 
one of the largest in Asia, others by another very 
important stream which flows into the sea at some 
distance, somewhat as the Scheldt does to the Meuse, 
To continue my comparison, Saigon would be nearly 
in the same position n.s Antwerj). Figure to your- 
self a country perfectly level, intersected by mag- 
nificent moors, well wooded, with fig-trees, with 
teak, with palm-trees, and banyans interlacing their 
branches and their foliage in all possible ways; plarc 
here and there beneath these verdant shades huts of 
bamboos and clay, around which circulate, crawl, or 
grunt, first more or less dirty and ugly men, women 
and children, then black and mild-looking bufialoes, 
then pigs whose bellies sweep the ground, and, lastly, 
fowls of that variety now so very popular in Europe, 
and yon will be as well acquainted as I am with this 
portion of Low Cochin-China. 

The views we have given, one of which is taken at the 
mouth of the river of Saigon (see p. 160), and the other 
(aee p. 161) on its banks, will convey a better idea of 
the general aspect of the country than any detailed 

We were, on the 9th of Pebniary, at the mouth 
of the river of Saigon, with the PhUgi-ton carrying the 
flag of Vice-Admiral Rigault de Genouilly, the Pii.- 
manguet, three gun-boats, as many transports, and a 
Spanish steamer, FA Cano. We advanced boldly up 
this network of rivers, interlaced in the strangest 
manner possible, the bowsprit in the trees, yet with 
five to six fathoms of water. The chief stream was 
certainly not less than a hundred yards in width. The 
approaches were defended by a dozen wooden forts, 
well armed, and by three stockades. All these were 
carried rapidly, the two last- which were nearest to 
the town alone holding out for some time. Before 
an hour had elapsed we were in Saigon. 

Endeavour now to represent to yourself, wo do not 
say a town, as we understand the word in Europe, but 
a tropicul forest, out of which sm-ge up, from distance 
to distance, almost comfortable habitations, all green, 
fresh, intersected by rivulets, which come and go, 
cross ono another, and are lost to the sight, and then 
again, amidst this vegetation, masked by trees, a great 
square bastioned fort, in good hewn stone, and you have 
before you Saigon and its citadel. The first surrendered, 
and the second followed soon, although it was not 
visible from the river, and had to be carried by the 
land party without aid from the ships. After having 
silenced its fire, wo escaladed with long bamboo lad- 
ders, expecting to find the gunners astride on their 
pieoes, as at Turan; but this time tlieyhad disappeared 



We found instead, a prodigious booty, a couiplete 
ar.spual, about 180,000 pounds of powder in barrels or 
eases, salt))etro, sulphur, lead, military accoutrements, 
rice, s\iHicient for t<,000 men, and 130,000 fmnea in 
the money of tho country, tliat is to say, in snpeks. 
It requires 3,000 to make half-a-cro\vn, so that tho 
number of littlt! bits that composed tlic military chest 
amounted to 78,000,000. 

I installed myself in a pagoda in order to pass the 
night, and seldom have I passed a better one. rago<las 
are tho hnstelries of China .and Indo-China ; one can 
eai, there, drink there, sleeji there when it is possibh;, 
anil ''ven sign treaties there a.s at Tien-tsin without 
jiroiaiiation ; Buddhism is tolerant. It is soi.if>t,hing 
like the Greek Churches at Cairo, where tho priest 
Uvea as in his, the wife cooks iu the chapel, and 
the children play around the altar. 

I awoke next morning with that marvellous 
nature which siirrotinded us like an ocean of ver- 
dure. About seven o'clock two of my men brought 
to mo a ]ioor wretch most strangely attired. He had 
taken refugo the ])revioua evening in a fig-tree during 
the action ; he had remained there all night, and it 
was only at cLiy-break that my men had discovered 
him. There was no end of trouble iu inducing him to 
come down. You may imagine my surprise, when I 
heard him exclaim in tho most piteous accents, yet 
with nn elotjuence that would not have belied Cicero ; 
Pane, Domine ! Non hoslia sum, Christianus Canibo- 
jamis ! (Sparc me, my lord; I am not an enemy; I 
am a Cambogian Christian.) I must acknowledge to 
my .shame that my prisoner was liotter up in his Latin 

tlian I was ; but tho good Doctor D came to my 

help, and we gi-adually came to an understaMding. 

His name was Li-ko\ian. He was about twenty -seven 
or twenty^eight years of ago, short, with a little 
crushed nose, prominent cheek-bones, flat face, dark 
hair, of dirty whitecomplcxionpa-ssing into yellow, and 
prematurely obese. As ho had already intimated, he 
was a Christian, and established in Cambogia, although 
of Chinese origin. Two days previously he had made 
vain attempts to reach tho squadron in company with 
MonseigneurLefuvre, Bishop of Saigon, and the morning 
after, he had seen a missionary put to death. 

Li-Kouan and myself soon became tho best friends 
in tho world. He told me that there were about 
500,000 Christians in Cochin-China, and he gave mo 
some curious information regarding the little kingdom 
fif C'^mbogia. He said, that only tho maritime jiro- 
vinces had beet, conquered by tho Annamites. Their 
frontier docs not extend over fifty miles above Saigon. 
Beyond that commences the jurisdiction of the illus- 
trious King Duong, illmlris rex Diumg, as my neophyte 
calk<l him, n sovereign who ha,s known advereity. 
Sometime prisoner of the Siamese, ho was obliged to 
become a watchmaker to obtain a living. He is said 
tn be short and fat, much marked by snndl-pox, and 
very partial to Kuropcnns. He is proud of his latinity, 
if Li-Kouan is to be believed, and he has decorated 
liis dining-room with inscriiitions of wliich domua vian- 
ilucarc bthereque (a house for eating and drinking) is an 
example. His first eunuch (yunuk) is also his first 
cook ; and I believe that tho grand-master of tho 
Cambogian artillery, of whom my prisoner oidy sirako 
in terms of deciicst respect, also fulfils some domestic 
functions of the same order. Duong haA nothing of 
royalty, save tho yellow jietticoat uttitched by a golden 
waistband ; as for the rest, he U a good citizen of 

Paris or of London, lost in the plains of Asia, ready to 
give you a warm-hearted shake, and to offer you cau 
do Cologne at the end of a repast, in the absence of 

What revolutions arc in i)ersi)ective, now that 
steam has sujipressed distaJKcs, like a moveable 
bridge destine(l to \inito the extremities of the globe ! 
Saigon ])resents innnense connnereial advantages iu 
that resi)ect ; it is the most important point in Cochin- 
China. The liver is na\ig.iblo fur the largest vc.s.sels, 
and i.nwhere have I seen the l)ed of a streain so safe 
and imeneumbered. One tide, for they are hero of 
twelve hours' duration, sufliees to a.scend to the town, 
witli a fuvourablo breeze. The country is, rice 
abounds, and is much finer than that of Siam. 1 have 
seen very good .sugar,almostwhite,as also a kind of sugar- 
candy. Woods fi)r dyeing are abundant, tho wa.x is 
magnificent, and as to cinnamon, it appeared to me to 
1)0 of a much su])erior (puility to that of China and of 
other parts of Cochiii-Cliina. I do not doubt iu the 
least, that with a little ])erseveranc(» and spirit, we 
shall make of this privileged port one of the finest 
establishments in the world. The population is Hindhu- 
Chinesc, and although hostile, it is much less so than at 
Canton. Add to this, that only a few leagues separate 
Saigon from Cambogia proper, and we liave there a 
totally ditlerent race, easy to a.s.similatc. You can 
judge of that by what I have lelated of King Duong. 
However singular they may api)ear, all these details 
are very exact. They have since been confirmed by a 
missionary who has resided three years in tho country. 
Considered in a military ))oint of ^■iew, the position 
may be considered as absolutely impregnable. By esta- 
blishing a few batteries along this winding river, I do 
not know a ileet that could venture !o ottcmpt the 
ascent so long a.s it was opposed by Europeans.' 

Li-Kouan started for Phnompenk or Namwaiig in 
Cochin-Chinese, his usual residence, a few leagues from 
Udong, tho capital of Cambogia. He intended ascend- 
ing the river May -kiang, secreted in a boat of a Chris- 
tian friend of his. The citadel of Saigon, built by a 
colonel of French engineera for Gia-long, no longer 
exists ; it has been blown up. We only preserved the 
forts that neighboured the river, and which remain 
entrusted to the keeping of Commandant Jaurregiii- 
berry. They are in good hands. Be assured that the 
"Jewel of Annam," as Saigon and its province is 
called here, endowed as it is in respect to soil, climate, 
and watei', has a great future in store for it under 
French domination. Already the catholics, very nume- 
rous in this neighbourhood, are accumulating from .•'' 
sides, M. Lcffcvre, bishop of Isaroopolis, and firet 
vicar-apostolio in these regions, has laid the foundations 
of a school, a hospital, and of a church, which latter 
will be, no doubt, for a long time yet, the handsomest 
in Hindhu-Chiua. 

I forgot to say that, when our ships were signalled as 
off the coast of Canibogia, a division of the Annamitc 
navy which was on the look out, as once tho Roman 
galleys were off Capo Miseninn, took refugo in one of 
the thousand canals that interacct the double delta of 

' Wc iiiny interrupt our French friend's niirrutive at tliis point 
to inform our rcii<lpr» tliiit tlio Frcncli force did creet batteries, 
to strcngllien tlie fort nt Soigon ; iind Hint from tlint moment 
up to tlie Inst ndvices tlicy liavo licen bcsiegml within that fort by 
tho natives, with whom they have rendered themselves exceed- 
ingly unpopular. 





the rivers May-kiang and Saigon. We were unable 
to follovr it for want of depth of water ; but the canal 
wna blockaded and the Cochin-Chinese ships were 
reduced, after a block!i<le of three months, to such an 
extremity, that the ^landarin, Kienuiin, who com- 
manded them, oi-dcred them to be burnt and turned 
the sailors adrift. These unfortunates, after having 
wandered about for ten days, arrive<l at Saigon in a 
state of utmost destitution, and to their great joy and 
infinite surprise, they were kindly received by us. 

The fleet thus destroyed was composed of eight 
war-junks of first rank, and of five of second class. 
The Cochin-Chinese admiral sought refuge at first at 
Carapot, in the Gulf of Siam. But dreading the 
anger of the emperor, he opened his belly in the pre- 
sence of the officers of his stalf, as the Koman admiral 
at Cape Misenum would not have failed to do under 
similar circumstances to the greater glory of Kero or 

But do not imagine that all the Annamite fane ■ 
tionaries are similarly prepared to sacrifice themselves 
so classically on the altar of heroism or rather of fear. 
A few weeks afterwards I had the pleasure of seeing, 
with my own eyes, a land mandarin arrive at Siugon, 
who was posseted of more practical philosophy than 
his maritime colleague. This was no less a personage 
than the indigenous prefect of the province. The 
jieriod for sowing coming on, this worthy man, like a 
true disciple of Triptolemns, seized the pretext of agri- 
cultural interests to enter into n^jotiations with us, 
and to assure himself as to the state of things, and the 
lihysiognomy of those who had usurped his residence 
of old. 

Conducted into the presence of oar commandant, ho 
prostrated himself neither more nor less than he would 
have done before an idol, and he then addressed him in 
a sjieech which our interpreter translated in the follow- 
ing characteristic terms : — 

" You are not like those pirates who come but too 
frequently into our rivers to rob cities and insult the 
women ; you are wise — since you came from that great 
nation in the west, who sent a virtuous man to the 
King Nguyen-anh, who was his friend, and you are 
strong, since you belong to the same conntry as those 
who restored to him the throne of his &ther, which 
had been usurped by Tayson. None can resist you 
when yon fight, but you are disarmed before the weak. 
Allow us then to sow our crops, and give us assurance 
you will not withdraw your protection when the time 
comes round that we shall have to gather them in." 

Whether Jie was sincere or not in the request, it was 
granted to him, and he was reconducted to the outposts, 
with military honoura^ which filled him with surprise 
aud gratitude. 

Clad in a long robe of damask worked with gold and 
silk, end in nether garments of red silk, which did not 
cover his black feet, very imperfectly protected by his 
slippers, this august dignitaiy had a black hat on his 
head, decorated in front lika the hat of a roadman, 
with a large metal plate, upon which were inscribed 
the name and arms of his Majesty Tn Duk, and which 
was further supplied at its sides with two appendages 
in black gauze, which looked like the wings of a night- 
moth, and were nine inches in length. This curious 
head-gear is the distinctive decoration of a iivil man- 
darin, and it would of itself have deserved the honours 
of the sketch-book, even if it had not surmounted one 
of the most typical heads and bodies that chance ever 

presented to my pencil : square face, yellow complexion, 
red eyes winking Iwucath lids manifestly ic-^ large for 
the organ which they covered, wide mouth, hanging 
tips, teeth black and corroded by betel nut, a body at 
once thin and squat, and lastly, spare limbs, — such 
WHS the api)earance of the ex-mandarin of Saigon, and 
with slight variations it would apply to all his country- 
men. Only when we apply it to the people we must 
supplant the expression of cunning and deceit, which 
predominates among those in power, by one of sorrow 
ind dejection. 

It will bo seen from this that the Cochin-Chinese 
are not handsome. If they are younger brothers to 
tho Chinese, they are much degenerated from their 
elders, who, without being ApoUos, still jMSsess gene- 
rally such force as is derived from a more fully deve- 
loped body and limba They possess besides a quality 
which is completely unknown to their neighbours of 
the south — cleanliness. 

What we call with us the fair sex does not make an 
exception to the general rule. In spite of a mild and 
kindly aspect, of a bust tolerably well modelled in 
youth, of feet and hands that would be envied by a 
Parisian, and of long black hair, always combed and 
raised up with little care on tho back of the head, the 
Cochin- Chinese lady does not impart a more sgreeable 
impression than her lord and master. With the one 
as with tho other, there are the same facial features, 
the same form of dress, the same deteriorated teeth, 
and lastly the same want of cleanliness of body and 
dress. It is even said that the latter, the jiarts of 
which must always fall off before they are replaced, 
enter into the gastronomic calculations of their pro- 
prietors, great or little, rich or poor, in as for as the 
myriads of insects to which they afford an iLsylum 
are concerned, and of which the women are not a bit 
less greedy than the men. 

Apart from this extraordinary taste, common to nil 
classes of society, even that of the highest classes, the 
people of Annam appear to me to be more sober even 
than that of the Celestial Empire. They are utterly 
ignorant of all culinary delicacies. They eat little, 
feeding on fish, rice, fruits, and a kind of i>ea peculiar 
to the country, and it is only at the festival of the 
now year, a festival which is at once religious and civil 
in Cochin-China, that their ordinary temperance is laid 
aside, and that, according to a local expression, each 
family "kills its pig," strangles its ducks, devours its 
fermented eggs, (fresh eggs are never eaten in Cochin- 
China), and consumes in one or two repasts what it has 
saved up during a whole year. ' But even in this annual 
debauch, in the midst of the evanescent fumes of wine 
(samchu) and rice-spirit (rak or raki), the Cochin- Chinese 
cannot shake off the dejection of spirits that is habitual 
with them. Their greatest efforts at gaiety do not extend 
to dancing, and I do not think that I ever heard one 
of them sing. Never noisy, quiet in their conversa- 
tion, which they maintain on all occa.sions in a measured, 
nasal tone, if such a people possess national songs, they 
must be among those which we occidentals should select 
for a funeral. To sum up, the general impression made 
upon us by Cochin-Chinese of all ages and sexes is, 
that they constitute a congregation of melancholy 
beings ; perhajM it is so because they have grown old 
from ago to age without knowing what liberty is. 

In a subsequent advance into tho interior of tho 
country, made from Turan, not Saigon, the troops 
were pushed forward until they reached the oele- 



lirntod jrotintnlns of ?ir.ivMf, a rocky pountry, lu'lil i 
HiintMl liy Icioiil Ruiicrstitiou, any tntrniicu to which 
liad, for many ycais imst, hccn intcrdictcil by tho 
Hipviriimont even to the niitivcs of the country. Tlic 
Miniutiiiiis of Marlili' rise in tlio nii(hno of a w\nily 
(h'scrt about six niibx from the vilhi<,'(' of Turan. 
Thi'V arc bouinhd on thi- nortli by the river Tnran, 
nud on the smith by the oci'an. On approacliingtheui, 
small huts arc obMcrvi'd resting upon the roel<s, and 
Htth' |>agoda» constructed iu lioautiful grottoes, tlio 
entrances to wliich are laveil by tla^ current of tlu) 
river. Fivn hnge rocks of marble, looking like tho 
Rumniits of mountains swallowed up in the Bands, or 
b\nned cathedrals, are sepanited from each other by 
passages covered with low tre<'s and creeping plants, 
or obstructed by lilocks of stone, blackened by the niiii 
and sea -breezes. One of these jiatlis, darkened liy tiio 
thick foliage of myrtles, terminates iu a hmg covered 
way hewn in the rock. This is rendered easy of (h-scent 
by some broad stei>s at long intervals. After passing 
through a few seconds of complete darkness, this 
passage opens njKai a subterranean temple in a cavern, 
the aspect of which impresses the beholder with it.s 
solemn magnificence (see p. IGO). 

This enormous excavation, in which tho hand of man 
appears to have wrought out many changes, is fifty 
feet long by forty feel wide, and abimt forty-fivo feet 
high. From the gate, — on either side of which aro two 
colossal statues of stone, representing a Innnnn being 
in a stmnge costume, and some fabulous animal, — 
there is u descent by a (le<'p and ra|)id stair to the 
bottom of the grotto, which receives tlii" light of day 
through a natural o[iening in the centre of tho vaulted 
roof. This is hung with festoons of creeping jilant.s, 
covereil with leaves and II ors, the brightness of 
which admii-ably contrasts with the varied and brilliant 
tints of the rocks. Oiiposite to the entrance, and upon 
a slightly raised ]ilatform, to which leads a narrow 
pathway of bricks, terminating in some steps, is ]ilaced 
a high altar adorneil with chandeliers painted red, and 
wax candles of the .same colour. A few other orna- 
ments, cfpially simple, surround a statue of wood thi '■. 
feet iu height, representing a man in a sitting posture. 
His features, his garments, which have nothing of tlus 
Chinese style, his feet joined and placed fiat, and his 
extended hands, designat« him with sullicicnt clearness 
as an idol of the Buddhist worshi]), a religion to which 
is due a great ]mrt of the supei'stiliuns of the Cochin- 
Chinese, and of which mouinueiits of a remote anti- 
quity ai'o to be met with everywhere throughout this 

It is impossible to say whether this religion was 
bronght over to this country from China, or was the 
work of Indian and Chinese missionaries at the time 
of the great Buddhist revival. Be that a.s it may, 
tho moral and sceptical doctrines of Buddha ai'e no 
longer known in Cochin-China, oxcejit in a minority, 
SI) small a-s to bo imi)ercei)tible. Most of the gran- 
dees of tho stjite, eqimlly ignorant with the mass of 
the j)eopie, believe in sorcerei-s, devils, and good and 
bad genii, and allegorical pei-sonations of tho foiu' 

Tlie religionof Buddha, — if religion that can bo called 
whoso juimary element is total abnegation of belief and 
the destnietion of all fivitli, — had its origin in the north 
of India, six or seven eenturicH before our era, and 
nii)idly took iXMjt there, where it could live without 
persecution. Heuce it reached the south of the iJcniu- 

sula, in Ceylon ; but returned thence to the .itates on 
the left bank of tho Cianges river, and to the feet of t!\n 
Himalayan range. Thence, '.".■■•■'sing the mountains, it 
cxt<'n(U>d itself with ])rodigi(Mis ra]p;dity among tlio 
.scmi-barbanais population that filled the vast steppes or 
naamtain jdains of Thibet and Mongolia, (ioing on, 
it travci'scd thi^ East, and crossing tho mouths of tho 
Uanges, a.s it had already crossed tho Himalayas and 
the Niu' Kiitcli, it invaded Burmah, Assam, and the 
innuenso jirovinccs that sejiarate the Indus and 
Chiniu At it reach(><l China itself; anri, in 
the sixth year of oin- era, luado such progress as to 
1)0 ollicially adopted by the Emperors. Henceforth 
China became tho gi-eat scat of Buddhism ; and from 
C'hina emanated the mission of llioneu-Tlismig, i'rom 
which tho resuscitation of Buddhism in India dati.'s 
its env. 

But what is Buddhi.sni t Briefly, — Buddha was him- 
self a wise man and a great reformer. Educated u 
l>ricst of Brahma, ho ajiplicd himself to the study of 
tho Vcdas or encrcd books, and soon penetrated to tho 
truth. Everywhere ho saw in that religion only 
representatives of attributes of tho Deity, but nowhere 
God himself. Ho found, moreover, nothing cci'taiu 
but tho inculcation of morality. Hence the first start- 
ing point of Buddhism is a doubt — universal scepticism. 
In avoiding idolatry in the pei-sonality of tho Deity, 
ho fell into the criually Bcrious error of materialism, 
by declaring God to be the univcrsf. itself — pervading 
and animating all — not a spirit, however, but actually 
tho \inivcrse itself. Man, therefore, I iiddha pronounced 
to be a portion of the Deity, and tho higher his moral 
condition the nearer is he to the godly sjiirit. Wo 
need not ]ioint out where Plato obtained his philosophy 
while studying in the East. 'I ho institutions of Budd- 
hism, in their pure state, call upon man to observe five 
conunandmentsand avoid ten sins. First tokillno aninuil 
of tho meanest kind (as partaking of the living essence 
of the J'eity); not to steal; not to ci^mmit ndidlcry; 
not to lie ; not to drink intoxicating drinks. Those 
who obey these commandments will never be hungry, 
or unlucky, ov mifortnnate. Amongst the ten sins 
arc discord, idle talking, envy, and the following of 
false gods. Those who avoid these 'will bcco:no worthy 
to SCO and hear God, and be exempt frcm weight 
(oppression), old age, disease, oiul death. 

Tho High Brahmins, vho found this teaching to 
bo dangerous to the jicrnianence of their worshi)), 
adopted it by making their own two incanuitions of 
the Deity. Vishini and Shiva became again incarnate 
in the ])ei'son of Buddha, whose scepticism they made 
sacred, by saying he was sent into the world to 
insi)iro doid)t.s against tho o])])onent.s of Brahmin and 
\ ishnu. A separate priesthood of Bonzes, kept uj) by 
adoption, was gi'adually instituted for the worship of 
Buddha, and the doctrine of the efficacy of fasts, and 
prayei-s by proxy through the priest to release souls from 
purgatory, was introduced and forcibly inculcated. Thus 
gi-adually the simjilo clear idea of Buddha himself de- 
generated again intoa woi-ship of attributes, allegorical 
j)ersonificati()ns of the elements, and reptiles — even 
the meanest f)f which are sedulously protected by his 
creed. Thus do we find how pi-one is the hunuin 
mind in its weakness to regard the thing created 
nither than the Creator, and to avoid the one, Bim])le 
idea, known and revealed to the wise, in all ages, that 
" God is a Sjjirit, and those who woi-ship him must 
worship him in spirit and in truth." 

/■■ ^^~ 







Fab away in the North Pacific Ocean, abutting on 
CWna, with whioli tliey are connected by Siiglmlicn, 
but pliysically united l)y Karaschatka, of which tlicy 
and tlie Kurilo IhIbs form but a spur, is a group of 
ialandn which very oloMoly rcsomljlo Oreat Britain with 
Ireland to the north of Scotland, and two groat inlands 
in the Channel, thin group being again prolonged by 
the Loo-choo and other' islets to Forinowi and the 
Philippine Islands, and by those again and Now Guinea 
to the continent of Australia, thus constituting one 
great bund of rock, and land, and sea, which girt by 
their semicircular disposition the Arch-Archijielago of 
the world^^)ne expanse of ocean, everywhere studded 
with coral reefs, islets, islands, and gi-oups of islands.' 

The lands in tpiestioii, rich with all the gifts of 
nature, fertile beyond measure, and with n glorious 
climate, have long cojistituted a populous empire remote 
from the rest of the world, ami which, if accidentally 
or purposely thrown in contact with it, it has repelled 
with churlish selJishnoss. This empire is called by the 
natives, Nip-pon, "the Empire of the Sun," or "Snr- 
source Country," and by the Chinese, Yang-hu. Jiaic>j 
Polo, the celebrated Venetian tniveller, having firat 
announced its existence to Europe ■ ' called the 
country Zipangii, — a name which has become abbre- 
viated and corrnpted into Japan. From the best 
admeasurement, it would appear that this vast insular 
empire of Eastern Asia passesses a superficies of 
270,211 square miles. Its population it immense. 
The number of jwoplo one encountera on the roads 
and highways is incredible. It has been estimated as 
high as oO,000,00(), and as low as 10,000,000, but 
there cannot be less than 30,000,000, and they are 
of Mongolo-Chinese or Tartar-Chinese origin; their 
language being also a dialect of the Chinese. 

The first settlement in Jaiian took its origin in 
the wreck of the Portuguese adventurer Fernando 
Mondez Pinto, in 1542 or 1543, who carried such 
glowing accounts to his countrymen as to induce them 
to send a commercial expedition, which, establishing 
itself at Nagasaki, conducted for several years a con- 
siderable trade with the natives. In 1583, a mission- 
ary deputation was sent from Rome to Japan, and the 
Jesuits having set about converting the natives, such 
an outcry was raised, and so many lives sacrificed, that 
the Portuguese were obliged to leave the country. 

The Portuguese wero succeeded in tin Japan trade 

> The island ompiro of Japan occupies an insular position off 
the east coast of Continental Asia, and opposite to the Sea of 
Japan, and the Quif of Tartary, and Corea, from which it is sepa- 
rated by Mantchuria, and is consequently the roost easterly part 
of our hemisphero ; the sun rises over Yeddo eight hours earlier 
than over London. The empire comprises five large and two 
hundred small inlands, with numerous islets an<l dependencies ; 
including the Loo-chu gronp, and the Kurilo Archipelago. It 
eitends from the 2lth to the 60th degree of north latitude, and 
from the 123rd to the 157th degree of east longitude. To the 
north it is bounded by the Sea of Okotsk, and the independent 
portion of the island peninsula of Saghalien; to the east by the 
north FOciSc Ocean; to the south by the eastern Sea of China t 
and to the west by the Sea of Japan, which communicatei with 
the ocean by the Straits of La Perouse or Sangan, and others 
running between the various Islands. Of these iihinds, Nipon is 
the largest, being sixteen hundred miles in length, and from one 
to three bondred miles in breadth at different parte. 

by the Dutch, in whose favour an exception was made 
on account of their being Protestants. 

The trade of the hitter peoplo was, at one time, of 
enormous vahie, but has dwindled down to its ])rcscnt 
comparatively insiph'ricant amount through their own 
mismanagemer.c an ' :..'li^crei.ion. There was a period 
in the historj of ■ leir commercial intercourse with the 
Japanese, m he vUey drained the island of the precious 
metals to r i' .ncredible amount. This excited the 
apprehensions of the Court much in the same way as 
the exchange of silver, and nothing but silver, for 
opium, lately brought matters to a crisis in China. 
The value of the currency was constantly tiimi)ered wit^i 
in all transactions between the Dutch and Japanese ; 
and to such an extent, writes Mr. InkofT, " that our 
commerce was carried on by the |>eople gro]iing in the 
dark, neither knowing the actual price of purchat^e or 
sale. Since 1710, all articles of trade not disposed ' ''.. a 
profit of 63 per cent. rendered a loss." The same .iter 
tells us that his countrymen have, over and over ogain, 
declined to receive many valuable articles r.f commei-oe 
which weie from time to time t> ndered by the Japanese 
The eonducl of the Company's ser^'auts at Japan appears 
to have been most injudicious. Ins' .ad of a dignified 
but firm resistance to all the encroachments and insults 
of the Japanese, they gave way in every instance ; and 
this base conduct on the part of Euroj)eans tended 
infinitely to increase the pride and aiTogance of an 
already vain, ignorant, and exclusive iieojjle. 

In 1G54, Hagenaar was sent by the Governor- 
general of Batavia to Formosa and Japan. The Dutch, at 
that time had what they call a lodge— a large wooden 
building — in the bay of Firando, as also a factory at 
KurkL The intoleiance and jealousy of the Japanese 
was manifest on this as on all other occasions. Thirty- 
seven persons lost their lives at Firando, on account of 
their being either professed Christians or born of 
Christian parents. Some were hung up by the feet ; 
others were beheaded, and cut to pieces ; and, again, 
others, were tied to stakes and burnt. 

In 1635, Hagenaar having visited Firando a second 
time, disputes had arisen which necessitated a mission 
to Yeddo. Accordingly, a public entry was made into 
the capital, on which occasion the concourse of people 
was 80 great, that they could scarcely move forward. 
But, as tisual, after a month had nearly elapsed in 
various procrastinated ceremonies and negotiations, a 
message was sent, intimating that no opportunity had 
yet occurred of laying their petition before the emperor, 
that it was not likely their business could be done for 
some time, and that the Dutch mission had better 
returi» to whence it came. 

Hagenaar accordingly returned, but some of the 
Dutch merchants remained behind, .mong whom was 
Frans Caron, who left us one of the e..<liest accounts ot 
the capital of the country, which he describes as beuig 
very large, the palace or castle alone being four or five 
miles in circumference, and the streets in extent are, ho 
adds, very broad, and some are bordered on both sides 
by sumptuous palaces. The gates are fortified on each 
side with iron bands or gi-atings, and over each grating 
is a large building, capable of containing, in case of 
necessity, two or three hundred men. 



It is, Cai-on says, the interior part of the castle in 
which till imperial palace ia situated, consisting of many 
liivge apartments, surrounded by groves, which, although 
planted by ayt, ap])ear to be the ])roduotion of nature. 
There are likewise fish-ponds, rivulets, open spaces, 
race gro\inds, rides, gardens, and a number of separate 
apartments for the women. 

In the second enclosure stand the palaces of the 
|)rinco3 of the blood, and of the principal ministei's. 
In the third and outer enclosures are the palaces of the 
kings and nobles of Japan, all gilt and richly adorned. 

\Vitho»it are the dwellings and houses of the inferior 
nobles, more or less sumptuous according to their rank. 
Taken altogether, this astonishingly large palace appears 
within and without like a golden mountain ; for all 
the nobles, from the highest to the lowest, spare no 
expense to ornament their residences, 

Here reside the married wives and children of the 
nobles, iix order that, being always ^under the eye of 
the Court, they may servo as hostages for their fidelity. 
This exceedingly spacious palace, which has an extent 
equal to a populous city, ia tlius nt all times filled with 
great men, who never oppear in public without a 
numerous retinue of inferior nobles, pages, hoi-ses, and 
)ialankiii8. The streets, however broad, are yet too 
narrow for their ]>ompo\i» processions. 

Caron, describing afterwards the pomp and magnifi- 
cence of the Ini|)erial retinue, adds, " How micom- 
monly large soever the number be of the soldiei's kept 
by this monarch, none are found amongst them but 
chosen men, well made, of a courageous appearance, 
expert in the use of ai-ms, and even not ignorant of 

literature. The muster of the troops which the kings 
and nobles must furnish, upon the first summons of the 
Court, amounted at that time to 308,000 infantry and 
20,000 civalry. Most of the nobles, however, generally 
kept in actual service twice as many troops as they 
are rcrpiired to furnish at the first summons. The em- 
peror also entertained, out of his private purse, 10,000 
foot soldiers and 20,000 horaemen, who lie in gan'ison 
in the cities or fortresses, or serve Iiim as body-guaiils. 
All the cavalry wear armour, but the foot-soldiers 
only wear a helmet. Some of the horsemen are 
described at that time as being armed with pistols, 
some with short Innccs, and others with bows and 
arrows ; all, however, were provided M'ith scimitars. 
The infantry were armed with two sabres, and, accord- 
ing to the size and strength of the mvu, with heavy or 
lighter fii-elocks. Some carried long jukes or nian- 
ganets, " which are a sort of bayonet." But this lias 
undergone great changes, fire-arms Laving been more 
generally introduced. 

Such was the wealth of Japan at this period, 
that the incomes of the cliiof ministers amounted to 
£182,000, those of the inferior placemen to £91,000, 
and the salaries of those who fill the lowest situations 
may, at least, be reckoned at from £18,200 to 
£27,300. But, although the nobles also possessed very 
enormous revenues, yet the expenses which they aro 
obliged to incur swallow all up. At Yeddo, especially, 
everything was very dear, and housekeeping, especially 
on the Ja])aneso scale, was very expensive. Whatever 
can bo imagined as contributing to ])leasure and the 
support of luxuty was to be met with. The enter- 




tainments given by kings and nobles to the emperor 
were often ruinous to them. 

The women of Japan, according to the same old 
traveller, were rigidly secluded, even more so than 
among the Muhammadaus ; but they had many plea- 
sures — ^gardens, fishponds, arbours, summer-houses, 
half a-shore and half over the water, and all sorts of 
laudbirds and tvaterfowl, musical instruments, and such 
like. Plays were represented, and feasts and banquets 
constantly occur. Their dress was of different coloured 
silk ; each, accoi-ding to the rank they hold, or the 
post assigned them, wearing an appointed colour. 

The revenues of the nobles arise out of the various 
products which their tonntories afford. Some lands 
yield com; some, gold and silver; othent, copper, iron, 
tin, or lead; others again, timber, hemp, cotton, or 
silk. The emperor disposes of the fisheries, more 
particularly of the whale fisheries, once a source of 
large revenue, but now almost in the hands of Ameri- 
cans and othera The Japanese are neither very 
superstitious, nor are they over-religious; they do not 
pray either in the morning or the evening, and the 
most religious scarcely go to the pagoda more than 
once a month. At the same time the number of 
pagodas in Japan is incredibly large. The priests 
reside in them, from two to twenty in a community, 
according to the size of the buildings. 

The priests naturally side with the nobles in keeping 
the people and the middle classes in ignorance and 
slavery; the militory and the priests are more or less 
despotic ; and in this system, all the evils of feudalism 
being superadded to a pure and irresponsible despotism, 
are to be traced the long seclusion of the nation. 
Only let the mercliants and the industrious classes once 
feel their importance in the social state, and such a 
seclusion would soon become impossible. 

All the necessaries and luxuries of life ore produced 
in the empire. It yields gold, silver, copper, and lead 
in abundance, and furnishes also cotton cloth, goiit- 
skins, an annual quantity of one hundred thousand 
peculs of silk, and between three and four hundred 
thousand peculs of silk-cotton (the produce of the 
Bombax penlandrum), a great many deerskins, timber, 
and all kinds of provisions in much greater abundance 
than is requisite for the subsistence of the inhabitants. 
Japanese ware and Japan work has been celebrated 
from a remote antiquity. It is alluded to in the 
" Arabian Nights' Entertainments." 

The climate of Japan is said to bo Lappy and health- 
ful, but subject to extremes of cold in winter and of 
heat in summer ; this, however, must vary much in 
different islands. It rains frequently, with much 
thunder and lightning. The sea, which encompasses 
the islands, is very rough and stormy, which, with 
many rocks, cliffs, and shoals, above and under water, 
makes its navigation very dangerous. There are also 
two remai-kable and dangerous whirlpools. Water- 
S[)outs are also frequently observed to rise in the 
Japanese seas. The natives fancy that they are a 
kind of water-dragon. Earthquakes are so common 
that the natives think no more of them than we do 
of an ordinary storm. Yet, sometimes, whole cities 
are dcst<' .'.yed, and thousands of inhabitants buried 
under the ruins. Such a dreadful accident happ<mcd, 
as Father Lewis de Frees relates (" Do Rebus Japonicis 
collecto a Joh. Havo"), in the year 1586. Kmmpfer 
relates that, in 1703, by an earthquake, and fire that 
followed thereon, almost the whole city of Yeddo, and 


the imjxsrial palace itself, were destroyed and laid in 
ashes, and upwards of 200,000 inhabitants buried 
under the ruins.^ 

There are burning mountains in several of the 
islands, some of which seem to be of volcanic origin, 
but others to l)o ohemical phenomena. Coal is also 
said to abound. In some parts the natives naptha 
instead of oil. Amber is abundant, and the pearl 
fishery b prosecuted with success. 

Amongst the chief trees are the mulberry, varnish- 
tree, various laurels and bays, camphor-laurel, the tea- 
shrub, sansio (used instead of pep})er or ginger), fig- 
trees, chesnuts, walnuts, oranges, lemons, grapes, itc, 
iSec. The superiority of the Jai>an vai-nish is owing to 
the virtues of the neusi, or varnish-tree, described by 
Keempfer in his " Ameenitates Exoticre." 

Buch is about the state of information which we 
possessed of this remarkable country, previous to the 
late expeditions of the Anglo-Americans and of the 
English, and the researches of the naturalist Siebold. 

' The islands of Jiipan arc csscnthilly mouiitaiiious niul rocky, 
being cliiefly of volcanic origin. Nip-pon is traversed throughout 
its whole length by a chain of mountains, some of whose peaks nro 
clad with perpetual snow. Tho waters flow on the one side to the 
Sea of Japan, on the otiicr to the PuciSc. According to tho 
Japanese annals, Mount Fusi or Fusiynina, tho loftiest monntuin of 
all Japan (3793 metres), rose out of tho cnrtli 285 ycors n.c, and 
an enormous depression gave rise, at the same time, to the great hike 
Mitzen, or Oils (Biwake, in Siebold's map). Fusi was lor a long 
timenn active volcano : some of its eniptions have been frightful and 
were accompanied by the most terrible devastation from lava and 
earthquakes. It has, however, been now quiescent for upwards of 
a century. So late, however, as the 23rdof December, 1851, nn 
earthquake nearly destroyed the port and town of Simoda, and with 
them the Russian frigate Diana, which, having been hunted over 
the Pacific Ocean by the English fleet, had finally taken refuge in 
the Japanese waters. The story is told aa follows in Conimodoro 
Perry's " Voyogc :" — "On the arrival of Commander Adams at 
Simoda, he found a great and sad change in the physical asi)ects 
of the place. In the interval of his absence from Japan (on the 
23r(l of December, 1851) nn earthquake had occurred, which was 
felt on tho whole coast of Japan, doing some injury to the capital, 
Yeddo, completely destroying the fine city of Osscn, on thesoutli- 
eastem side of Nipon, and leaving abundant evidences of its 
ruinous eflV'cta at Simoda. Kvery house and public building on 
the low grounds has been destroyed ; a few temples and prlvuto 
edifices, that stood on elevated spots, were all that escaped ; and 
sixteen structures were all that was left of what was onco Simoda. 
The inhabitants told Commander Adams, that tho destruction 
was not caused by the immediate agitation of tho earth, but by 
the sea which it occasioned, and whiili regularly followed the 
shocks. According to the statements of the Japanese, the waters 
in the bay and near tho shore were first observed to bo violently 
agitated ; they soon began rapidly to retreat, leaving tho bottom 
of the harbour, where usually there wei^c nine feet of water, nearly 
bare. The water then rushed m upon tho land, in a wave five fathoms 
above its usual height, and, overflowing the town up to the tops of 
the houses, swept everything away. The IVightencd inhi.bitants 
fle<l to the hills for safety j but, before they could reach their 
summits, they were overtaken by tho climbing watrrs, and hun- 
dreds were drowned. Tho waters retreated and returned in this 
manner five several times, tearing down everything, and strewing 
the ai^acent shores with the wrecks, and ruinsof houses proKtrntcd, 
and vessels torn from their anchorage. Tho Russian frigate 
Diana, bearing the flag of Admiral Pontiatine, was lying in tho 
harbour at tho time. Tho llussian ofiicers tnid Commamler 
Adams, that, when tho waters retreated, the mud b lilcti up from 
the bottom in a thousand springs. When they came in, thoy 
boiled like a maelstrom, and such was their vel ':ity and force, 
that thefrigato actually made forty-three complete revolntions in 
the space of thirty minutes. Their anchor had been let go in 
•U fathoms j when tho waters retreated, they could see it, and 
had but four feet of water alongside, Uer rudder, ttern part, and 
a great part of her keel were knocked ofl" and lost, and her 
bottom much injured. In the endeavour to carry her across the 
bay fur repair, she sank. Tlie Japanesn speedily set to work to 
rebuild and refit tho town, which is nov. agniu a flourishing one. 



Tho progi-ess made by the Anglo-Americans, in 
breaking down thn exclusive baiTiera of this old 
country, is sufficiently attested by the fact that they 
have induced this secluded nation, which neither tra- 
velled iiiir ])crmittud ti'avel, to send a mission to the 
United States. 

Tho Americans have, indeed, a just right to impel a 
stubborn nation to nets of common humanity. Jai)an 
had not only refused to hold commercial intercourse 
with the rest of tho world — a very questionable right 
— but she went further ; and occupying, as she does, 
an enormous extent of seacoast, she not only refused 
to o|)cn her ports to foreign vessels in distress, but 
actually opened her V)atteries (such as they are) upon 
them when they apjiroached within gun-shot of her 
shores, and when driven upon them by stress of 
weather, she seized upon, imprisoned, exhibited in 
cages, and actually murdered tho crows of such ill- 
fated vessels. 

" This," argued the Americans, " hivs been submitted 
to *^oo long already ; and tho constant incre-ase of our 
whale fleet, and the consequent increase of disasters in 
this barbarous and inhospitable region, have com- 
pelled our government, unprompted except by wise 
iuresight, to insist upon a reform in the jioliey and 
bearing of the Japanese towards the rest of tho world. 
The single fact, tliat at one tin e within the last year 
there were 121 American whalers lying in the harbour 
of the Sandwich Islands, far away from their cruising 
grounds, because they could not cuter any hai'bour on 
the coiiat of Japan for repaii-s, shows not only the 
extent of our commerce in that region, but the claims 
of humanity itself for protection against tho barbarians 
who thus cut off, as it wore, tho commerce of tho 
Yellow Sea and the Sea of Oehotsk." (The Sea of 
Japan might have been added.) 

To carry out this notion. Commodore Perry, of the 
U.S. Navy, cast .anchor in the Bay of Yeddo, tho eom- 
merciid capital of Japan, on the 8th of July, 1853, 
and speedily, on tho 23rd of August, to his great 
sui'prise, ft)und his party strengthened by tho appeai-- 
anco of a Russian fleet;' the frigate I'aUaa, and the 
steamer Yostock, the Aurora, 48, and tho corvette, 
Navartno, 22, being sent up to Kamschatka, to bo 
close in readiness, if required, and a jiowerful squadron 
having >>cen told olVto cruise in the Pacific. 

Commodoi'O Perry succeeded in carrying a treaty 
by which three |>orts, Nagasaki, Hakodaki, and Simoda 
were tlu'own open to trade, and every port on the 
Japanese coast was opened to ves-sels in distress. The 
I'osults of this treaty, and a similar one eflccted by 
Admiral Stirling, on the part of England, not being 
entirely satisfactory. Lord Elgin proceeded from China 

' " There 18 no power in the other licmiBphcrc," s&ya thenar- 
riitor of Commodore Perry's voynge, " to which the possession of 
Jnpun, or the conduct of its aflUirs, is so important as it is to 
Bussia. Slio is on one side of tlio islands (by tlie Amoor), the 
United States on the other. Tlio Pacific Ocean is destined to be 
tlio tlicatro of ianncnso commercial undertakings. Kussia is, 
in a great degree, shut out from cnsy access to tho Atlantic by 
her local position ; but with such harbours ns the Pacific or Japan 
would give her, she nii<;lit hope to beeorao the controlling mari- 
time power of the world." We arc in possession of very recent 
information from Jaiuin, tending to show that tho .Tapaneso 
government distrust the purposes of Russia. The movements of 
tluit nation on tho Amoor llivcr have been viewed with much 
apprehension. Tlio .Tapanese, on the report of a special agent 
Biiit for the purpose, have resolved to raise an efficient army and 
equip a niivy of vessels on the European model, and to open 
Japuu to the trade of tho world. 

in 1838, and going right up to Yeddo itself, in a 
manner at once original and unexpected, concluded a 
treaty which granted all the European powers tho 
right of free trade, under very slight limitations, with 
Japan. Of what happened in his voyage, and what 
was seen in Japan, we intend to give a vivid outline, 
as likely to convey to our readers the best idea of 
Japan us it is. 


"IIaud a-starboard, sir !" exclaimed tho gallant 
Sherard Osborn's Paliaurus, and as the spokes of the 
wheel flew round, the ship turned sharply into the fine 
channel of water, leading up to Nagasaki. That city 
faced us, says the captain, spread round tho base of a 
hill at the farther end of the harbour, and having 
immediately in front of it a nide collection of hybrid 
European houses, with a flag-stafl' on the artificial island 
of Decima, where tho Japanese had held the Dutchmen 
voluntary prisonersever since tho expulsion of the Portu- 
guese in 1G13. The poor Dutchmen endured insults, 
restraints and contumely, rather than forego certain ad- 
vantages in carrying o\it Japanese cop|)er and retailing 
it to Europeans at an enormous jirofit. Long sufl'ering 
and enduring vendors of strung Dutch cheese, Zealand 
butter and pleasant schnaiips, relief came at last! Tho 
Japanese Emperor was ast(uu.shod to find the belligerent 
powers of Russia and England, jilaying a game of hide- 
and-seek, in his many bays and harbours, and wisely 
concluded that the orthodox old Lady of Mo.scow, whose 
dominions appro.ached suspiciously close to Japan, 
might one day think it ns C'liristian-likc to rob a 
Buddhist as a ?' 'hammailan neighbour. H<^ has very 
wisely departed from the ancient laws of his realm, and 
has sought for aid and protection where, strangely 
enough, he can find them, in the friendship of four or 
five nations who cordially dislike and are jealous of 
each other. A long ford of blue water stretches two 
miles inland between sloping hills, which spring from 
the sea with a bold, rocky escarpment, and then roll 
gently back, rising to an altitude of a thousand feet or 
so; and these are overlooked by still more lofty giants — 
every mountain-side covered with all that can gladden 
a landseaiie, and down every ravine gladsome streams 
rushing on to the sea. Here a village, there a quaint 
bark anchored in a sandy cove; now an official abode, 
with a Bq\uire-cut terrace and upright fence, so jiroperly 
stift-starched and queer, you felt sure yo\i bad only to' 
knock, and that one of the Barnacles of soc-ety would 
appear; then, rt>sting in tho midst of green trees and 
flowery gardens, were the prettiest chalets seen out of 
Switzerland : children, with no clothes at all, rolling on 
the gross, or tumbling in and out of the water, whilst 
their rcsjiected parents, with but few habiliments to 
incommode them, gravely moved their fans, or sut 
gazing upon the newly arrived vessels. Oh ! it wag a 
goodly sight; but they were all in tho mood to be 
pleased : and had the sky been less clear, the air less 
bracing and the climate as bad as that of China, they 
would assuredly still have admired it. 

In former days, a chain of guard-boats us6d to extend 
across tho gate of this Japanese paradise. One of our 
men-of-war, iluring tho Russian war, nearly paddled 
over them ; and we too, it had been determined, wore 
not to be stopped by them. The Japanese oflicei's of 
the present day are far wiser in their generation than 
those who, when tho frigate of Sir Israel Pellew foreed 


lier way into tho harbour during the l^'rencli war, dis- 
embowelled themselves rather than survive the (Usgrace. 
They found all the boats removed and made in by 
the shore. One officer, more anxious than the rest to 
do his duty, or, Asiatio-Iike, desirous of ascertaining to 
what lengths he might go, stood up in his boat as we 
came abreast of him and mildly gesticulated with his 
fan (tho everlasting emblem of office in Japan) for 
them to go back again ! They would fain not have 
seen it, but of course tho officious signalman im- 
mediately reported that there was a Japanese officer 
waving. A spy-glass was brought steadily to bear on 
him ; tho wretch was about fifty yards off'; the action 
of the fan became at once less violent, then irregular, 
as if the waver of the fan was iu a decline, tlien a 
spasmodic jerk: tho glass was ke])t steadily on the 
wretch (we feared lest tho Ambassador should see him 
and then cry halt !) — there wa.s a pause, anotlier 
flutter — hurrah ! lie put up his fan, and retired under 
his awning, beaten. He had only to perform liari- 
kari or disembowelment, and they might proceed, 
giving the officious signalman orders not to make non- 
sensical reports of every Japanese who chose to fim 
himself I 

As the silver dawn spreads over the land and water, 
that lovely mountain, Fusi-yama, the type of the beau- 
tiful to the whole Japanese nation, is seen stepping 
like a coy maiden from her veil and her robes of cloud 
to gaze upon all the loveliness spread at her feet. The 
scene lasts but a few minutes, — would it could have 
been for ever ; but the bold sun leaps upon tho crests 
of the eastern hills, and Fusi-yama retires blushing 
from his fierce gazo. Tho bay and beach are quickly 
alive with moving beings, hundreds of fishing-boats 
skim the water, pressing in with tho last of Ihe night- 
breeze to secure an early market. The number of 
fidl-gi-own men in each boat attests tho redundancy of 
the population. Stout athletic fellows they arc, 
smooth-skinned, bronze-coloured, and beardless ; but 
their large muscles and deep chests attest the perfection 
of their physique. They look at the English witliout 
fear or distrust, and as they bend on their oars shout 
out some joke or salutation. The morning breeze is 
cold and damp, the sun has not dispelled the low thin 
mist creeping along the surface of the bay from the 
lowlands to the north, and they arn wearii.g blue 
clothing with comfort, yet all the boatmen are naked, 
with the exception of a small blue waist-i'loth, and 
another strip of material tied tight over their nose ! 
Why do the Japanese, asks Captain S!- vrA G.-Horn, 
tie up their noses 1 We have often . lor one 

cannot but believe that there is some goo^; c( oson why 
a naked man should voluntarily lash up his nose. Can 
a Japanese nose be a fractious feature 1 or is it tliut 
noses require to bo much taken care of in Japan t or 
may it not be that there is some security in this pre- 
caution against inhaling malarial We leave the 
question to be decided by future visitors, and content 
ourselves with the entry in our journal : A/em. — In 
Yeddo, it is tho custom afloat to tic up the nose, and 
wear but few garments. They having breakfasted, 
proceeded to the landing-place. It is low vater, — 
shoals of boats and great numbers of men are at work 
in tho shallows. Many are lading their boats with 
cockle-shells, scraped up from the land, to burn into 
excellent lime ; others are dredging for shell-fish. 
Some are hauling the seine. Here their observations 
are interrupted by a spy-boat pulling alongside, and 


the officer coolly requesting, by signs, a seat in oui 
Iwat. They are frank with him, and recommend him 

to go to the . He smiles, shoves oflj and makes a 

note of the brief interchange of civility. Parties of 
respectable citizens, oily sleek men, of a well-to-do 
appearance, are embarked for a day's pleasure on the 
water ; their phildren are with tlicni, and every urchin 
has a fishing-line overboard. They thought of Mr. 
Briggs, — Punch's Mr. Briggs, — at Ramsgate. In 
another boat, a lady is seated with her children ; her 
dress betokens that she is of better order, her family 
are laughing and trying to cix)k at a brazier wliioli 
stands in tho centre of tho boat, while she sits abaft, in 
the most matronly manner, and points out to one of 
her daughters what she deems most worthy of notice in 
the English, their boat, and boat's crew. The young 
lady, they were glad to observe, without being unlady- 
like, showed none of that suspicious fear of the gen\ia 
man so general iu the excessively modest East, and 
which betokened even a better state of social civili- 
sation than they had been led to expect by what they 
witnessed at Nagivsaki ; so they let the boat drift to 
enjoy all this, and, as a natural consequence, drift on 
shore close to the town. The police or spy-boat imme- 
diately works itself into a fever, and the officer is most 
anxious they should know where the deep water 
leading to their landing-place coidd be found. To add 
ti) the fun, all the little boys and girls of the adjoining 
houses turn out and come scam])cring down. The 
I)olice-officer is in an awful state ; he urges them back, 
waves his fan, expostulates with them ; but it is all 
equally useless. So long as our boat remains on the 
sand, so long does young Japan remain staring into her. 
The crowd did not, m an English mob of boys would 
have done, jMilt and chafi' the officer, and they therefore 
had reason to praise their civility. After a while, 
they float the boat and proceed. The entrances to 
several canals are passed, — they serve, at high tide, to 
facilitate tho communication between remote parts of 
the city and the sea. Now they are nothing but huge 

The landing-place reached, they sec the officer who 
is charged with their convoy to the embassy ; ho looks 
like a man who has much responsibility, and gives a 
great number of orders of barges, so that they may 
land with facility. The horses are wonderfully got-up 
creatures ; there is something truly mediaeval in their 
trappings, barring tho straw-shoes wrapped round tho 
hoofs, which sjKiiled the poetry of their steeds ; other- 
wise the head-stalls, bits, saddle-cloths, martingales, 
cruppers, and stirrups might have been used by the 
Disinherited Knight in the tilt-yaitl of Front-de-Bceufs 
castle. For the horses, they cannot say as much ; but 
they ai"o good-tempered, steady little steeds. And so — 
to horse ! The street leading from the landing-place is 
as wide as Regent-street, and terminates about three- 
quarters of a mile off, at the entrance of a handsome 
temple, whose green terraces, dotted with seats and coo) 
alcoves, look most refreshing. They turn, however, 
abruptly up a street parallel to the water. It is 
broad and clean ; on either hand are continuous rows 
of shops, and at short intervals of thi-ee hundred yards 
a womlen barrier nms athwart the street, apparently 
constructed for purposes of jjolice. Shops of a trade 
seem to run together ; here we have eatables in any 
quantity, then basket and wicker-work of all Japan, 
now, earthenware, — then, ironware. And then, whiit 
a crowd I They have only run together as they pass. 



yet you might walk on their heoils. They used to 
tliiiik the Chinese stowed closely iu their houses, but 
these Japanese assuredly beat them in that, and, what 
is fur bettei', they do it with cleanliness, which the 
foi'iiicr certainly do not. Everybody looks well- 
waahed, contented, and merry; you do not meet a 
single cross sullen look, In the doorways of the 
houses women abound. They have succeedeJ, God 
forgive tliem ! in making themselves as ugly as .sin ; 
yet they iiave good eyes, glossy hair, and a merry look. 
Generous creatures ; we find they are mostly man-ied 
women, who have sacrifiti d their teeth and eyebrows 
to insure their jwor husbands against the pangs of 
jealousy. The women have evidently abundant liberty 
here, and it is strange how indelicate the mass of 
people are. Tho police-officer is looking out most 
keenly for any pictures that might be exposed in the 
shops offensive to their visitor's sense of propriety, and 
they disappear like magic at h;s ajiproach ; still he sees 
not nil, and they are startled by figures and models of 
the vilest description, swinging about unnoticed 
amongst men, women, and children, who seemed un- 
conscious of, or indifferent to, the shameless exhibition. 

They do not see a beggar, and the street is admi- 
rably clean. Some resimctably-dressed Buddhist priests 
nve chanting a hymn, in not unmusical cadence, at the 
closed door of a house, — they still continue to do so 
until the heart of the proprietor is softened, or his 
(latience gone, then the door will open, and he will fee 
them civilly. Their conductor now turns sharp down 
a street, at the end of which is a sturdy-looking gate ; 
tliey are at the jmrtal of the enclosure "A'ithin which the 
British Embassy dwells. It opens, and, as they proceed, 
a grand procession is approaching them from the temple 
at the cud of the road, and they find his Excellency 
and suite are just starting for their Crst visit to the 
Prince, who is siiid to direct tho foreign affiiirs of 
Japan. His lordship having brought with him a very 
gorgeous chair, which those learned in Chinese etiquette 
had declared to be of the proper dimensions and colour 
for a statesman of his rank, was able to go and visit 
the Prince in comparative comfort ; but all the rest of 
llic party, naval and diplomatic, were packed in small 
wicker-work palanquins used in the country. To people 
accustomed to sit on their hams, instead of chairs, 
tiuvelling in such conveyances might be simple enough ; 
but with our big-boned, big-jointed countrymen, done 
up in cocked-hats, gilded coats, and long swords, the 
feat was a wonderful one, and a sight not easily to bo 

IMr. Oliphant thus depicts his impressions on first 
visiting the Japanese town of Kagasaki or Nangasaki : 
A flight of 8te|>s ascends the embankment, at the top 
of which is in fact a sort of raised parterre, is of 
considerable width, and a broad street runs along its 
whole length. Crossing this, is reached the head of 
the flight of st.eps that descend into the town. The 
view is peculiarly striking, especially to the stranger 
who has just arrived from China. Instead of an inde- 
finite congeries of houses built apparently on no 
Mettled plan, and so close together that the streets 
which divide them are completely concealed, they saw 
before them a wide spacious street, about a mile in 
length, flanked by neat houses, generally of two stories, 
with tiled or wooden roofs, and broad eaves projecting 
over the hwer stoiy A pavi ran down the centre of 
f'c street, on earii side of which it was carefully 
gravelled to the g-itters. No wheeled vehicle or beast 

of burden was, however, visible ; hilt in defittilt, a 
plentiful sprinkling of foot passengers gave it an air of 
life and animation. It terminated in the distance in a 
flight of steps, which soon disappeared amid the foliage 
of the hill-side, crowned with a temple or tea-house, or 
gleaming with the white-washed walls of some fire- 
proof store-house. 

As they traversed its entire length, no foul odours 
assailed their nostrils, or hideous cutaneous objects 
offended their eyesight, as at Tien-tsin ; nor did incon- 
venient walls or envious shuttcnj debar them from 
inspecting, as they passed along, the internal economy 
of the shops and dwellings on each side. Light 
wooden screens, neatly papered, and nmning on slides, 
were, for the most part, ]>ushed back in the daytime, 
and the passer looks through the house to where the 
waving shrubs of a cool-looking back-garden invite him 
to extend his investigations. Between the observer 
and this retreat there are probably one or two rooms, 
raised about two feet from the ground, and upon the 
scrupulously clean and well-wadded matting, which is 
stretched upon the wooden floor, semi-nude men and 
women roll and lounge, and their altogether nude 
progeny crawl and feast themselves luxuriously at 
ever-present fountains. The women seldom wear any- 
thing above their waists, the men only a scanty loin- 
cloth. In the mid-day, during the summer, a general 
air of languor pervades the community ; about sunset, 
tho world begins to wash, and the Japanese youth, like 
coiiper-colourcd Cupids, riot simultaneously. 

The shops do not generally contain those articles in 
lacker and china-ware for which Japan is so justly 
celebrate<l. To obtain them a visit must be made to 
the Dutch or Russian bazaars ; but interest is kept 
alive by the varied productions of native manufactdrc 
exhibited in the shojis, which are as open to the street 
as stalls at a fancy fair, and which contain all those 
Articles which are in common request among the people. 
Umbrella, fan, and shoe-shops abounded; bazaars for 
toys and glass ornaments arrested them for a moment; 
but time was precious, and they could not do more 
than glance cursorily at the novelties displayed, and 
vainly endeavour to comprehend the object of various 
processes and manufactures which were being indus- 
triously carried on, but tho result of which, in default 
of an interpreter, remained a mystery. Indeed, except 
from tho Dutch gentlemen at Decimo, they found it 
dilRcult, during their short stay at Nagasaki, to obtain 
any information, as only one Japanese had picked up a 
very few words of English. All the interpreters spoke 
Dutch, — a language of which their knowledge was 
extremely limited, nor was it spoken by any of their 
party. Their rambles through Nagasaki, therefore, 
though in the highest degree amusing and attractive, 
{jossessed the one drawback of leaving the curiosity and 
interest they had excited at every turn unsatisfied. 
Nor could they gratify themselves by miiking purchases 
of curiosities. As yet they had not been introduced 
to the government money-changers, who sat in solemn 
conclave at the Russian bazaar, and no consideration 
could induce the shopkeeper to accept the smallest or 
even the largest foreign coin. Well did he know that 
the eye of his neighbour was upon him, and that an 
ofiicial visit the next morning would remind him of his 
oblivion of that great national institution o' universal 
espionage, which would with us be considered an intole- 
rable tyranny, but which the Japanese regard as a neces- 
sary ingredient to the welfai-e and protection of societiy. 



They pursued their peregrinations through the 
streets of Nagnsaici unmolested and almost unnoticed 
by the ])eople, who did net crowd the tlioroughfares 
with busy, moving clamour, as in China, but strolled 
carelessly along, apjwrently little troubled with occu- 
]>ation, with an air of amiable contentment on their 
features, and an expression of kindly good nature 
towards the curious wondering Htiiingers. Although 
Kcempfer speaks of numerous beggars, Mr. Oliphant 
says he did not observe any, with the exception of one 
or two religious mendicants. A stream about the Bi2e 
of an ordinary canal intersects the town in a latenil 
direction, and is spanned by tliirty or forty biidges, of 
which about fifteen are solidly constructed of stone, 
with handsome balustrades. Balconies, filled with 
women engaged in domestic avocations, overhang the 
water ; small boats ply nyxni its surface, and here and 
there the quaint old buttresses of the bridges are partly 
concealed with creeping plants, and across them numc- 
mus passengers |miss and repass. It is interesting to 
stand on one of these and watch the humours of the 
])lace, while we enjoy the picturesque view which it 

Nagasaki contains upwards of eighty streets crossing 
each other at right angles, and from three-quarters of 
a mile to a mile in length. Its population is estimated 
at about 60,000 ; but it presents a far more imposing 
appearance, and covera a much greater area of ground 
than a Chinese city of the same dimensions. Its out- 
skirts run up into the secluded valleys formed by the 
surrounding hills, the spui's of which descend into the 
town, so that almost every street terminates in a flight 
of stone Hte])S, and, indeed, some of them wliich they 
visited afterwards, climb the lull-sides, the houses being 
l)uilt one above the other, as at Malta. 

A Japanese house consists of a ground-floor and top 
stoty. The front and back of the basement can be 
removed at pleasure, leaving it quite open, through the 
premises, for air and light, except where the ]x>sts 
supporting tW first floor intervene. Usually the front 
]>auel8 only are removed during the daytime, and the 
back ]>auels, formed of a light, graceful, wood frame- 
work, covered with ti'anslucent paper, are loft to screen 
the cooking departments and back premises. The 
floor of the basement is raised about three feet above 
the level of the ground, and is neatly boarded, and 
then laid over with a series of stuffed grass mats, on 
which the inmates walk, sit, feed, and sleep. If it is 
a shop, the arrangements are still the same, except 
that the boxes or drawers containing the goods are 
arranged on shelves on either sides, and the merchant 
and purchasers in their socks — for all shoes and boots 
ore carefully put oflf on these mats — sit on the floor to 
discuss prices and qiulities. The story overhead serves 
as a place of abode for their wives and families, and 
those we visited are in height, and ventilation, and 
cleanliness, vastly supeiior to the majority of up-stairs 
rooms in the East. 

There was hardly a house in Nagasaki that had 
not some sort of garden attached to it, and all were 
well and tastefully kept ; but the roost striking thing 
in this city (and it was generally observed by all of us 
in Japan) was that every man, woman, and child 
looked happy and contented I There was an exception 
to the rule — a number of unfortunate solemnities who 
were in charge of the gateway leading from Decima 
to Nagasaki ; and they were evidently bored to death. 
Poor scribes I they had to keep notes of everything, 


animate and inanimate, that went in or out of that 
solitary outlet to Japan ! Every one else met us with 
a friendly smile, or a good-natured look of amazement, 
at either our brilliant buttons, our shining boots, or 
some other phenomenon exliibited in the goi'gcous 
attire of a British naval officer. The labouring por- 
tion of the male population decidedly took little 
anxious care of their raiment — a piece of cotton cloth, 
a yard long and six inches wide, constituted their 
general attire ; and many of the children might have 
just escai^ed from Eilen, so innocent were they of any 
clothing. Laughing and coaxing, they came unhexi- 
tatingly up to us, begging, in their naturally pretty 
way, for buttons, " button ?" " Cassi button !" 
It WHS iTesistiblo, and we gave all wo could sjjaro ; 
but what those little urchins were going to do with 
buttons, seeing they had neither i-ag nor ornament 
upon them, wivs a puzzle to us. The grown-up women 
were modestly attired in dark-coloured garments, their 
beautiful hair neatly dressed, and, but that their nails 
were dyed, there wiis a general ai)pearance of beauty 
about them, combined with much grace iu the figures' 
of the younger ones. 

The Japanese officials and gentiy arc very well 
dressed, and in their attire displayed considerable 
dandyism, according to their own fashion. But in 
their dress, as well as in their houses, in Japan, we 
noticed the prevalence of sombre coloui's, and the 
absence of that vulgar colouring and tinsel- work so 
common in China. Here the out-door dress i,( the 
ladies, and that of the poor girl» at the tea-gardens, 
and the wives of the tradespeople, are quiet iu colour, 
however fine the texture might be j and amongst the 
official dresses of the officers, black, dark blue, and 
block and white patterns, were most general. Their 
houses and temples are likewise painted less gaudily 
than elsewhere in the East, and there is far less gilding 
about them. This peculiarity in Japanese taste was 
one of the first impressions received on our visiting 
Japan, and, like many first impressions, proved to be 

Woman holds in Japan a high social position. She 
is not coo])ed up in pestiferous apartments to delight 
some fattened-up Chinese mandarin, or greasy Brah- 
min, but contributes not a little to the charms of 
man's life ; she has succeeded in asserting her right to 
be treated like a rational being, quite as well able to 
take care of herself as the st*rner sex. Their freedom 
granted, it is true, the fair damsels — nay, and the 
matrons — have in some resjwcts "jumped over the 
traces." Then, with a highly Commendable liking to 
scrupulous cleanlini'^Ft, they somewhat depart from 
Western notions of propriety as to the time and place 
for their ablutions. Yet, after all, that is a mere 
matter of taste. A tub of water iu the open air, in a 
balmy climate, is, all will allow, very delicious, and 
the ladies of Naga.saki saw no good reason to forego 
their pleasurable bath because there happened to bo 
an unsolicited influx of haii-y-faced strangers, at a 
season of the year when bathing was more than ever 
necessary. Their own countrymen did not stop and 
stare, but went and did likewise. Let future European 
residents resist the temptation to adopt the al fresco 
habits of the people; meantime let us bear in mind 
our good old motto, " Honi soit qui mal y pense." 

The arrangement and width of its streets is similar 
to those of Simoda and Hakodadi, the arohitecturo 
on the whole superior : verandahs invariably sheltered 



tlio Iio\iscB, ftutl each stood in its own garden, which 
was, witlioiit exception, laid out with artistic judgment 
and tasteful neatness. They were all antingcd and 
cultivated on the landscajK) principle; rocks and rivers, 
hills and valleys, miniature moadow^s and dwaifed 
forost-trces everywhere characterised their aspect. The 
Japanese are gi'eat adepts at both the dwarfing and 
forcing of vegetable products of all kinds. 

Here and there appeai'ed at the doors of the houses 
a gaily dressed lady, with a dragon, or a peacock, or a 
plucnix wove into or embroidered on her dress of 
beautiful silk or exquisite crape, her hair set off 
with pins of gold or polished tortoise-shell, and her 
small feet resting on light high sandals, just revealed 
beneath her flowing robe, and her lips rosy, but 
often rouged, her placid countenance pale enough to 
show an enchanting shadow of pink, her eyes 
black and winning, her form graceful and well 
shaped, and hor whole look so kind, so gentle, so 
passive, and so amiable, that fascination was irre- 
sistible. The Japanese women paint their lips with a 
cosmetic prepared from the carthanma tiitctorbis in 
cups of jjorcelain. When n slight coat is applied it 
imparts a bright-red colour, but when it is put on 
thickly a deep violet hue is obtained, which latter is 
nnich prized. 

At one comer of the street alluded to otu- traveller 
was attracted by a Buddhist temple, which wa.s ap- 
proached by a short avenue of cypress trees ; so, leaving 
his companions, ho sauntered up the shady walk, and 
ascended the stops and entered the sacred edifice alone 
and unmolested. Strange to say, this was during the 
time of public worship, and when nearly a hundred 
kneeling devotees were 2)resent. A large shrine, with 
a gilt image in its recess ; two largo globular lamjis, 
and two burning candles, immensely long and thick, 
as also numerous gold and porcelain vases, holding 
lighted tapers, and siuTounded by a forest of artificial 
flowers, were the objects that most riveted his at- 

On both sides of this magnificent and richly-gilded 
shrine were two smaller ones, each illuminated with 
lighted candles and j)erfumed tapers burning with 
coloured flame, the eflect of which was very beautiful. 
In front of tlie principal altar, within an enclot.ure, 
knelt six shaven-headed priests, — the latter and phy- 
sicians shave the whole of the hair of their heads, — 
robed in crimson silk and white crape, the centre and 
chief of whom engaged himself in striking a small 
saucer-shaped bull, while four more of the number per- 
formed a similar duty with padded drum-sticks on 
hollow vessels of lacquered wood, which awoke a dull, 
monotonous sound. They kept good time, playing in 
unison, and toning their pi-ayers to their music in 
chanting. At the conclusion of this singing and 
drumming they bent their foreheads to the floor, after 
which they rose, and repaired to the smaller shrines, 
where a ceremony made up of gesticulation and a 
solemn reading of prayers took place. In the mean- 
time the audience knelt with their eyes directed to the 
ground, and rejicating the prayere in silence. A 
quarter of an hour or more had elapsed from the 
moment of the intruder's entrance before his right of 
presence was in any way questioned. Then, however, 
one of the acolytes opproached him from a side-door, 
und with a most imploring look desired his departure. 
^Thcy terminated their first day's exploration of 
Nagasaki, by a second visit to Decimu, for the purjKJse 

of seeing the Dutch bazaar. Crossing the moat which 
separates the factory from the town and makes an 
island of it, they imssed through the gatcwoy, under 
which, in a sanctum of their own, sat three or four 
officials, called by the Dutch " Bonjos," whose business it 
is to inspect narrowly every person seeking ingress and 
egress, and every article or package which is carried in 
or out. In former times, these janitors were in a most 
resixinsiblo position, and their functions were regarded 
by the Japanese government as of the utmost impor- 
tance ; now, however, the recent relaxations with 
reference to fw-eigners have diminished the cares of 
office, and these dreaded custodii, so long the bugbears 
of the Dutch employes at Decima, will soon cease to 
exist, or dwindle into respectoble sinecuriats. 


The environs of Nagasaki are beautiful. The city 
itself nestles at the of wooded hills of exquisite 
form, as though it did not venturp to profane with its 
coarse touch those lovely slopes which are dedicated to 
the worship of Buddh and the Cytheria" Goddess, for 
the hill-sides are dotted with the most enchanting 
sites, and every one of them is occupied with a temple 
or a tea-house. 

In Japan, religion is not used as in some countries 
to conceal immorality, but rather to give it coun- 
tenance and support, so that practically there is very 
little difference here l)etween a temple and a tea-house. 
Both are situated in grounds beautifully laid out. In 
landscape-gardening the excel every other 
nation in the world. Both are resorted to as agreeable 
retreats from the turmoil and bustle of the city. The 
most delightful arbours, the choicest dishes, and the 
softest nmsic, are provided equally at one and the 

It is estimated that there are sixty-two temples 
(largo and small) and seven hundred and fifty tea- 
houses on the hills round Nagasaki, all offering to the 
Japanese in search of repose delicious tea and extensive 
panoramic views. It is worth while climbing up to 
some of them, if only to enjoy the hitter. Old moss- 
grown Ricytsi ascend the deep hill-side, and you pass 
through venerable gateways and up more massive flights 
to a fairy-like wooilen structure perched on a projecting 
point, and backed by terraced gardens ond cool shady 
groves that lead to grottoes, where sparkling water 
gushes from the hill-side. The building seems con- 
structed with a view to the prospect it commands. 
The bare, lofty, matted rooms are suiTounded with 
deep verandahs, and from every angle a fresh scene of 
beauty meets the eye. Behind are wooded dells, and 
more temples and tea-houses. A t the foot of the hills 
the city is mapited out, and the back premises of the 
houses can be inspected, the families engaged in domes- 
tic ablutions. It is delightful to see papa, mamma, 
and all the children splashing so harmoniously in the 
back garden. Beyond the town are more terraced 
hills, and the beautiful winding harbour losing itself in 
deep creeks and bays, to all appearance a placid lake ; 
for the ocean is nowhere visible. 

Meantime the dinner, which has been ordered, has 
arrived, spread out \\\mi\ the floor in lacquered bowls; 
it occupies the greater ])ortion of the room. It has 
been quickly and diligently arranged by a train of 
neatly dres,sed maidens, who now seat themselves round 
it and invito us to partake. The jMvrty had long since 


taken off tlieir Bhoea, and now squatted in a circle on 
the floor and gazed with cariiMity, not unmixed with 
alarm, at the (li8]ilay before them. There waa raw 
fish thinly sliced, and salted ginger ; there were prawns 
piled up with a substance, which in taste and appear- 
ance very much resembled toffy; there were pickled 
eggs and rock Icechea, and piccea of gristle belonging 
to animals unknown, to be eaten with soy; and yami 
and pears, and various sorts of fruits and vegetables 
prepared, some of them, palatable enough ; but still 
the exi^eriment was hazardous, and they were relieved 
at the sight of a bowl of rice as a safe piiee de re- 

The ministering spirits seemed to delight in pressing 
upon them the nastiest things, apparently for the 
amusement which their very faces afforded them. 
Presently another troop of damsela with lates and 
tom-toms came tripping in ; but they elicited from 
their musical inbtruments the moat discordant sounds 
to their non-Jai)anese ears, so they were glad to take 
refuge in the balcony ; and having once more feasted 
their eyes upon the fading prospect, they descended 
from their airy jKBition to the streets, now rapidly 
subsiding into that early evening stillness which gives 
evidence that the good folks of Nagasaki don't allow 
cither business or pleasure to steal from them the best 
hours of the night 

Contrary to that which obtains throughout the 
Enst, women enjoy in Japan a real social importance. 
This is sufficiently attested by their hereditaiy saccesion 
to the throne of the MikadosL The Japanese have 
only one legitimate wife, and they do not keep her 
sliut up as the Chinese and most orientab do. Nay, 
she is even, strange to say, responsible for her 
husband's debts. Nowhere are women treated with 
greater i-es|)cct, or are more attentions lavished upon 
the sex. - The marriages of the great are attended with 
a profuse outlay, and their lailies have their own 
household. The butterfly — emblem of inconstancy 
in Europe — plays an important part in the marriage 
ceremony in Japan. They are apparently closer 
entomological observers than Europeans generally, 
mid they have consecrated the butterfly because it 
terminates its existence "dans une union amourense." 
Two girls enact the part, the one of the male butterfly, 
the other of the female butterfly, at all marriage cere- 
monies, the most important part of which consists in 
the bride and bridegroom drinking to one another and 
changing cups. This establishes a permanent engage- 
ment in Japan, and our merchants and skippers must 
beware of exchanging glasses with the jnetty maids 
who flutter in the tea-gardens. Their education is 
carefully attended to, their roanneia are at once en- 
gaging and noble. Married ladies visit their relatives 
once a year with extraordinary pomp and solemnity. 
They are accompanied by numerous maids of honour, 
who wear red dresses with green ribands, or green 
dresses with red ribands, acconling to their rank. 

Japanese ladies read a great deaL They have many 
story-books and romances. Among the latter — of a 
somewhat historical character — the Misfortunes of 
Nit'iono Kisaki, the wife of a Mikado in the olden 
times, occupy a prominent place. They also dress 
well and ex|)ensively, with indeed a truly oriental 
luxury. If the men clothe themselves, as in China, 
India, and Persia, in stufls of silk and gold, the ladies 
are not behind them in the oostliness of their crapes, 
their muslins, their silks and satin, and the richness of 


their embroidery. Taste and wealth are alike marked 
by the number, variety, and costliness of a huly's 
dresses. No tissues wove in Europe approach in 
delicacy of material the li^cht gossamer materials 
worn by Japanese ladies in summer. Their dresses 
are supported by a simple waistband, which is tietl 
behind by the unmarried, and before by the wedded 
ladies. The slenves are of great dimensions, and, in 
some instances, fall to the ground. They also wear 
many dresses at the same time, but the toilette is not, 
on that account, a tedious affair, as with us. They can 
get into them, however numerous, all at once. They 
dress and undress with equal ease and rapidity. The 
waistband is loosened, their sleeves are allowed to fall, 
the dress or dresses follow, and all is done. These 
waistbands are richly worked with gold and silver, or 
decorated with precious stones. The length of the 
robe behind determines the rank of the wearer. Rich 
or poor, every woman had her fan, and all cla.sses go 
with their head uncovered except in winter, when 
they wear a kind of white lined silk bonnet. Men and 
women alike use parasols, generally borne by pages. 


The following purely domestic scene, detailing frag- 
ments of daily intercoui'se between an English traveller 
and a respectable Japanese family, will do more to 
convey an idea of their manners and customs than 
whole pages of descriptive generalities. 

Our traveller, it is to be observed, picked up the ac- 
quaintance of a Japanese gentleman in the streets of 
Nagasaki. They had not proceeded more than a hun- 
dred yards from their halting- place, when his scarlet 
friend, as he then called him, stopped in front of a small 
arehway leading through a small avenue of orange-trees, 
flanked by gardens, and thence up half-a-dozen marble 
steps to the hall-door of a well vei-andahed comfortable- 
looking habitation, with a conical roof, which, by sundry 
words iinii signs which woidd lose their effect if it were 
attempted to reduce them to pen on paiter, he was led 
to understand was his hottse. Would he walk in and 
take tea 1 Of course he would, and so he did; and to 
the evident delight of his new host, whose bowing 
politeness was so intense, that he says he had never 
met with its like before, and never expected to meet 
with again out of Japan. Crossing the neat but ela- 
borately constructed porch, they entere<l by the open 
doorway a spacious hall, matted according to the 
government regulations, whicli prescribes that every 
mat manufactured throughout the empire must be of 
the one uniform size. Similar regulations are in force 
with respect to the building of houses and all sailing 
craft, which must in no case be diverged from without 
special authority. At the opposite end of the hall, 
which consisted of a wall painted very much afler the 
style of a drop at a theatre ; a passage crossed it, so 
that the house could be entered either to the right or 
the left. A man-servant, clad in yellow gossamer, was 
sitting, d la Turque, in the one to the right by which 
they entered; he bowed his forehead towanl the ground 
as his master approached, and passed him, immediately 
after which he followed them into the saloon, or com- 
mon sitting-room of the ho«s9, where a beautiful sight 
at once presented itself to the visitor. He should 
rather have said a beautiful woman, for it was no other 
than his host the scarlet gentleman's wife. 




Tho Imir of this lady was dressed in a manner wliicli 
was new to liia experience, being worn at full length 
down her back, and tied at equal distances with velvet 
crajie. It was suggestive of a bell-rope ; but what of that ? 
it was a surpassing ornament. Her lips were of a de- 
licate purple tint, the cfl'ect of cosmetic, which as she 
slightly moved them with an expression of timid 
wonder at the moment of his entrance, disclosed a set 
of well-formed but blackened teeth, the invariable sign 
of marriage. Her complexion was iinlc, inclining to 
tawny, and a delicate hue of russet pink adorned her 
cheeks. Her brows were black, alike with her hair, 
and arched. Her liead wa.s ratlier large, and displayed 
a high well-formed forehead ; her eyes were iiaiTow and 
somewhat sunk in the head, the eyelids forming in the 
great angle of the eye a deep furrow, but the cxjn-ession 
was one of extreme quickness and amiability. So soft, 
so confiding was her manner, that our traveller says 
she ins))ired him with the virtuous passion of admira- 
tion. Her hands and feet, the latter resting on a 
feathery mat, were small and exquisitely formed, and 
]ier whole figure, attitude, and movements were full of 
grace. She was arrayed in a dress of beautiful silk, 
into the skirt of which behind was wove a representa- 
tion of the peacock. The colours were as bright as 
those worn by her sire, but then they harmonised well, 
as is invariably tho case with the Japanese, so that the 
most brilliant collection of tints never weal's an aspect 
otherwise than ]>leasing. 

His host introduced him as America; ho bowed low 
to the lady, who had risen from a small ottoman-like 
stool on which she was seated, book and fan in hand, 
at the moment of his entrance, and who bowed like- 
wise, closing her hands and raising them to her bosom 
as she did so. After this, she resumed her seat, and 
without uttering a word. A metallic brazier stood 
in the centre of the room, and round it were arranged 
three velvet-topped cushions or stools, intended to be 
used as seats. On one of these he was invited to be 
seated ; so he made the descent with an elegance for 

which he says ho was indebted to his " shiny leather" 
boots, and congratulated himself very much on rcuvhing 
the cushion without a " flop." 

His host having handed his sword to the attendant, 
followed him to the fioor, where ho arrived ns safely 
and as naturally as our traveller had dune himself; 
immediately after which the yellow gossamer-clad at- 
tendant laid a tray contaltnng the usual pi^ie and 
tobacco-pouch before each ul ilieni. As ho hail no fan, 
one was handed to him. It was unnecessary to order 
tea; it was brought in on a tray by another male 
domestic, arrayed in white cambric, a minute or so 

The windows of the room were open, and disclosed, 
across the verandah, which surrounded the house, a 
well-cultivated garden of diversified aspect. Tho walls 
of tho room itself were entirely covcreil with beautiful 
Japanese drawings of large size on paper.i and veiy 

' It was wonderful to aco tho tliousnnd uiefnl ns well as omn- 
incntul purposes to which paper wns applicable in tho hands of 
tlicso industrious and tasteful people; our pnpier-mncli^ inanufiic- 
turers, as well at tho continental ones, should go to Ycddo to 
learn what can be done with paper. Wo saw it made into mate- 
rial so closely resembling Russian and morocco leather, that it 
was very difficult to detect tho difference. With the aid of 
lacquer, varnish, ondskilf\il painting, paper made eicellont trunks, 
tobacco bags, cif;ar-cases, saddles, tclcscopc-coses, the frames of 
microscopes j and we even saw and used excellent woterproof coats 
made of simple paper, which did keep out tho rain, and were as 
suppio OS tho best mackintosh. The Japanese use neither silk nor 
cotton handkerchiefs, towels, or dusters; paper, in their hand», 
serves as an excellent substitute. It is soft, thin, tough, of u pnio 
yellow colour, and very plentiful and cheap. The inner walls of 
mony a Japanese opartment are formed of paper, being nothing 
more than painted screens; their windows are covered with nflno 
translucent description of the same material. It enters largely 
into the manufacture of nearly everything in a Japanese house- 
hold, and we saw what seemed balls of twine, which wore nothing' 
but long shreds of tough paper rolled up. If a shopkeeper had a 
parcel to tie up, he would take a strip of paper, roll it quickly 
between his hands, and uso it for the purpose, and it wasquito 
as strong as the ordinary string used at home. In short, without 
paper, all Japan would come to a dead lock, and, indeed, lest >u 






much roMmbHng stage scenery. Tlio floor was of 
coiirso covered with the iincHt of matting; the ceiling 
wuH riclily gilded, and bedizened with many exquisite 
colours, while the entire aB])eot of the place was one of 
seductive repose. 

His host now became voluble on the subject of 
himself and the meeting to his wife, who made her 
comments and inquiries in a soft sulxlued voice. 

" Picture, Monsieur," said he, bowing, and extending 
his hand, first towards his visitor and then towards the 

The said visitor saw that he wanted him to produce 
a sketch he had made of a funeral procession; so he 
readily complied, giving them to nndci'stand, however, 
that it was by no moans iu a finished state. They 
appeared to be much pleased with it, hia host handing 
it back to him with the inquiry, whether he would 
sketch him 1 

" Oui— yea — ya — zoo — ramavoo — tscgum — tilaboo." 
He would do bo with pleasure ; and as man and wife 
were biblically asserted to be one flesh, he presumed 
that he wished him to include the lady. He did; he 
should be glad to see her as a poppy in the field. So 
drawing forth his pencil and paper-case, which he 
always carried about him when on shore, he began to 
eye the features of hb entertainers, and, much to tlieir 
amusement, to depict the same upon the white surface 
before him. When he had finished the pencilling, he 
showed it to them with the remark, that he would 
colour and complete the drawing when he went on 
board the ship, and bring it to them on the morrow. 
But no — they did not like that They did not want 
to be seen on board the ship. However, on his assuring 
them that it should not be shown, his host consented to 
the arrangement. 

" You would like to see my children t" said he. 

"Their presence will delight me exceedingly," was 
the reply; upon which he tapped the metal brazier 
standing before him with his fan, which pix>dticed a 
mellow bell-like tingling sound, which was answered 
by the lobby servant in yellow gossamer, who entered 
and knelt before us. A few words of instruction were 
softly, scarce audibly, uttered by the lady; the man 
bowed his head low, rose, and left the room, moving 
backwards, with his hands i-esting upon his thighs till 
he passed the doorway. 

Having now drank each a cup of tea, and smoked a 
pipe, during which time the lady had been engaged in 
fanning herself and holding occasional conversation 
with her husband, the latter suggested their rising and 
taking seats imder the verandah, or out in the garden, 
where they could see and admire the fruits and flowers 
of the earth. So, accordingly, they rose, and pa.ssing 
through the open windows, and level with the iloor, 
the garden in all its loveliness was spread out before 

Our traveller admits that he is rather a lover of 
Dutch and Chinese taste and detail in the arrangement 
of gardens, although an admirer of the grand, the rough- 
he wu, the wild, and the massive in nature. He was, 
therefore, pleased and refreshed by the sight of the 
miniature landscape before him, with its arched bridges 
spanning a river or a waterfall, its terrace hills, and its 

the arbitraiy exercin of authority a tyrannical bnaband ahould 
•top hia wifu's paper, the sage mother-in-law invariably stipulate* 
in the marriage aettleinent that the briiU k to have allowed to 
her ■ certain qoantity of paper. 

fertile plains, its j nglc, and its groves of laurel, citron, 
and peach, and although here it all was artificihl, it was 
highly picturcs<iue and suggestive of the more im- 
posingly real. 

Here, in imagination, he was taking a bird's-eye 
view of an extensive sweep of country instead of an 
acre or so of cultivated ground.* They had not been 
more than five minutes under the verandah, when two 
nurses noiselessly presented themselves before them, 
the one leading a fine little boy alxiut three years of 
age, who, with the front hair shaven off his head, 
looked as wildly intelligent as did the urchins he had 
seen at Simoda on the first day of his landing in the 
empire. The feet and legs of this young gentleman 
were bare, and his sole clothing was a sleeved frock of 
straw-coloureil crape, drawn in at the waist by a red 
silk sash. The second nurse bore her charge on her 
back, with her hands behind holding on, after the 
manner adopte<l by the lubros of Australia, and occa- 
sionally by the women of most other countries. It 
was entirely covered, the head and fAce excepted, by a 
thin loose-fitting i-obe of similar colour and material to' 
that worn by the elder boy; for this also was of the 
gender masculine, as was readily perceived by the 
shoven head, a ceremony begun very early in life, tot 
the infant in question he ascertained to be under 
twelve months old. 

The nurses were both pretty girls, with bosoms con- 
siderably exposed, displaying a skin even paler than 
their faces. Their hair was tastefully drawn from oif 
the forehead and sides, and fastened in the usual way 
with gold pins iu a graceful knot on the crown. Their 
ears were sm. and delicately formed; their hands and 
feet, both of which were uncovered, answered the same 
description. Their gauzy di-esscs of light blue cotton 
extended from the shoulders to the ancles, but left the 
outline of their form and limbs distinctly traceable. 
A yellow crape sash circled the waist, and tightened 
their dresses ronnd them — which garments wore any- 
thing but an inflated as])ect — so much so that now, if 
he says he had to name the antipodes of the hooped 
and crinolined dress of his sister (he speaks in the 
Quaker sense of the term), Lady Florence Rotunda, of 
Grosvenor-square, he should select that of one of the 
nurses of his Nagasaki friend. 

Ho very much admired, and exprctsed his admi- 
rAtion of the little things, upon which (like other 
mothers in other lands) his hostess seemed quite as 
much pleased with him as he was with the children. 
She smiled, and petted them with caresses — pater- 
familias smiled, and tickled one of them under the 
chin — the nurses smiled, and he smiled himself, mean- 
while lavishing his eulogistic remarks and gestures, 
and shaking them by the hand — a mode of handling to 
which they appeared to be quite accustomed — so that, 
on the whole, judging by appearances, they were a 
happy family, the yellow gossamer-clad individual, 
who knelt at some distance with a pleasant grin play- 
ing across his features, included. 

As it was now sunset he took his leave — the lady 
bowing low, the nurses and children still being by her 
side, and hia host accomimnying him to the porch, and 
insisting upon his accepting as a gift the fan which had 
been banded to him at the time of his entrance, and 
expressing a renewed hope that he would allow him the 
felicity of entertaining him on the day following. 

The next day our traveller took his way with th<» 
colomvd portrait iu his pocket, "the observed of all 



oliaen'ow," over thn wpH-ftw«i)t, well-paved jjronnd, to 

tllO llOIIKU of Noskotoskn, llin llOHt of tlu> lPfUVUI\18 

lift), Wliilo nntkiiig mention of liiH imnic, it may bo 
oliHci-vcil tliiit tlic JapancHo tisiigo witli respect to sucli, 
(lifTei-H from tlmt of all otlior iiationH. Tlio family 
name of the individual in never niado mro of by him, 
except in the Hi^ning of Roleinu contrnctH ; and tlio 
particular names i)y which men aro dcHignated in onli- 
nary life and conversation, varies according to ago and 
position. Thus, in official ranks, it is a common thing 
for the one man to have been known and addressed l>y 
half-a-dozcn diil'crcnt names. 

Our traveller passed under the same elegantly carved 
archway, along the same avenue of orange and citron 
trees, under the same porch, and over the soft matting 
to the lobby, where was smiatted tlio hcmld in yellow 
gossamer. He inclined Ins forehead to the ground as 
he approached him, then roue, and rocedeil before him 
bjickwards, with his hands resting on his thighs, to the 
<loor of the saloon in which he had sat on the previous 
<lay. It was unoccupied ; but the windows wero o]>en, 
as Ijcforo, revealing to the eye the pleasant gai-dcn 
jirospect without. The attenflant placed one of the 
velvet stool-c\i8hions for him, if he choose, to be seated 
upon, and with hands to thighs, he again moved back- 
wanls o\it of the room. 

In a few momenta — during which ho had amused 
himself by cxamiuing a gnily painted fan, which had 
F\isiyama on one side, and a wrestling match on the 
other — his host made his appearance; but this time 
dad in robes of difl'erent and more magniticeut colours 
to those worn on tho occasion of his first seeing him. 
He bowed low, clasi)ed his hands, elevated them to his 
forehead, and again to his breast, and bade him wel- 
come. Ho presented the picture to him; he again 
bowed anil thanked him, in the namoof Nipon and his 
wife, for the honour that ho had done them. Our 
traveller Viowed his acknowledgments, and responded 
with many assurances of the jiride and idcasnro he 
felt in the honour of his acquaintance in particular, 
and of Jafian in general. He again bowed low, and 
said that Nipon was exalted, and Noskotoska was 
flattered. He would take a cup of the delicious and 
life-restoring tea grown on tho ternvce hills of tho 
island, and ho would Imni a pipe of the fragrant leaf 
of the tobacco plant, which flourished in tho valleys; 
and very soon tho partner of his career on the un- 
steady earth — he must have been disturbed by earth- 
quakes — woidd be down to reward him with her love 
and smiles. He bowed again. His host diHJW forth 
the tobacco ])oueh from his sash, while simultuneously 
the tenant of the yellow gossamer entered with a tray 
containing another for his visitor. He followed 
the example of his friend, and sat down before tho 
metal brasier, in which a small fire of prepared 
charcoal was burning at the time of his entrance. Ho 
hoped the children were well ; yes, they were in the 
happy enjoyment of fJie most perfect health. He was 
glad to hear it. 

Presently the lady of tho house made her appear- 
ance. The salutation was as on the previous day, but 
free from all embarntssment. She greeted the visitor 
in a few words of her native language, which he did 
not distinctly hcai' nor understand, but which, no 
doubt, were words of compliment or welcome. She 
saw the coloured portrait on one of the cushions, and 
anticipating the act of her sire, leant down and picked 
it up, expressing her satisfaction with it at the first 

moment of its examination. Her dress and appear- 
ance, including the mode of wearing the hair, was 
nearly the same as on the previous day, and her 
manner wag just as winning, amiable, and full of 


A ftTIlL more curious and characteristic scene pre- 
sented itself <m another occasion, and afti'r intercoui'so 
between tho two j)arties had ripened to intimacy. Tho 
visitor and his host hud l>cen conversing a))out half an 
hour when the beautiful Sondoree, in other words. 
Mix Noskotoska, made her appearance. 

She had just entered the house in company with n 
lady friend, who was then in another apartment. In- 
voluntarily tho visitor rose, bowed, and extended his 
hand, tho latter so suggestively that Mi's. Noskotoska 
actually took hold of it, or rather, in the uncertain 
endeavour to do so, njiproached it so closely that ho 
tenderly took hold of liers. He was delighted to see 
her. Ho hoped, with all tho fervour of his nature, 
that the noble boys, her children, wta'e doing well, nml 
she herself was doing likewise. He wished her tho 
highest felicity ever awarded to mortals on earth, a 
highly orthodox Japanese compliment, and begged her 
acceptance of tho few trinkets which he had jtrovided 
himself with before leaving the ship, and which ho 
then handed to her, encased in a small box which had 
been bought at Tunbridge Wells for sixiHjnce, They 
consisted of a ring, a pencil case, and a few charms, 
which ho had bought from an Englishman at Hong- 
Kong for the purpose of giving away to the Japanese 
ladies. She was much pleased with them, and thanked 
him warmly, but with rcs|)ect to the ring she thought 
it emblematic of bondage, fetters, and that like. He 
placed it upon her second finger, and a.s8ured her that 
the ladies of England and America had no such scruple 
against wearing them, and that such was a sign of 
rank and wealth rather than otherwise ; although, when 
the display of those or any other kind of jewellery was 
large and conspicuous, tho taste was justly esteemed 
vulgar. Her hair to day was no longer of such a 
length as to remind him of a bell-rope ; it was wound 
into IV compact coil at the back of tho head near the 
crown, after the common stylo of wearing it ; there it 
was fastened by two pins chastely car^'ed, the one of 
tortoise-shell, the other of gold. Her appearr ice was so 
fair and becoming, that sho would have voko tho 
admiration of many an unsmltten cxquisi satiated 
with gazing on the beauty of a London i Ladies, 
she was " h dear sweet cieatuve," as gnilclc is inno- 
cent, and as virtuous as sho was lovely. o with- 

Tho host expressed his inclination for a batl iVould 
he like to enjoy a similar luxury 1 if so, his mpany 
in the water would afford him pleasure. Tn /ing tho 
brazier before him with his fan, he sumr necl tlm 
attendant from the passage, to whom he comnmnicated 
his desire. The yellow gossamer retired, bending as 
usual. The host iblloweil immediately afterwards, and 
he with him, across the apartment, through the open 
window and garden to the bath-house, at one side of 
the entrance to which knelt the gentleman of the bath, 
a third male servant. He inclined his forehead to tho 
ground as they passed him, and then still knoeliog, 
awaited the commands of his master. 

There were two tanks or baths in the chamber, made 


of wliite mitrblo, and lioth Biii>|ilipil with warm watnr. 
Til a reci'fiH thu buokctH for linldiiig cold water wcri- 
Hii«|)ended from a coppt'r mil runiiiiig iicroHg it. II in 
licmt woH i|iiiolcly divcHtcd of IiIh gariiioiitH, lie followed 
liiii Gxiiiii|ili', unci vi'ry Hotii tlioy wcro djiHliiiig and 
)>liinKiiig about in five ffrt of water. He wim in tint 
net of emerging again from tlie bath wliou tlin fair 
Sondoreo — yen render, Mrs. NoHkotoNkii — luiulo her 
a]iiienrance ! niid, oh, i'IoiuIn and Hiin.shim', with her 
lady friend by her Hide ! 'J'hern wax no iiiiMtuke about 
it, they had Hceii them go into the liath-hoUHO. 'J'liey 
did not IiIuhIi or turn bnek — no, that woh not to lie 
ex|)outcd from Japanese ladieH, What wiu* the best 
thing to lie done 1 The lovely ereatures were nxkiug 
him how he liked the bath. Jfe was almost dii|ioHed 
to he vulgar and say, " None the better for seeing yon," 
but its rudeness shocked his delicacy, lui iiiiich as did 
the iiresenco of his host's wife and her virgin friend, 
for the teeth of the latter wcrc^ white as ]iolished ivory. 
So much the worse for him, he thought. Nevertlieles.s, 
ho mustered that (juiet eouriigo no iieees.sary in |iosi- 
tiims of the kind and eoin|iosed himself. Wliy should 
he trouble himself about it, thought he, if they ilid 
not ( They were the intruders, not him. What 
delightful consolation ! Just then Noskotosku Ktc|i|>ed 
out of his bath, and standing on a gnitingin tho iiiiiUllo 
of the door, ordered ii rou|ilo of buckets of cold water 
to be thrown over him by the attendant. The water, 
I through which a constant current had been maintained, 
was now allowed to run off, it was but the work of u 
moment. Just then the thought struck him that tho 
ladies, who were conversing together in one corner of the 
room, had come to immerse themselves, and that thi; 
longer ho remaineil where ho was the longer one of 
them would have to wait. They would rather see him 
out of the bath than in it, ho began to think, so out ho 
stepped, in a maniu'r as sprightly as ever that of 
Noskotoska. lie narrowly escaped having two buckets 
of cold water dashed over him oa he passed the attend- 
ant and proceeded to the drying ground, a small but 
open division at the iipjicr extremity of the room. I!y 
this time the water fi-om both tanks had been emptied, 
and they were being filled again with a fresh su|iply 
from the pipes leading into them, and, to his additional 
dismay, tho ladies commenced undressing. They were 
divested of their apparel almost as (piickly as was 
Noskotoska, their entire hnbliments descending at a 
drop, on the sash, etcetera, Ik iiig unbound. After that 
they tripped lightly into tho respective baths. Ho 
was dressed nearly as soon as his host, and they both 
left the apartment together, the ladies chatting to him 
OS he went, and apjiearing to be iu the enjoyment of 
the most perfect happiness. 

But this was. not alL After the bath was over and 
they were standing together, one of tho male attend- 
ants presented himself at the open doorway, and kneel- 
ing, uttered a few words in a low tone, and then retired. 
It was an intimation that tho uiid-day repast was 
]irepared and iu readiness. Noskotoska led the way, 
the ladies followed him, and our traveller followed the 
ladies. Such was the order of procession. They 
ascended a flight of ste|>s, beautifully lacquered, into 
a third room richly gilded and bedizened with orna- 
ments, overlooking the avenue leading to the jiorch, 
and affording a glim])so of the street, and of tho moun- 
tains beyond. There were four sinall lacquered tables, 
on each of which lay tho accustomed ivory chopsticks, 
the small porcelaiu cup for tea, and the larger one of 


laci|uer-wc>rk for saki, the small glasa cniot of soy, the 
|)oreelnin spion, and the silver fork. 

Tables were ariiinged round tho room, and two 
servants in gossamer showed the virgin lady and tho 
Knglishmuii, on guests, to their upjiointed seats and 
tables. The former were without backs, but provided 
with three legs of ebony wood, and topjicd with tignrej 
velvet. Itoth tables and stools were lower than he 
says he could have desired, and they had the effect of 
inducing him to extend his legs a more than usual 
distance across the room, nature having elevated him, 
he estimates, "pretty considerable" in the world, that 
U to say, some six feet or more above the standiug 

Tho first course was a cup of saki ; the second a 
small saucer-like plate of soup, a d, of course, fish and 
rici^ soup ; the third was the samj, but made from n 
different variety of tish, and thicker than tho first ; the 
fourth WIM a fragnieiit of lobster each ; the fifth, a well- 
flavoured |iotago of tine herbs and ric<! ; the sixth, a 
si'cond supply of saki and ]iieees of whcaten cake ; 
tho seventh, one small mucilaginous shell-fish each, 
\\liich waa as suggestive of a snail as Mrs. Noskotoska's 
original mode of dressing her hair had been suggestive 
of a bell-rope, but which proved itself very delicious ; 
the eighth, and final course, consisted of tea and coii- 
fectiiuiary, the mentioned being tho choicest he 
had ever eaten in any part of tho world. The meal, 
on the whole, light, as tho render may easily 8up|iose. 
However, there was one cause for satisfaction ; it was 
remarkably easy of digestion, so much so, that he felt 
dis))(i»cd for a biscuit an hour after the last course was 
served ; and he declares tlint he is by no means a cor- 

After tho collation was over they descended into the 
saloon of audience, and soon to tho verandah upon 
which its windows ojxined, ami where they took their 
seats oil the flimsiest looking of lacquered benches, and 
surveyed the beauties of the garden jirospect before 
them. They had not been there ten niinutes, when ho 
saw till! two nurses, before s))oken of, bearing the two 
children of Noskotoska, threading their way down a side- 
walk from the house towards the bathing sidoon. The 
movement was similarly observed by the others. In 
about ten minutes more, during which time they had 
been served with tea and jiipes, and tho ladies with tea 
only, tho host arose, saying, " Coino and look at my 
wife's offspring, the sons upon whom I i^'ly for tho 
perpetuation of my memory and the fame of my goml 
deeds." Ho politely assented, but had some fears that 
they should find them, as well as their nurses, in a 
condition not the most presentable, according to 
European ideas. " Iiipuris ncUuralibus," said he with 
an air and look rather jocular tliaa anything else. 

Noskouiska's resixmse was that such was no obstacle, 
of no consequence whatever ; they were all virtuous in 

So they set off, men and women, in the same order 
of pMcession as that adopted in moving from the 
library to tho drawing-room, wending their way through 
groves and flowers, and across hilk and valleys, till 
they reached the bathing saloon. It was built with u 
conical roof, and spreading leaves of figured lilies 
covering a compact matting of bamboo. On the 
conical summit of the roof the figure of a crane, cast iu 
silver, was gracefully perched. 'They entered, as he had 
anticipated, just in time to find the women and children 
occupying the honourable receptacles before mentioned. 



Each had ona of the bo}^ in her amis, whose head 
only was kejit above water ; however, they all appeared 
to bo enjoying tho immersion very much, judging by 
the giggling of the childi'en and the smiling laughter 
of their li/e preaervers, for such they might reasonably 
be called, when the depth of the water is taken into 
consideration. The Japanese stood watching and 
admiring tho pranks of the children, tho ladies not 
omitting to talk to them. Tlie nurses, he found, were 
no more bashful than their mistress, or were the rest 
of the ladies of the empire. But no harm was thought 
of it, no harm ever came of it ; and he thought with 
Noskotoska that in Japan it was a matter of no con- 
sequonco, perfectly orthodox, kc, kc, ns well as a »igu 
of that innocence, that virtue, which is an universal 
characteristic uf tho women of that eastern realm. 


•Tapak is a country of exceeding beauty. The sea is 
blue, tho sky mostly clear, and the coast picturesquely 
indented, varied by hill and dale, and clothed with a 
brilliant vegetation of a sparkling green. Towns and 
villages alw)iuid ; the Japanese house.i, light and grace- 
ful like those of China, are constructed with thin walls 
of wood or porcelain. Everywhere in the towns and 
up tho hill-sides these great temples towe" over the 
more modest houses of the people, or pretty pleasure- 
houses peep forth from the flower and verdure of the 
ten-g.ardcns. The Japanese are especially devoted to 
landscape-gai<dcning. With a redundant popvdation, 
travelling is more common in Japan than in any other 
country of the East j the acco\ints given by travellers 
of the number of persons met with on the highways, 
and of the numerous retinues of the nobles who are 
IMjrpetuallycarrying on ceremonial visit8,almast exceeds 
belief. Kemarkably industrious fields, and streets of 
towns and villages, are alike tho scene of a refreshing 
activity and a constant public movement, to which 
variety is given by religious and other ceremonies and 
amusements of ditfereut kinds. It is with the water 
as with the land, although hitherto tho Japanese have 
been debarred from foreign travel and commerce, 
nothing can surp.iss tho activity and extent of their 
coasting trade. Of the interior of these islands little \i 
yet known. 

It was the custom, for upwards of a century, for the 
chief governor of the Dutch factory to go every year 
to Yeddo to convey presents to the emperor. We are 
mainly indebted a these periodical missions for what 
has been learnt up to the time of tiie recent embassies 
(jf the ninunen>, laws, uses, and resources of the 
Japanese emjiire. The Dutch never had the means of 
•iiaking tbeeo njissions impressive to the Japanese, 
'('hey could not, in their most palmy days, muster over 
smne i;\vo hundred oflicials and followers, and that in a 
country where a prince of secondary rank goes at- 
tended by ten thousand followers, and one of first i-auk 
by twenty thousand. 

The journey was effected in vehicles something 
bot-voeu a ]>alanquiii and a sedan chnir, but of which 
tliere uro uiimei'ous varieties. The whole was in charge 
of a p.'lice-oiRcer, who took his oi-ders with Jaiianese 
l>oUtenoKs, as to the halts, although all was arranged 
beforehand. Men, women, and cliildreu, who met the 
procession on the way, turned their backs to it, the 

Dutch were told, out of respect I^ It generally took 
seven days to cross the Island of Kin-Tin, whence they 
went by water to Sismonoseki, and thence, by an archi- 
pelago of little islands, to Ohasaka; theuce it took 
twciity-two to twenty-three days, by Miako, to Yeddo. 
Altogether some fifty days from Nagasaki to their 
destination. The mission was hospitably entertained 
by the native chiefs on its way, and a detachment of 
troops took charge of it through each principality. The 
roails being wide and well kept, although sometimes 
crowded, no inconvenience was ever experienced. The 
roads are, indeed, for the most part lined with trees, 
and are swept clean with brooms, it is supposed for the 
sake of the sweepings. Innumerable little shops aro 
also met with, where they sell straw shoes for travellers, 
OS also for horses and buffaloes. Little books are also 
sold containing all the most minute information as to 
inns and expenses on the way. 

Among the more remarkable objects met with on 

' A aimilnr " gott'mg.oiit-of-the-wny " treatment was buImo- 
qaently accardcl to a Buaalan embusy. A Japnneae crew having 
twcn wrecked on one of the Aleutian Islanik, lielonging to Kouia, 
was rescued and conveyed to Okotsk, the port of Silwria. They 
were not sent homo at once, but detained ten yeara, the object 
being tlint tlie Japanese and Russians might le-nrn each other's 
language. The impress Catherine directed tlie governor of 
Siberia to convey them home, aud a Russian lieutenant, Laxman, 
sailed frajn Okotsk, in the transport Catherine, for that purpose, 
lie wintered on tlie northern coast of Jesro, and, in the summer, 
saihd round to Hakodadi, on the southern coast. Tho Japanese 
]x)Utely rerused to receive tho crew (as they afterwan. did certain 
Japanese saved by the Americans), and warned the Ki^ ...uns olT. 
In 1804, tho Emperor Alexander sent to Nagasaki an ambassador 
named ItosanolT, who, after some delay, was allowed to anchor 
his ship near Decima, and was shut up in n fish-warehouse until 
an answer came from the emperor. At last ho was summoned to 
Nagasuki to receive it, but curtains were drawn keforo the 
houses on each side of tlio sireuts through whick ho passed, and 
the people were ordered to keep out of his sight. He was over- 
whelmed with politeness, and, at last, in 1805, was dismissed 
with the following message: " Order from the £,nperor or Japan 
to tho Russian ambassador. Formerly our empire had commu- 
nication with several nation*, but experience caused us to adopt 
us safe tho opposite principle. It is not (wrmitted to tho 
Japanese to trade abroad, nor to fon-igncrs to enter our country. 
• • • As to Russia wo hove never had any relations with her. 
Ten years oga you scut certain shipwrecked Japauese to Matsmai, 
and YOU then made us propositions of alliance and commcrco. 
At tliia time you have come back to renew these propositions. 
This proves that Russia lias a atror.i^ inclination for Japan. It is 
lung since we discontinued all relations with foreigncra generally, 
although wo desire to live in peace with all neighbouring stutis, 
the diScrenco between them and us, in manners and character, 
forbids entirely treaties cf alliance. Your vovagi'S and your 
labours are, therefore, useless." Bosanoff (all wliosu expenses the 
)iolito Japanese insisted on ilefraying) departed in anger, and de- 
spatched from Kamsehatka two armed trading slii|is, couiinanded 
by Chowstoflf and DavidolT, who landed and took iiossession of two 
northern Kurile islandi, and plundered one of the southern 
islands, killing and conveying olT some of tho people. In. May, 
1 811, Captain Goluwnin, in the sloop Diana, of the Russian navy, 
landed at Qeeterpur, oiio of the suutlieriimost Kurile isles, ex- 
pecting to see Kurilet only ; but he wiia met by a Japanese 
cfllcer and soldiers, who nskcd him if ho meant to treat them as 
ChowstolT and DavidolT had treated another island some years 
before. Qolownin made the best of his way off, but on nearing 
another island the Diana was flrcd uiion. Uulownin himself 
with A inidsliipman r-'d four sailors, was entrapped and taken 
prisoner, nor released for some yeai,, until the Japanese were 
convinced that the ontrof^a of ChowstolT and DavidolT had not 
been authorised by tiie Russian eni|ieror. When ho left, they 
served on him an nlHciul warning rgainst further Russian at- 
tempts at trade or intercourse with Japan, — which was not again 
nttcuiptcd. The Russians, however, have, within tho last four 
year*, possessed thoirselves, under pretence of a Chinese treaty, 
of the island of Snnghalien, the uppermost of the Japanese group, 
lying opposite to the debouchure uf tlie great river Ainoor. 












these interesting journeya were the temples, some of 
which belong to j)eculiar sects. One of these, the 
Ikko-Syu, has the image of only one god, Aniido, a 
name not unknown to the Greeks and Romans; and 
its priests marry and eat meat. Near Sonogii w a 
cnmphor tree seventeen yards in circumference, and 
which was old in the time of Koempfer, one hundred 
and thirty-five yeara before it was measured by Siebold. 
At Tenka-Saki are thermal springs, and at Kayanosi, 
uoal, or apparently lignite deposits. In the archipelago 
.is a temple to Kompira, the Japanese Nei^tune, to 
whom ofierings arc made of small coin, as also of saki, 
the rice beer of the country. Old trees grow in the 
vicinity of the temples; a pine, at Fimezi, is ('escribed 
by Fisscher as being in his time (1822) nine hundred 
and eighty-three years old. The harbour of Hiogo is 
])rotek;ted by a great breakwater; beyond it is the re- 
nowned Ohasaka. This is, indeed, the handsomest and 
richest city of the empire, and where theatres and 
amusements of all kinds do most abound. Hence c* t 
all travellers agree in calling it the Paris of Japan.^ 

It is a day and a-half hence to Miako, or Miyako, 
the residence of the Mikado, or sovereign pontiff. The 
city is desci-ibed as being situated in a beautiful valley, 
where water, vegetation, climate and scenery unite to 
render life delicious. The city is especially termed 
Fei-on-sio, "the City of Tranquillity." Here is the 
Daira, or residence of the sovereign pontiff. Mikado. 
Here also are the five great academies, each of which 
is said to boast of its three thousand five hundred 
]nipils. Here also are those wondrous temples with 
their giant idols, which excited at onco the surprise 
and the ire of the old travellers. " The devil could not 
have suggested to the emperor a readier means of 
spending his immense trensui-es," exclaimed the bigoted 
Spaniard, Don Rodrigo de Viveroy Velasco, in 1609. 
Visiting the tomb of Taicosma, the same imcompromis- 
ing Romanist grieves over splendid edifices raised to 
the memory of a man " whoso soul is in hell to all eter- 
nity." And he concludes his contemplation of Japanese 
folly and idolatry by saying, " I was wearied with 
seeing so many temples, and moaned for the pow< r of 
the devil over these people." 

The mission, while at Miako, was place<l under the 
most rigid surveillance, and jteoplo were only allowed 
to visit it " naibon" — a common Jajmncse expression 
to signify non-officially — or when the authorities ch'~se 
to dose their eyes U{)o>' «»'"<t is beir.g done n^inst 

From Miako to Yeildo the nii>:'<ion followed^ the 
Tokaida, the most frequented of all the great highways 
in Japan. Koempfer, «rho travel